Κυριακή, 30 Ιουνίου 2019

Cancer Education

The Knowledge, Attitude, and Self-Reported Behaviors of Oncology Physicians Regarding Fertility Preservation in Adult Cancer Patients

Abstract

There is a growing concern about the fertility preservation for adult cancer patients of reproductive age. Very little literature exists about fertility preservation of cancer survivors in Chinese text. This study is first to describe the knowledge level, attitude, and practice behaviors among physicians concerning fertility preservation in adult cancer patients in China. A cross-sectional survey with 30-item was conducted to assess Chinese oncology physicians' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding fertility issues. Of 360 oncology physicians, 206 (57.2%) submitted valid questionnaires. With possible overall scores for knowledge and attitude of 9 and 15, respectively, physicians' responses to the questionnaires were 3.91 ± 1.67 and 12.29 ± 1.23. Only 49.5% of physicians routinely informed their cancer patients of childbearing age about the risk of infertility with cancer treatment. The knowledge score of the men physicians was 2-fold that of the women. Physicians aged 20–29 years were significantly more likely than other age groups to prioritize cancer treatment over fertility concerns. Men physicians were significantly more comfortable than the women discussing fertility preservation issues and cooperating with fertility specialists. The oncology physicians in China had limited knowledge of fertility preservation and rarely discussed these issues with their patients, although their attitude was positive. Results suggest that oncology physicians would welcome an in-house fertility-related training program.

Key Messages

This is the first study to address the topic of fertility preservation as it relates to the care that oncologists provide to cancer patients in China. These results revealed the importance of providing fertility-related training program to oncology physicians. Moreover, this study should provide useful information for other Asian countries, and highlight both the similarities and differences between China and Western countries concerning the reproductive rights of patients. This study should encourage international cooperation with institutions of scientific research and education.



My Kaleidoscope Life: Interconnected Roles as Teacher, Researcher, and Cancer Survivor

Abstract

Surviving cancer dramatically alters one's perception of the world. "My Kaleidoscope Life" reflects on the interconnected roles as teacher, researcher, and cancer survivor. It provides a personal narrative and perspective on the challenges, successes, and lessons learned from having cancer. It emphasizes how surviving cancer can shift priorities, connect with others, and enhance the quality of life.



Low-Intensity Resistance Training and Compression Garment in the Management of Breast Cancer–Related Lymphedema: Single-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Abstract

There is limited evidence regarding the combined effect of exercise and compression garment on breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL). Therefore, we investigate the effect of low-intensity resistance training alone or in combination with a compression garment on lymphedema volume, self-reported lymphedema symptoms, and shoulder mobility and function. A total of 60 women with unilateral BCRL were randomly assigned to low-intensity resistance exercises (Rex group, n = 30) or exercises and compression garment (Rex-Com-group, n = 30). Both groups take part in exercises program consisted of 10–12 repetitions at 50 to 60% of one repetition maximum (IRM), three times weekly, for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was lymphedema volume determined by percentage reduction of excess limb volume (ELV). Secondary outcomes were lymphedema symptoms (pain, heaviness, and tightness) and shoulder mobility and function using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire. All measurements were standardized and performed before (week 0, W0), after the intervention (week 8, W8), and at follow-up (week 12, W12). A significant reduction in percentage of ELV (p < 0.01), pain severity (p < 0.05), a sensation of heaviness (p < 0.05) and tightness (p < 0.001), and improvement in shoulder range of motion (p < 0.05) and function on DASH scores (p < 0.05) were observed at W8 and W12 in both groups. However, no between-group differences were observed over time. These findings suggest that low-intensity resistance training, irrespective of garment use, can effectively reduce limb volume and lymphedema symptoms, and increase shoulder mobility and function.



Attitudes Towards Research During Residency Training: a Survey of Canadian Radiation Oncology Residents and Program Directors

Abstract

Radiation oncologists require clinical appraisal and research methodology skills, yet it is unclear how to develop these competencies during residency. We sought to attain a deeper understanding of the barriers that limit, as well as the factors that promote, engaging in research/scholarly activity during radiation oncology residency training in Canada. Following ethics approval, online surveys were circulated to all Canadian Radiation Oncology program directors and residents. Unidentifiable demographics, prior research experience, and descriptions of current research environment and barriers to engaging in research and scholarly activities were collected. Thirty-three percent (35/105) of residents and 71% (10/14) of program directors responded. Ninety-seven percent of residents, and 90% of program directors, agreed or strongly agreed that research/scholarly activity was an important part of residency training. While 66% of residents felt that there was a lack of protected time for research/scholarly activity, only 20% of program directors agreed this was a barrier (p = 0.011). While 94% of residents thought mentorship was important to completing high-quality research/scholarly activity, only 48% of respondents had a mentor. The highest barriers to completing research/scholarly activity projects were lack of protected time (for both residents and faculty), high resident clinical workload, and lack of experience in research skills. Canadian Radiation Oncology residents expressed strong enthusiasm to participate in research/scholarly activity, yet lack of protected time and competing demands were identified as major barriers. We suggest programs offer more protected time for research/scholarly activity, provide optional research methodology training, and support meaningful mentorship relationships.



Psychometric Properties of the MICRA Questionnaire in Portuguese Individuals Carrying SDHx Mutations

Abstract

This study aims to present the translation and cultural adaptation, as well as the psychometric characteristics of the Portuguese version of the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA) questionnaire in individuals with SDHx mutations. The questionnaire was translated and culturally adapted in accordance with the process recommended by the World Health Organization. As per suggestion of the authors of the original instrument, a joint, universal European and Brazilian Portuguese version of the MICRA was created. Ninety-six (asymptomatic or affected) patients with SDHx mutations nationwide completed the adapted version of the MICRA in Portugal. Analyses consisted of confirmatory factor analysis, reliability estimation (alphas), and correlations with two other distress and quality of life instruments. The Portuguese adaptation of the MICRA was understandable to patients from various socioeconomic backgrounds. All items and factor structure of the original version were retained, yielding a good model fit. The MICRA's three subscales and total score showed good internal consistency, and the correlations found between the Portuguese version of the MICRA and the other instruments assessing similar constructs further supported its validity. The adapted version of the MICRA showed good psychometric properties with a representative population of SDHx mutation carriers. This instrument can now be used to study the multidimensional impact of taking a genetic test for these mutations. It can also be used in future studies with other Portuguese populations of patients submitted to genetic tests for cancer risk assessment.



The Mouse Mammary Gland: a Tool to Inform Adolescents About Environmental Causes of Breast Cancer

Abstract

Adolescence is a vulnerable period of breast development, and environmental chemical exposures that occur during this period can increase the risk of breast cancer in adulthood. Discussing breast health with adolescent girls can be difficult for several reasons. In this project, we worked to not only inform adolescent researchers about environmental risks for breast cancer but to also involve them in research studies. We taught adolescents about the stages of mammary gland development using samples collected from mice, with a specific focus on pre-pubertal and pubertal stages of development. Our analysis shows that adolescent researchers, with relatively modest training, can collect reliable and reproducible data on aspects of mammary gland biology that are known to be disrupted by environmental chemicals, with coefficients of variation < 2.5% for basic mammary gland parameters and 5–7% for more complex measures. Finally, we provided these adolescents with information about environmental risk factors for breast cancer that they could share with their peers and community and action items to potentially modify their individual risk. We hope that researchers working in this field will engage adolescent researchers in projects to evaluate chemicals that influence breast cancer risk. Summer research programs that inform young adolescents about breast cancer risk factors not only benefit these novice researchers individually but also benefit their communities when they are encouraged to talk about the value of basic science studies, discuss vulnerable periods of mammary gland development, and share what they have learned about cancer and the environment.



A Multi-state Evaluation of Oral Health Students' Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer and HPV Vaccination

Abstract

Human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancers (HPV-OPCs) are on the rise, yet HPV knowledge among dental professionals remains low. The purpose of this multi-state study was to examine sociodemographic factors associated with final year dental hygiene (DH), third year dental (DS3), and fourth year dental (DS4) students' knowledge regarding HPV, HPV-OPC, and HPV vaccination. Twenty dental programs in the USA were approached in the implementation phase to complete an online, 153-item, self-administered questionnaire that was developed and tested in a previous study. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were conducted in SAS version 9.4 to examine the relationship between sociodemographic variables with HPV, HPV-OPC, and HPV vaccination knowledge levels. This study included the participation of students from 15 dental programs (n = 380) with an overall response rate of 28%. Although the results cannot be generalized to the entire population of dental students in the USA, most students had inadequate overall HPV knowledge (65%), HPV-OPC knowledge (80%), and HPV vaccination knowledge (55%). While all student groups displayed adequate general HPV knowledge levels (≥ 70% correct responses), gender, racial, religious, age, and regional differences were observed. Future dental professionals need to have adequate levels of HPV knowledge to aid in reducing the HPV-OPC burden. This study identified sociodemographic factors related to lower knowledge of HPV, HPV-OPC, and HPV vaccination, and highlights groups of students with greater needs for HPV education. This study provides a foundation for future research and interventions to be developed. Dental institutions can use findings to strengthen curricula development.



Discussing Sexual Health in the Medical Oncologist's Practice: Exploring Current Practice and Challenges

Abstract

Sexuality is a significant quality-of-life concern for many cancer patients. Patients may be disadvantaged if they are not informed and not offered sexual health care. We sought to reveal oncologists' current practice and opinions concerning sexual counselling. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice patterns of Dutch medical oncologists regarding treatment-related sexual dysfunction. Questionnaires were sent to 433 members of the Dutch Society of Medical Oncology. The majority (81.5%) of the 120 responding medical oncologists (response rate 30.6%) stated they discussed sexual function with fewer than half of their patients. At the same time, 75.8% of the participating oncologists agreed that addressing sexual function is their responsibility. Sexual function was discussed more often with younger patients and patients with a curative treatment intent. Barriers for avoiding discussing sexual function were lack of time (56.1%), training (49.5%) and advanced age of the patient (50.4%). More than half (64.6%) stated they had little knowledge about the subject and the majority (72.9%) wanted to acquire additional training in sexual function counselling. Medical oncologists accept that sexual function counselling falls within their profession, yet they admit to not counselling patients routinely concerning sexual function. Only in a minority of cases do medical oncologists inform their patients about sexual side effects of treatment. Whether they counsel patients is related to how they view patient's prognosis, patient's age, and self-reported knowledge. Findings indicate there is a role for developing education and practical training.



Predictors of Mammography Uptake Among Italian Women Aged 50–69: a Cross-sectional Study

Abstract

Screening coverage is of concern in several countries, including Italy. The aim of the study is to assess predictors of participation in the mammography screening program at the Local Health Unit RMA (Rome, Italy). A telephone-based questionnaire was administered to randomly selected eligible women. The study population was interviewed by the personnel of the health center. Five hundred two women were interviewed, of which 264(52.6%) have attended the breast cancer screening program at least once. The attendees received the invitation letter more often than the non-attendees (88.3% vs. 77.7%; p = 0.002) and were more willing to participate (85.6% vs. 69.3%; p < 0.001). Employees were more among the non-attendees of the screening program (66% vs. 52.3%; p = 0.002). Age over-61 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.84–4.09), receiving the invitation letter (OR = 2.54; 95%CI = 1.52–4.24), and intention to participate (OR = 3.09; 95%CI = 1.94–4.91) were significantly associated with participation in the screening program. Although the invitation rate of the Local Health Unit RMA has improved in recent years, the mammography uptake rate remains very low. The presence of opportunistic screening activities, younger age, and low educational status could explain the low participation rates. Organizational barriers (e.g., screening hours coinciding with work hours, screening facilities located far away) may also limit participation. Major efforts should be made towards the regulation of opportunistic screening activities and reorganization of the screening centers and communication strategies to better comply with the needs of the target population. In this light, the involvement of different healthcare professionals, especially general practitioners, and gynecologists, is crucial.



Involving Patients in the Development and Evaluation of an Educational and Training Experiential Intervention (ETEI) to Improve Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Treatment Decision-making and Post-operative Self-care: a Mixed Methods Approach

Abstract

This study aims to describe the acceptability and feasibility of an educational and training experiential intervention (ETEI) we developed to enhance muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients with treatment decision-making and post-operative self-care. Twenty-five patients were randomized to a control group (N = 8) or ETEI group (N = 17). ETEI group participated in a nurse-led session on MIBC education. The control group received diet and nutrition education. Study questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 1-month post-intervention. Our results showed acceptable recruitment (58%) and retention rates (68%). The ETEI group reported increased knowledge (82% vs. 50%), improved decisional support (64% vs. 50%), improved communication (73% vs. 50%), and increased confidence in treatment decisions (73% vs. 50%) compared to the control group. Patients in the control group reported improved diet (50% v. 27%) as well as maintaining a healthy lifestyle (67% vs. 45%) compared to the ETEI group. Patients in the ETEI group reported a significant decrease in cancer worries and increases in self-efficacy beliefs over time compared to the control group. The ETEI was feasible, acceptable, and showed a potential for inducing desired changes in cancer worries and efficacy beliefs.



Alexandros Sfakianakis
Anapafseos 5 . Agios Nikolaos
Crete.Greece.72100
2841026182
6948891480

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