Δευτέρα, 22 Μαΐου 2017

Evolution of the hominin knee and ankle

S00472484.gif

Publication date: July 2017
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 108
Author(s): Mélanie A. Frelat, Colin N. Shaw, Simone Sukhdeo, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Stefano Benazzi, Timothy M. Ryan
The dispersal of the genus Homo out of Africa approximately 1.8 million years ago (Ma) has been understood within the context of changes in diet, behavior, and bipedal locomotor efficiency. While various morphological characteristics of the knee and ankle joints are considered part of a suite of traits indicative of, and functionally related to, habitual bipedal walking, the timing and phylogenetic details of these morphological changes remain unclear. To evaluate the timing of knee and ankle joint evolution, we apply geometric morphometric methods to three-dimensional digital models of the proximal and distal tibiae of fossil hominins, Holocene Homo sapiens, and extant great apes. Two sets of landmarks and curve semilandmarks were defined on each specimen. Because some fossils were incomplete, digital reconstructions were carried out independently to estimate missing landmarks and semilandmarks. Group shape variation was evaluated through shape–and form-space principal component analysis and fossil specimens were projected to assess variation in the morphological space computed from the extant comparative sample. We show that a derived proximal tibia (knee) similar to that seen in living H. sapiens evolved with early Homo at ∼2 Ma. In contrast, derived characteristics in the distal tibia appear later, probably with the arrival of Homo erectus. These results suggest a dissociation of the morphologies of the proximal and distal tibia, perhaps indicative of divergent functional demands and, consequently, selective pressures at these joints. It appears that longer distance dispersals that delivered the Dmanisi hominins to Georgia by 1.8 Ma and H. erectus to east–southeast Asia by 1.6 Ma were facilitated by the evolution of a morphologically derived knee complex comparable to that of recent humans and an ankle that was morphologically primitive. This research sets the foundation for additional paleontological, developmental, and functional research to better understand the mechanisms underlying the evolution of bipedalism.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qPFCa2
via IFTTT

Dental development and age at death of the holotype of Anapithecus hernyaki (RUD 9) using synchrotron virtual histology

S00472484.gif

Publication date: July 2017
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 108
Author(s): Adeline Le Cabec, M. Christopher Dean, David R. Begun
The chronology of dental development and life history of primitive catarrhines provides a crucial comparative framework for understanding the evolution of hominoids and Old World monkeys. Among the extinct groups of catarrhines are the pliopithecoids, with no known descendants. Anapithecus hernyaki is a medium-size stem catarrhine known from Austria, Hungary and Germany around 10 Ma, and represents a terminal lineage of a clade predating the divergence of hominoids and cercopithecoids, probably more than 30 Ma. In a previous study, Anapithecus was characterized as having fast dental development. Here, we used non-destructive propagation phase contrast synchrotron micro-tomography to image several dental microstructural features in the mixed mandibular dentition of RUD 9, the holotype of A. hernyaki. We estimate its age at death to be 1.9 years and describe the pattern, sequence and timing of tooth mineralization. Our results do not support any simplistic correlation between body mass and striae periodicity, since RUD 9 has a 3-day periodicity, which was previously thought unlikely based on body mass estimates in Anapithecus. We demonstrate that the teeth in RUD 9 grew even faster and initiated even earlier in development than suggested previously. Permanent first molars and the canine initiated 49 and 38 days prenatally, respectively. These results contribute to a better understanding of dental development in Anapithecus and may provide a window into the dental development of the last common ancestor of hominoids and cercopithecoids.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2rNDKf3
via IFTTT

Catarrhine hallucal metatarsals from the early Miocene site of Songhor, Kenya

S00472484.gif

Publication date: July 2017
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 108
Author(s): Biren A. Patel, Gabriel S. Yapuncich, Cassandra Tran, Isaiah O. Nengo
Songhor is an early Miocene fossil locality in Kenya known for its diverse primate assemblage that includes catarrhine species belonging to the genera Kalepithecus, Limnopithecus, Dendropithecus, Rangwapithecus, and Proconsul. Expeditions to Songhor since the 1930s have recovered unassociated catarrhine postcranial remains from both the fore- and hindlimbs, including multiple elements from the feet. In this study, we describe KNM-SO 31233, a complete left hallucal metatarsal (Mt1), along with several other fragmentary Mt1 specimens (KNM-SO 1080, 5129, 5141, 22235). These fossils were compared to extant catarrhines and platyrrhines, as well as available fossil Miocene catarrhine Mt1s. Morphometric data were obtained from 3D surface renderings and subjected to a number of analyses to assess their phenetic affinity with the comparative sample, make predictions of body mass, and to infer their functional morphology. The size and shape of the Songhor Mt1s are diverse, exhibiting a large robust morph (KNM-SO 5141) similar in size but not in shape to extant African apes, medium-sized morphs (KNM-SO 1080, 5129 and 22235), and a smaller, slender one (KNM-SO 31233) that has a shape resembling arboreal quadrupedal leaping monkeys and suspensory atelines and hylobatids. KNM-SO 31233 is unlike other known fossil Mt1s, and in general, none of the Songhor Mt1s resembled any single extant anthropoid clade or species. The morpho-functional diversity of Songhor Mt1s is consistent with an extensive morphological and phylogenetic catarrhine diversity in the early part of the Miocene epoch.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qPKjAm
via IFTTT

Dexmedetomidine: a valuable sedative currently not widely available in the UK

British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2016; 117(2): 263–264, DOI 10.1093/bja/aew202

from Anaesthesiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q5Kc4O
via IFTTT

Are you smarter than the average paramedic? Test your EMS smarts!

Take our 10-question quiz to test your knowledge, then share your results and challenge your colleagues to prove their expertise

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qI3Li5
via IFTTT

TGF-β in inflammatory bowel disease: a key regulator of immune cells, epithelium, and the intestinal microbiota

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is defined as chronic intestinal inflammation, and includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, and the condition is characterized by aberrant mucosal immune reactions to intestinal microbes in genetically susceptible hosts. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is an immune-suppressive cytokine produced by many cell types and activated by integrins. Active TGF-β binds to its receptor and regulates mucosal immune reactions through the TGF-β signaling pathway. Dysregulated TGF-β signaling is observed in the intestines of IBD patients. TGF-β signal impairment in specific cell types, such as T-cells and dendritic cells, results in spontaneous colitis in mouse models. In addition, specific intestinal microbes contribute to immune homeostasis by modulating TGF-β production. In this review, we describe the role of TGF-β in intestinal immunity, focusing on immune cells, epithelium, and intestinal microbes. In addition, we present potential therapeutic strategies for IBD that target TGF-β.



from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qc6Cg0
via IFTTT

Expression and DNA methylation pattern of reproduction-related genes in partially fertile triploid Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas

Abstract

Partial or complete sterility is an obvious feature in triploid Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) which contributes to improving rearing performances. Despite the significance of sterility, the molecular mechanism behind it remains elusive and related research was limited. This study focused on six reproduction-related genes and compared their different behavior in gene expression and DNA methylation pattern between triploid and diploid oysters in order to provide more molecular information. The gonadal development of triploid oyster was examined by histology before molecular analysis. Gametogenesis disturbance was observed in triploid oysters at different development stages (stage II and III) with more serious impairment in females. QPCR showed significant gene expression difference between diploid and triploid in two genes: putative Vg and cgER. Gene expression of putative Vg was delayed in triploids while for cgER triploid oyster showed higher expression and the difference was significant at stage III. DNA methylation pattern of these two genes were further investigated by bisulfite sequencing. Between diploid and triploid oysters, no difference was observed in total methylation level but some individual loci showed different patterns: significantly high methylation rate of loci 2284 in cgER was observed in triploid oyster which has a higher expression of this gene. This study indicated that putative Vg and cgER might play a role in partial sterile in triploid C. gigas. Gene expression could be regulated by the methylation pattern at specific individual locus, which deserves equivalent attention as well as total DNA methylation level.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qOPLBC
via IFTTT

President Trump on EMS Week: Providers 'stand ready to answer the call'

The White House WASHINGTON — During Emergency Medical Services Week, we express our gratitude for the hundreds of thousands of skilled personnel who help save lives in communities across the United States each year. Through the hard work and dedication of these career and volunteer first responders, Americans receive the finest emergency medical treatment in their most vulnerable moments. We also ...

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2r9bPtP
via IFTTT

FDNY ceremonially lights Empire State Building for EMS Week

New York City Fire Department NEW YORK — In honor of EMS Week 2017, Fire Commissioner Daniel A. Nigro participated in a lighting ceremony at the Empire State Building, alongside Chief of Department James E. Leonard, Kenneth Robles, son of fallen EMT Yadira Arroyo of Station 26, and members of EMS Station 26. On May 21, the Empire State Building will be illuminated in yellow, white and blue with ...

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q9vd5P
via IFTTT

People are the heart of EMS

The key to a rewarding career in EMS is not the medicine we practice or the agency that employs us, but the relationships we cultivate. As I told a class of paramedic school graduates: "Even when technology and the forces of health care finance have radically transformed the face of your profession, there will still be patients, there will still be practitioners, and there will still be peers ...

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qMw5Ah
via IFTTT

Texas paramedic looks back on 41 years in EMS

Fifty miles northeast of Dallas sits Honey Grove, population 2,000 only if you round up. In 1975, EMS in Honey Grove was the responsibility of the local mortuary – not unusual at that time for small towns in the Lone Star State. When Honey Grove's funeral director decided to concentrate on transporting the irreversibly dead, the city bought an ambulance, but didn't have the money to ...

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2rKAeSC
via IFTTT

Why EMS personnel need an all-the-time personal first aid kit

Despite the tragic rise in active shooter incidents in the United States to 20 or more incidents per year, the majority of us will not respond to one as an EMS professional or experience one as a bystander. Regardless, should you want to be prepared for that unlikely event, carrying an off-duty bailout bag with chest seals and hemostatic dressings — as explained by EMS1 columnist Dan Limmer — ...

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2rKDVHT
via IFTTT

Why EMS personnel need an all-the-time personal first aid kit

Carry a small personal aid kit with you at all times to treat the aches, cuts and scrapes you are most likely to experience yourself or need to treat in friends and family

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2rKGSbw
via IFTTT

Why EMS personnel need an all-the-time personal first aid kit

Despite the tragic rise in active shooter incidents in the United States to 20 or more incidents per year, the majority of us will not respond to one as an EMS professional or experience one as a bystander. Regardless, should you want to be prepared for that unlikely event, carrying an off-duty bailout bag with chest seals and hemostatic dressings — as explained by EMS1 columnist Dan Limmer — ...

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qH9Wmx
via IFTTT

Faces of EMS #EMSWeek

Thank you to all EMS providers.

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2rKoL5r
via IFTTT

Faces of EMS #EMSWeek

Thank you to all EMS providers.

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2rKoL5r
via IFTTT

Faces of EMS #EMSWeek

Thank you to all EMS providers.

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2rKoL5r
via IFTTT

Faces of EMS #EMSWeek

Thank you to all EMS providers.

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2rKoL5r
via IFTTT

Cold polypectomy for duodenal adenomas: A prospective clinical trial

Endoscopy

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q1IWjb
via IFTTT

Surgeons on board with teaching public to stop bleeding in emergencies

Reuters Health News

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qNjJGo
via IFTTT

Arterial injury during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: Predictors of risk and outcome

Abdominal Imaging

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q1m3fC
via IFTTT

Vision impairment among US preschoolers a growing problem

Reuters Health News

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qNPlvh
via IFTTT

Nontraumatic large bowel perforation: Spectrum of etiologies and CT findings

Abdominal Imaging

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q1i16W
via IFTTT

Clinical characteristics and long-term prognosis of elderly-onset ulcerative colitis

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qNdmCP
via IFTTT

Multicenter external validation of risk stratification criteria for patients with variceal bleeding

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q1ubNc
via IFTTT

Clinical performance of the VERIS HCV assay for hepatitis C virus RNA quantification

Journal of Clinical Virology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qNvH2y
via IFTTT

Accuracy of diagnosing invasive colorectal cancer using computer-aided endocytoscopy

Endoscopy

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q1GVDp
via IFTTT

Randomized controlled study of a novel triple nitazoxanide (NTZ)-containing therapeutic regimen versus the traditional regimen for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection

Helicobacter

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qNdkeb
via IFTTT

Single-incision totally extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair is feasible and safe in patients on antithrombotic therapy: A single-center experience of 92 procedures

Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q1woIi
via IFTTT

The relationship between tumour stage, systemic inflammation, body composition and survival in patients with colorectal cancer

Clinical Nutrition

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qNzPjc
via IFTTT

States seek to advocate for low-cost insurance in lawsuit

AP

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q1GWXZ
via IFTTT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with acute ischemic stroke is associated with more severe stroke and worse outcome.

Journal of Clinical Lipidology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qNKMBo
via IFTTT

CpG island methylator phenotype identifies high-risk patients among microsatellite stable BRAF mutated colorectal cancers

International Journal of Cancer

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q1HxZN
via IFTTT

Similar responses of intestinal T-cells from untreated children and adults with celiac disease to deamidated gluten epitopes

Gastroenterology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qNroEk
via IFTTT

Imaging for acute appendicitis at non-pediatric centers exposes children to excess radiation

Journal of Surgical Research

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q1x4xC
via IFTTT

A phase II study of antibody-drug conjugate, TAK-264 (MLN0264) in previously treated patients with advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma expressing guanylyl cyclase C

Investigational New Drugs

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qNzNb4
via IFTTT

Incidence and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A 7-year follow-up study among urban, adult Sri Lankans

Liver International

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2q1IYaA
via IFTTT

Predictors of fifty days in-hospital mortality in patients with culture negative neutrocytic ascites

BMC Gastroenterology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qNro7i
via IFTTT

Cancer genomics: Tracking cancer evolution

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.43

Author: Carolina Perdigoto



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qaQWcT
via IFTTT

Stem cells: The different flavours of iPS cells

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.42

Author: Katharine H. Wrighton



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qG3bS0
via IFTTT

Dynamic chromatin technologies: from individual molecules to epigenomic regulation in cells

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.28

Authors: Olivier Cuvier & Beat Fierz



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qb2Ins
via IFTTT

Plant genetics: Spatial transcriptomics in plants

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.41

Author: Liesbet Lieben



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2qFWShd
via IFTTT