Δευτέρα, 30 Μαΐου 2016

Archaeological excavation of wild macaque stone tools

Publication date: Available online 30 May 2016
Source:Journal of Human Evolution
Author(s): Michael Haslam, Lydia Luncz, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Tiago Falótico, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Michael Gumert

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Comparison of Wavelet Families for Mental Task Classification

Source: The Journal of Neurobehavioral Sciences
Caglar Uyulan, Turker Tekin Erguzel.
Wavelet theory is a widely used feature extraction method for raw electroencephalogram (EEG) signal processing. The nature of the EEG signal is non-stationary, therefore applying wavelet transform on EEG signals is a valuable process for extraction promising features. On the other hand, determining the proper wavelet family is a challenging step to get the best fitted features for high classification accuracy. In this paper, therefore, we focused on a comparative study of different Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) methods to find the most convenient wavelet function of wavelet families for a non-stationary EEG signal analysis to be used to classify mental tasks. For the classification process, four different mental tasks were selected to and we grouped each with another one to set dual tasked sets including all possible combinations. Feature extraction steps are performed using wavelet functions haar, coiflets (order 1), biorthogonal (order 6.8), reverse biorthogonal (order 6.8), daubechies (order 2) and, daubechies (order 4). Later, a specific feature reduction formula is applied to the extracted feature vector. Generated feature vector is then split into train and test data before the classification. Artificial neural network was used for classification of the extracted feature sets. From the result of the repeated analysis for each DWT methods, Coiflets performed relatively better compared to other wavelet families.

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Are family medicine residents physically active? And do they counsel their chronically ill patients about physical activity? A cross-sectional study among residents of the family medicine joint program, eastern province, Saudi Arabia

Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Malak Audah Al Shammari.
Background: Physical activity is a major factor in both preventing chronic illness and in controlling it in already diseased patients. It has been established that a physically active physician may be more likely to counsel patients about the benefits of physical activity and patients tend to adhere to exercise regimens when advised by a physician they think of as a role model. Objective: To determine the amount of physical activity the family medicines residents adhere to and to determine if family medicine residents practice what they counsel to their patients regarding physical activity. Materials and Methods: All family medicine residents in all of the training levels were recruited to take part in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) survey voluntarily. Levels of physical activity were divided into three categories: low, moderate, and high, according to the guidelines of data processing of the IPAQ. Section two of the survey assessed whether residents in fact counseled patients with chronic prevalent diseases (coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, etc.) about physical activity and the ranking of the most important health determinants according to them. Result: The sample size consisted of 80 participants, all residents of the program from R1 to R4. We have found that the majority >70% of them had low level of physical activity. The majority (96%) did counsel their patients about physical activity especially when the patient had diabetes. Conclusion: Although residents of the joint family medicine program of the eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were not, self-reportedly, physically active themselves, they were active in patient counseling regarding the importance of physical activity in achieving global health and well-being.

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Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep maps to a homozygous truncating mutation in AMPA receptor component FRRS1L

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Assessment of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties of Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. based on experiments in arthritic rat models and qualitative GC/MS analyses.

Source: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Subhashis Paul, Sudeb Sarkar, Tanmoy Dutta, Soumen Bhattacharjee.
AIM: The principle objective of the study was to explore the anti-arthritic properties of Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. flower in a rat model and to identify potential anti-inflammatory compounds derived from flower extracts. The synergistic role played by a combination of Acmella uliginosa flower and Aloe vera gel crude extracts was also investigated. METHOD: Male Wister rats induced with Freunds Complete Adjuvant (FCA) were used as a disease model of arthritic paw swelling. There were three experimental and two control groups each consisting of 5 rats. Paw circumference and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated to investigate the role of the flower extracts in disease amelioration through a feeding schedule spanning 21 days. GC/MS analyses were performed to search for the presence of anti-inflammatory compounds in the ethanolic and n-hexane solvent extracts of the flower. RESULTS: As a visual cue to the experimental outcomes, FCA-induced paw swelling decreased to the normal level; and haemoglobin, serum protein, and albumin levels were significantly increased in the treated animals. The creatinine level was estimated to be normal in the experimental rats after the treatment. The combination of Acmella uliginosa and Aloe vera showed the best recovery potential in all the studied parameters, confirming the synergistic efficacy of the herbal formulation. GC/MS analyses revealed the presence of at least 5 anti-inflammatory compounds including 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-,phenylmethyl ester, astaxanthin, à-N-Normethadol, fenretinide, that have reported anti-inflammatory/anti-arthritic properties. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that the crude flower homogenate of Acmella uliginosa contains potential anti-inflammatory compounds which could be used as an anti-inflammatory/anti-arthritic medication.

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Prevalence of needle stick injuries among paramedical staff: a cross sectional study at a tertiary level hospital in Indore

Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Chakresh Jain, BhagwanWaskel, S. B. Bansal, Mahesh Jesani.
Background: Paramedical staff is involved in treating and nursing patients always face great risk of acquiring infections like HBV, HCV & HIV by their daily work caring for others. Present study was conducted among paramedical staff at a tertiary level hospital in Indore. The objective was to assess the magnitude of needle stick injuries and to assess the attitude and knowledge towards safety for needle stick injuries (NSI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in MGM Medical College & associated MY Hospital, Indore from September 2014 to December 2014. Randomly selected 200 paramedical staff which includes Nursing & laboratory technicians was interviewed through a well-structured and administered questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed using MS Excel sheets & SPSS. Results: Among 200 staff 50 (25%) admitted that sometimes they tried to re-sheath the needle after administrating It. 64 (32%) have encountered needle stick injury during the last 12 months. 89% staff reports their injuries to doctors 72%, matron 9% and 8% discussed it with their coworker. Conclusions: Paramedical staffs working in MGM Medical College and associated Hospital Indore are frequently exposed to NSI & therefore blood borne infections. NSIs were highly prevalent in these staff therefore preventive education programs should be given to them periodically to increase their awareness regarding the universal precautions. There should be a surveillance system and a centre for managing injured persons.

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Prevalence of depression and its associated factors among medical students of a private medical college in south India

Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Ranu Rawat, Santosh Kumar, Manju L..
Background: Medical students are repeatedly exposed to a variety of stresses which can lead to development of depression. It is of paramount importance to detect this morbidity at the earliest and take timely corrective actions. This research intends to identify the prevalence, severity and associated factors of depression among the medical students of a private Medical College in Trivandrum. Methods: A cross sectional study was done among a total of 300 MBBS students selected randomly from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year. A self-administered questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), based on PRIME-MD Today, was used to make a provisional diagnosis of depression and its severity. Additional Questions were also included to find out the factors associated with depression. Results: This research found that, out of 300 students, 42% had no depression while 43%, 12% and 3% had mild, moderate and severe depression respectively. Factors such as year of study, presence of financial stress, presence of a romantic partner, participation in extra-curricular activities, substance abuse, family history of depression, family problems and health problems were found to have a significant association with presence of depression (p0.05). Conclusions: Depression was found to be high among medical students. It has been stated that young doctors should be given the same care and support that we expect them to provide to their patients. Therefore counselling services should be provided at medical colleges for early detection and treatment of depression.

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A cross sectional study to find out the efficacy of prevention of parent to child transmission services providing centers of Indore division

Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Chakresh Jain, A.K.Khatri, Veena Yesikar, Sanjay Dixit, Shailesh Rai.
Background: The HIV and AIDS epidemic is not just a public health concern, but a major socio-economic problem in India as it is in other parts of the world. In India PPTCT interventions under NACP was started in2002, using single dose NVP prophylaxis For HIV positive pregnant women during labour & also for her new born child immediately after birth. The objective of the study was to find out the proportion of HIV among ANC registered & the efficacy of PPTCT by determining seroconversion rate in children born to HIV positive mothers during study period. Methods: All PPTCT Services providing centres located in four districts of Indore division were taken in study. The required information (data of 1st January to 31st December 2014) was collected through pre-designed semi structured questionnaire undertaken nodal in charge, counselling staff/ laboratory technicians of each centre during the study period of January to October 2015. The data collected was entered into Microsoft excel spread sheet and analysis was done by SPSS. Results: The number of HIV positive registered ANC cases & positivity rate among them, both were highest at medical college level as they are catering highest numbers of ANC OPDs & referral too while it is lowest at CHCs level. Among total 67 positive pregnant women, two babies died before 6 weeks. Out of 65 babies tested & 2(3%) babies were found positive. Conclusions: There has been an improvement in number of pregnant women undergoing HIV testing with appropriate pre-test & post-test counselling over years but ANC load in hospitals of urban areas, were higher in comparison to rural, so up gradations of hospitals at primary level should be done.

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Metastasis: ignorance can be a curse

Source: Case Study and Case Report
Abha Rani, Neetha Mellekatte Chandrashekarappa, Priya Nagur Karibasappa, Shiva bharani Karanam.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by a high tendency for locally aggressive growth, early metastasis to neck lymph nodes, and variability in tumor behavior after surgical intervention. Despite advances in the treatment, the survival of patients with SCC hasnt significantly improved over several decades. The presence of lymph node metastasis directly affects the prognosis of the cancer. The control of lymph node metastasis, thus becomes the prime importance in achieving a high survival rate. Decisions regarding the elective and therapeutic management of lymph node metastases are made mainly on clinical grounds. In addition to decrease in the recurrence rate in the radically dissected neck, only 34% patients developed contralateral nodes. And only 4% recurrences were found in the patients having had the combined treatment or irradiation only. The present case shows metastatic lymph nodes on the contralateral side following radical neck dissection about 1.2 years ago.

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A study to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices of exclusive breast feeding among primi mothers of healthy term neonates in a tertiary care hospital and predictors of failure of establishment of exclusive breast feeding in first six months

Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Altaf Naseem, Naila Mazher.
Background: In India about 2.4 million children die each year of which two thirds are associated with infant feeding practices which are in appropriate. Thirteen percent reduction in infant mortality rate has been estimated with breast feeding. Methods: This study is a cross sectional questionnaire based study done in the setting of pediatric outpatient department at Owaisi hospital and research center Hyderabad. It was carried out over a duration of two years from 2013 to 2015. Results: Majority of mothers received antenatal counselling regarding benefits and management of breast feeding. Conclusions: Majority of the mothers had good knowledge; attitude and practices are still prevalent in the community which needs to be addressed.

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Prepulse inhibition deficits in women with PTSD


Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an automatic and preattentive process, whereby a weak stimulus attenuates responding to a sudden and intense startle stimulus. PPI is a measure of sensorimotor filtering, which is conceptualized as a mechanism that facilitates processing of an initial stimulus and is protective from interruption by a later response. Impaired PPI has been found in (a) healthy women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and (b) individuals with types of psychopathology characterized by difficulty suppressing and filtering sensory, motor, or cognitive information. In the current study, 47 trauma-exposed women with or without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) completed a PPI session during two different phases of the menstrual cycle: the early follicular phase, when estradiol and progesterone are both low, and the midluteal phase, when estradiol and progesterone are both high. Startle stimuli were 100 dB white noise bursts presented for 50 ms, and prepulses were 70 dB white noise bursts presented for 20 ms that preceded the startle stimuli by 120 ms. Women with PTSD showed deficits in PPI relative to the healthy trauma-exposed participants. Menstrual phase had no effect on PPI. These results provide empirical support for individuals with PTSD having difficulty with sensorimotor filtering. The potential utility of PPI as a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) phenotype is discussed.

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Comparison of efficacy and outcome of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy versus plasmapheresis in patients with Gullian Barre syndrome

Source: International Journal of Advances in Medicine
Archana Sonawale, Chetan Kalal.
Background: Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) often described as Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an ascending neuropathy involving demyelination of peripheral nerves. Very few studies on GBS have been conducted in Indian scenario in recent years. Taking into account this background, we undertook this study to have better outlook to the spectrum of disease and outcome. The objective was to study the patients clinical profile, outcome of the disease and response to plasmapheresis (PP) versus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in a case of GBS. Methods: This was a prospective observational study. In this study 34 consecutive patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who gave a written informed consent were recruited over a period of 2 years. A detailed history and physical examination was carried out in every patient. History of preceding illnesses and clinical symptoms were recorded. End points of the study were either death during hospital stay or discharge from the hospital, whichever was early. Results: Outcome in the present study was assessed using the modified Barthel index and modified Rankins scale. In IVIG group both MRS and MBS showed statistically favourable outcome, at the end of study (p

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