Σάββατο, 20 Οκτωβρίου 2018

Contents



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Editorial Board



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MicroRNA-10a, -210 and -563 as circulating biomarkers for Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

The presence of ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) can lead to symptomatic spinal cord compression and myelopathy. The surgical approach in patients with myelopathy is influenced by the presence of OPLL. Diagnose of OPLL currently requires computed tomography which incurs a large dose of radiation. Circulating disease-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as promising diagnostic markers with no radiation and easy accessibility for OPLL patients.

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What if EMS won a $1 billion lottery jackpot?

Big dreams to improve EMS with a windfall of funding for safety, health and wellness, research and leadership development

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What if EMS won a $1 billion lottery jackpot?

Big dreams to improve EMS with a windfall of funding for safety, health and wellness, research and leadership development

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Spillover Effects of Massachusetts Health Reform on Mental Health Use by VA and Medicare Dual Enrollees

Abstract

Older veterans can obtain care from the Veterans Affairs Health System (VA), Medicare or both. We examined whether their use of mental health care was impacted by capacity effects stemming from younger, uninsured veterans' enrolling in VA to satisfy the individual mandate within Massachusetts Health Reform (MHR). Using administrative data, we applied a difference-in-difference approach to compare pre-post changes in mental health use following MHR implementation. Findings indicated MHR was associated with increases in use through Medicare and the probability of dual VA-Medicare use. These results provide support for the possibility that limited capacity led to care seeking outside VA.



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Caroli syndrome: a clinical case with detailed histopathological analysis

Abstract

Herein we present a clinical case of the Caroli syndrome caused by the compound heterozygous mutation in the PKHD1 gene. Histopathological assessment of liver detected biliary cirrhosis, numerous dilated bile ducts of various sizes, hyperplastic cholangiocytes containing a large amount of acid mucopolysaccharides, decreased ß-tubulin expression and increased proliferation of cholangiocytes. A significant proportion of hepatic tissue was composed of giant cysts lined with a single layer of cholangiocytes, containing pus and bile in its lumen and surrounded by granulation tissue. An accumulation of neutrophils in the lumen of the bile ducts was observed, as well as an infiltration of the ducts and cysts surrounding connective tissue by CD4+ and to a lesser extent CD8+ lymphocytes. This may be caused by the expression of HLA-DR by cholangiocytes. Atrophy and desquamation of the epithelium of collecting tubules with the formation of microcysts were detected in the kidneys without a clinically significant loss of renal function. Morphopathogenetic mechanisms of the Caroli syndrome can be targets for a potential pathogenetic therapy and prevention of its manifestations and complications.



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Repression of yeast RNA polymerase III by stress leads to degradation of its largest subunit, C160

Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018

Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms

Author(s): Ewa Leśniewska, Małgorzata Cieśla, Magdalena Boguta

Abstract

Respiratory growth and various stress conditions repress RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we report a degradation of the largest Pol III catalytic subunit, C160 as a consequence of Pol III transcription repression. We observed C160 degradation in response to transfer of yeast from fermentation to respiration conditions, as well as treatment with rapamycin or inhibition of nucleotide biosynthesis. We also detected a ubiquitylated forms of C160 and demonstrated that C160 protein degradation is dependent on proteasome activity. A comparable time-course study of Pol III repression upon metabolic shift from fermentation to respiration shows that the transcription inhibition is correlated with Pol III dissociation from chromatin but that the degradation of C160 subunit is a downstream event. Despite blocking degradation of C160 by proteasome, Pol III-transcribed genes are under proper regulation. We postulate that the degradation of C160 is activated under stress conditions to reduce the amount of existing Pol III complex and prevent its de novo assembly.



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Individual blastomeres of 4- and 8-cell embryos have ability to develop into a full organism in mouse

Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018

Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics

Author(s): Xinxin Zhang, Tianda Li, Linlin Zhang, Liyuan Jiang, Tongtong Cui, Xuewei Yuan, Chenxin Wang, Zhonghua Liu, Ying Zhang, Wei Li, Qi Zhou



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Decreasing trend of ambient dose equivalent rates over a wide area in eastern Japan until 2016 evaluated by car-borne surveys using KURAMA systems

Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Author(s): Masaki Andoh, Satoshi Mikami, Shuichi Tsuda, Tadayoshi Yoshida, Norihiro Matsuda, Kimiaki Saito

Abstract

As part of the investigation of the distribution of ambient dose equivalent rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), car-borne surveys using Kyoto University RAdiation MApping (KURAMA) systems have been conducted over a wide area in eastern Japan since 2011. The enormous volume of measurement data collected until 2016, including those until 2012 which were reported in the previous paper, was analyzed, and dependencies of the decreasing trend of the dose rates in regions within 80 km of the FDNPP on land-use categories, evacuation order areas and magnitude of the dose rates were examined. The air dose rates within 80 km of the FDNPP tended to decrease considerably with respect to the physical decay of radiocaesium. The decrease of the dose rate in the "forest" was slower than its decrease in other regions, while that in "urban area" was the fastest. The decrease in the air dose rate from 2011 was the fastest outside the evacuation order area until 2015, and it was the slowest in the "difficult-to-return zone". However, the decreasing trend starting from 2013 showed that the decrease in the "zone in preparation for the lifting of the evacuation order" and in the "residence restriction area" was the fastest. It was found that the air dose rates decreased depending on the magnitude of the dose rates and elapsed time from the FDNPP accident, i.e. the decrease in air dose rates in areas with relatively low dose ranges (such as 0.2–0.5 μSv/h) was the largest during a period relatively early after the accident, and the decreasing rate in the dose rate ranges of 1.9–3.8 and 3.8–9.5 μSv/h were the fastest after 2013. The averaged ratios were analyzed to obtain the ecological half-lives of the fast and slow decay components, and those in whole area within 80 km of FDNPP were estimated to be 0.44 ± 0.05 y and 6.7 ± 1 y, respectively. The ecological half-lives with respect to the land use categories, evacuation order areas and magnitude of the dose rates were also evaluated. The decrease in the dose rates obtained by the car-borne survey was larger than that obtained on flat ground with few disturbances using the NaI(Tl) survey meter during approximately 1.5 y after the FDNPP accident. Thereafter, the difference of decreasing tendencies in the air dose rates between both the measurements was negligibly small, with the ratio of dose rates by the car-borne survey to those by the fixed-point measurement of 0.72–0.77.



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Acute hemiparesis and status epilepticus following endoscopic esophageal balloon dilation: is it really a stroke?

Abstract

A 68-year-old gentleman was referred for elective upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on a background of dysphagia and esophageal candidiasis. A benign peptic stricture was noted, managed with balloon dilation without apparent immediate complication. At completion, however, the patient became confused and agitated, with no improvement despite the reversal of sedation. Two hours later, with all investigations for suspected complications including perforation, negative, he developed acute left-sided hemiparesis. Urgent computed tomography brain and angiogram were both normal. A diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke was made, and the patient was thrombolysed in the Intensive Care Unit. No improvement of the stroke was observed. Seven hours later, the patient developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures that required phenytoin infusion and subsequent intubation and ventilation. The following morning, magnetic resonance imaging brain did not reveal features of a stroke, but instead diffuse cortical and white matter edema in the right frontal lobe, consistent with atypical, unilateral Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES). Signs and symptoms resolved rapidly over the course of several days, and after one month the patient made a complete clinical and radiological recovery. To our knowledge, this is the only case of PRES to arise in the setting of endoscopy and esophageal dilation.



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Pa. township considers implementing AED ordinance

The new ordinance would require building owners to put an automated external defibrillator in high-occupancy places

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