Τρίτη, 15 Ιανουαρίου 2019

{-}The Role of UV-B Light on Small RNA Activity During Grapevine Berry Development

We explored the effects of ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) on the developmental dynamics of microRNAs and phased small-interfering-RNA (phasi-RNAs)-producing loci by sequencing small RNAs in vegetative and reproductive organs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, we tested different UV-B conditions in in vitro-grown plantlets (high-fluence exposition) and in berries from field-grown (radiation filtering) and greenhouse-grown (low- and high-fluence expositions) adult plants throughout fruit development and ripening. The functional significance of the observed UV-coordinated miRNA responses was supported by degradome evidences of ARGONAUTE (AGO)-programmed slicing of mRNAs. Co-expression patterns of the up-regulated miRNAs miR156, miR482, miR530, and miR828 with cognate target gene expressions in response to high-fluence UV-B was tested by q-RT-PCR. The observed UV-response relationships were also interrogated against two published UV-stress and developmental transcriptome datasets. Together, the dynamics observed between miRNAs and targets suggest that changes in target abundance are mediated transcriptionally and, in some cases, modulated post-transcriptionally by miRNAs. Despite the major changes in target abundance are being controlled primarily by those developmental effects that are similar between treatments, we show evidence for novel miRNA-regulatory networks in grape. A model is proposed where high-fluence UV-B increases miR168 and miR530 that target ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1) and a Plus-3 domain mRNA, respectively, while decreasing miR403 that targets AGO2, thereby coordinating post-transcriptional gene silencing activities by different AGOs. Up-regulation of miR3627/4376 could facilitate anthocyanin accumulation by antagonizing a calcium effector, whereas miR395 and miR399, induced by micronutrient deficiencies known to trigger anthocyanin accumulation, respond positively to UV-B radiation. Finally, increases in the abundance of an anthocyanin-regulatory MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex elucidated in Arabidopsis, mediated by UV-B-induced changes in miR156/miR535, could contribute to the observed up-regulation of miR828. In turn, miR828 would regulate the AtMYB113-ortologues MYBA5, A6 and A7 (and thereby anthocyanins) via a widely conserved and previously validated auto-regulatory loop involving miR828 and phasi TAS4abc RNAs.



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Comparative Genomic Screen in Two Yeasts Reveals Conserved Pathways in the Response Network to Phenol Stress

Living organisms encounter various perturbations, and response mechanisms to such perturbations are vital for species survival. Defective stress responses are implicated in many human diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Phenol derivatives, naturally occurring and synthetic, display beneficial as well as detrimental effects. The phenol derivatives in this study, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and bisphenol A (BPA), are widely used as food preservatives and industrial chemicals. Conflicting results have been reported regarding their biological activity and correlation with disease development; understanding the molecular basis of phenol action is a key step for addressing issues relevant to human health. This work presents the first comparative genomic analysis of the genetic networks for phenol stress response in an evolutionary context of two divergent yeasts, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genomic screening of deletion strain libraries of the two yeasts identified genes required for cellular response to phenol stress, which are enriched in human orhtologs. Functional analysis of these genes uncovered the major signaling pathways involved. The results provide a global view of the biological events constituting the defense process, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, phenol detoxification by V-ATPases, reactive oxygen species alleviation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress relief through ergosterol and the unfolded protein response, revealing novel roles for these cellular pathways.



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The dilemma of the “ischemic-looking” electrocardiogram: Pulmonary embolism or acute coronary syndrome?

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Paurush Ambesh, Aditya Kapoor, Sudeep Kumar, Sunil K Jain

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):89-91

Pulmonary embolism (PE) may be potentially fatal if not diagnosed and treated in time. Although specific electrocardiogram (ECG) findings often suggest the diagnosis of PE, occasionally, the ECG may mimic that of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We report an interesting case of a 45-year-old female presenting with sudden onset chest pain and shortness of breath with widespread ST depression in anterior precordial leads. Although initially treated and referred as a case of ACS, careful analysis of the ECG and subsequent echocardiography and computed tomography imaging confirmed the diagnosis of PE. Intensivists and cardiologists need to be aware that diagnostic dilemma between PE and ACS is not uncommon due to such "ischemic-looking" ECG as well as elevated troponin levels in both conditions. The use of multimodality imaging techniques is helpful in arriving at the correct diagnosis.

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Cardiac output monitoring: Technology and choice

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Jeff Kobe, Nitasha Mishra, Virendra K Arya, Waiel Al-Moustadi, Wayne Nates, Bhupesh Kumar

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):6-17

The accurate quantification of cardiac output (CO) is given vital importance in modern medical practice, especially in high-risk surgical and critically ill patients. CO monitoring together with perioperative protocols to guide intravenous fluid therapy and inotropic support with the aim of improving CO and oxygen delivery has shown to improve perioperative outcomes in high-risk surgical patients. Understanding of the underlying principles of CO measuring devices helps in knowing the limitations of their use and allows more effective and safer utilization. At present, no single CO monitoring device can meet all the clinical requirements considering the limitations of diverse CO monitoring techniques. The evidence for the minimally invasive CO monitoring is conflicting; however, different CO monitoring devices may be used during the clinical course of patients as an integrated approach based on their invasiveness and the need for additional hemodynamic data. These devices add numerical trend information for anesthesiologists and intensivists to use in determining the most appropriate management of their patients and at present, do not completely prohibit but do increasingly limit the use of the pulmonary artery catheter.

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Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction following aortic valve replacement: A review of risk factors, mechanism, and management

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Neeti Makhija, Rohan Magoon, Ira Balakrishnan, Sambhunath Das, Vishwas Malik, Parag Gharde

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):1-5

The presence of dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) can complicate the postoperative course of patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). The phenomenon of LVOTO is a consequence of an interplay of various pathoanatomic mechanisms. The prevailing cardiovascular milieu dictates the hemodynamic significance of the resultant LVOTO in addition to the anatomical risk factors. A thorough understanding of the predisposing factors, mechanism, and hemodynamic sequel of the obstruction is pivotal in managing these cases. A comprehensive echocardiographic examination aids in risk prediction, diagnosis, severity characterization, and follow-up of management efficacy in the setting of postoperative LVOTO. The armamentarium of management modalities includes conservative (medical) and surgical options. A stepwise approach should be formulated based on the physiological and anatomical substrates predisposing to LVOTO. The index phenomenon occurs more frequently than appreciated and should be considered when the post-AVR patients exhibit hemodynamic instability unresponsive to conventional supportive measures. The present article provides an overview of various peculiarities of this under-recognized phenomenon in the context of the perioperative management of patients undergoing AVR.

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Conversion during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A case–control study

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Murali Chakravarthy, Dattatreya Prabhakumar, TA Patil, Antony George, Vivek Jawali

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):18-23

Objectives: Off pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery is carried out as an alternative to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). At times 'conversion' to CPB may be required to bail out a situation resulting from acute decompensation of the heart. It is reported that such conversion carries significant mortality risk. Since we conduct coronary revascularization by OPCAB technique as the preferred technique, we conducted this study with an aim to identify the markers of adverse outcome during conversion in Indian patients. Design: Case control retrospective study. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Participants: We conducted three thousand two hundred OPAB surgeries in the period between 2013 to16. Ninety patients (3.1%) required conversion to complete the revascularization (Con version group). Twice the number of patients who underwent OPCAB surgery without conver sion were chosen as controls (Control group). Intervention: OPCAB surgery Results: Mortality in the conversion group was 5.56% in contrast to 0.06% in the controls (P = 0.01). The conversion group had higher left ventricular end diastolic pressure, incidence of endarterectomy, and intra-aortic balloon counter pulsation requirement. Female gender was also predictive of conversion. The total chest drain, duration of ventilation, ICU stay and hospital stay were also higher in the conversion group. Conversion was associated with 9.47 times the odds for mortality. Conclusion: Conversion during OPCAB is associated with significantly increased mortality. Female gender, increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure and preoperative requirement of Intra-aortic balloon are markers of increased risk of mortality when converted.

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Quadricuspid aortic valve associated with aortic insufficiency contributors

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Nicholas Paul Suraci, Bryan Kerner, Salomon Poliwoda, Orlando Santana, Gerald Rosen

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):99-100

A 51-year-old male presented with a wound in his right hand that was suspicious for possible septic emboli of cardiac origin. With transesophageal echocardiography, the patient was found to have a rare quadricuspid aortic valve. This quadricuspid valve can present with variable symptoms and physical exam findings. Due to embryological defects, this pathology is associated with several other anatomical defects that are important to recognize prior to surgical intervention. Transesophaegeal echocardiography remains the gold standard in detection of quadricuspid aortic valve and identification of other possible cardiac lesions.

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Rupture of sinus of valsalva – A 15 years single institutional retrospective review: Preoperative heart failure has an impact on post operative outcome?

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Anitha Diwakar, Sathya Swaroop Patnaik, Channabasavaraj S Hiremath, Kolli S Chalam, Parvatkumar Dash

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):24-29

Background: We reviewed our experience with ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysms (RSOV) to determine a correlation with preexisting heart failure (HF) and coexisting cardiac lesions (aortic regurgitation [AR] and ventricular septal defect [VSD]) to postoperative left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of RSOV cases over 15 years showed that RSOV repair was done in 87 patients. We looked for patients who presented with HF and patients having AR and/or VSDs. Statistical analysis was done to see if the coexisting lesions and preoperative HF were associated with postoperative LV dysfunction. Chi-square test was used on contingency table for statistical analysis. Complications in the postoperative period and prolonged Intensive Care Unit stay were noted. Results: 17% (15/87) presented with HF. Fifty-two patients had moderate to severe AR and 50 patients had VSD. Seventeen patients had postoperative LV dysfunction. The correlation of preoperative HF and coexisting lesions with postoperative LV dysfunction was not statistically significant. Two patients underwent redo surgery for residual RSOV and AR. Two patients had arrhythmias. One patient had cerebrovascular accident. No mortality was seen in the study. Conclusion: Preoperative HF and the presence of VSD and/or AR have no statistical significant correlation with postoperative LV dysfunction. As the outcome of RSOV repair is good, all patients need to undergo early repair to avoid complications.

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Unrecognized double aortic arch in a preterm infant: Diagnostic challenges and perioperative management

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Balaji Srimurugan, Jessin Jayashankar, Rakhi Balachandran, Sunil S Gopalraj

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):83-85

Vascular rings are relatively rare, and are frequently overlooked as a potential cause of neonatal respiratory distress in non specialized centres. This might lead to delay in diagnosis during which the child is subjected to repeated respiratory insults. Procrastination in prompt diagnosis and management can lead to significant comorbidities or even death. We highlight the case report of a preterm infant with an unrecognized double aortic arch who presented with severe respiratory morbidity and the subsequent management.

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Management issues during postinfarction ventricular septal defect and role of perioperative optimization: A case series

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Fayaz Mohammed Khazi, Faozi Al-Safadi, Yehia Karaly, Nayyer R Siddiqui, Bassil Al-Zamkan, Obaid Aljassim

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):30-34

The development of a myocardial infarction ventricular septal rupture is a rare fatal complication, and the surgical repair is the treatment of choice. In most of the scenarios, the operation will be done as an emergency procedure that carries high mortality. Prognosis of these patients depends on prompt echocardiographic diagnosis and the proactive medical and surgical therapy. More recently, various options have been put forward including the timing for surgery, percutaneous closure devices, and the improved outcome with initial stabilization with medical treatment including mechanical support. In this retrospective case series, we are presenting the management of these patients who presented us in different clinical scenarios and trying to identify the risks for the poor outcome and to formulate a strategy to improve the outcome.

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Endovascular approach in chronic aortoiliac disease in patient undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery

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Fotini Ampatzidou, Charilaos-Panagiotis Koutsogiannidis, Aggelos Megalopoulos, George Trelopoulos, George Drossos

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):96-97

Internal thoracic artery (ITA) is an excellent conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). We present a patient with known preoperative aortoiliac disease with anterior collateral pathway who had an indication for elective coronary bypass. The use of ITA in these patients may cause lower limb ischemia. Detecting Winslow's anastomotic pathway before CABG is of utmost importance.

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Comparison of hemodynamic response and postoperative pain score between general anaesthesia with intravenous analgesia versus general anesthesia with caudal analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing open-heart surgery

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Dharma Jivan Samantaray, Meena Trehan, Vivek Chowdhry, Satish Reedy

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):35-40

Context: Regional anesthesia may attenuate adverse physiological stress responses associated with cardiothoracic surgery. In this study, hemodynamic stress response at the different time of surgical stimuli was compared between patients receiving general anesthesia (GA) along with caudal epidural analgesia with GA with intravenous analgesia in pediatric population undergoing open-heart surgery. Aims: This study aims to compare the hemodynamic response at the different time of surgical stimuli and postoperative pain score, in pediatric patients undergoing open-heart procedures. Settings and Design: We designed a prospective randomized controlled trial to study hemodynamic effects between Group I and Group II. Fifty patients were randomly allocated equally into Group I (GA + caudal epidural) and Group II (GA + intravenous analgesia) by sealed envelope technique. Subjects and Methods: After obtaining approval from Institutional Ethical Committee, this prospective study was conducted in 50 American Society of Anesthesiologist Classes II and III pediatric patients aged between 1 and 12 years posted for cardiac surgery in our institution. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, and Student's test. Results: The heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure variations were compared between Groups I and II at different time intervals. The variations were found to be significantly higher at the time of skin incision and 2 min after skin incision in Group II as compared to Group I. Pain score was compared between the groups and was found to be significantly lower with Group I (2.5 ± 1.2) as compared to Group II (4.6 ± 1.7), P = (0.004). Conclusions: Caudal analgesia with GA (Group I) was found to have better hemodynamic control and significantly better postoperative pain relief in the first 24 h after awakening.

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Clinical usage of high-flow oxygenation in postcardiac surgery patients

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Ali Jabbari, Ebrahim Alijanpour, Shabnam Tabasi

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):107-108



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Assessment of ventricular function in patients of atrial septal defect by strain imaging before and after correction

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Prashant Kumar, Achyut Sarkar, Sandeep Kumar Kar

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):41-46

Background: Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart disease associated with volume overload of Right ventricle (RV) with variable effect on Left ventricle (LV). Two-dimensional (2D) Strain analysis is a new tool for objective analysis of myocardial function. This prospective study evaluated the systolic function of right and left ventricle by conventional 2D echo and strain echo and measured changes in cardiac hemodynamics that occurred in patients of ASD before and after correction. Patients and Methods: 2D echo and strain analysis of each patient before and at 48 hrs, 3 months and 6 months after correction was performed. Routine 2D echo parameters and global longitudinal strain of both ventricles were measured. Result: Improvement in LV ejection fraction (P = 0.0001) and myocardial performance index (MPI) (P < 0.0001) occurred at the end of 6 months, whereas decrease in RV MPI (P < 0.0001) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (P < 0.0001) became statistically significant after 3 months of ASD correction. In comparison to conventional 2D echo, global longitudinal strain of RV decreased significantly only after 48 hours of ASD correction while there was no improvement in left ventricular global longitudinal strain after 6 month of correction. Conclusion: There was improvement in RV function with subtle change in LV function by strain imaging and most of these changes were completed within 6 months of ASD correction and nearly correlated with conventional 2DEchocardiography.

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Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis in carcinoid heart disease

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Kimberly Naden Hollander, Brijen L Joshi

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):79-82

Tricuspid regurgitation in carcinoid syndrome leads to significant morbidity and mortality that may warrant a tricuspid valve replacement. However, for patients with high serotonin levels and known hypercoagulable risks, the optimum timing for surgery and postoperative anticoagulation approaches remain unclear. High serotonin-triggered hypercoagulability makes prosthetic valves susceptible to thrombosis. Despite appropriate management with a somatostatin analog, some patients continue to have high markers of serotonin that causes platelet aggregation and rapid clot formation. In severely symptomatic patients who require valve surgery, it may not be feasible to postpone surgery until these metabolites are normalized, which may add a substantial risk for postoperative valve thrombosis to an otherwise uneventful procedure. In some, there is a significant need to predict and prevent bioprosthetic valve thrombosis in carcinoid heart disease and to identify best anticoagulation practices across a spectrum of its complex coagulation dynamics and clinical presentation.

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“Vitamin D” as a profile marker for cardiovascular diseases

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Deepak Oberoi, Vinit Mehrotra, Anurag Rawat

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):47-50

Objective: A growing body of research indicates that there exists a correlation between Vit D deficiency and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In addition to being genetically determined, it is strongly influenced by lifestyle factors. In this study, Vit D and its interrelated factors have been studied as profile marker for identifying the risk of CVD in patients. Methods: The present study includes comparison of a total 200 adults CVD patients with the healthy patients as control, by measuring their serum lipid levels and Vit D concentrations with other CVD risk factors. Results: The average serum Vit D in CVD patients and controls are found to be 22.55±6.2 ng/ml and 37.62±3.2 ng/ml respectively, showing that 63% of CVD patients and 35% of controls are Vit D deficient. Serum lipids levels were considered as marker for patients having CVD which include high levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol while low levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol levels. Other risk factors like hypertension, lifestyle, smoking, dietary factors and nutritional status shows significantly correlation for CVD patients compared to controls. Conclusion: Literature supports the relationship between lipid profile and Vit D level by using this as a profile marker for CVD patients. Our study also suggests the same that vitamin D can be used as profile marker for cardiovascular diseases.

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Off-pump coronary bypass grafting in a post-pneumonectomy patient: Challenges and management

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Anand Kumar, Udgeath Dhir, Vishal Jain, Surendra Yadav, Ankit Purohit

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):86-88

Pulmonary complications are common in cardiac surgical patients. Limited respiratory reserves along with the pain associated with sternotomy add to the morbidity. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery who have had a pneumonectomy done before can be even more challenging to manage perioperatively due to a single-functioning lung. We present a case of a postpneumonectomy patient who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Perioperative optimization of lung function tests was stressed upon including the chest physiotherapy and early mobilization. Preoperative thoracic epidural catheter was inserted for postoperative pain and other proven benefits of thoracic epidural in coronary artery disease patients. We could conclude from our experience that proper optimization of lung function tests and meticulous pain management along with fast-tracking are keys to the management of such patients.

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Practice patterns of left-sided double-lumen tube: Does it match recommendation from literature – A single-centre observational pilot study

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Prachi Kar, Archana Pathy, Ayya Syama Sundar, Ramachandran Gopinath, Srilata Moningi

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):51-55

Context: Choosing appropriate-size double-lumen tube (DLT) has always been a challenge as it depends on existing guidelines based on gender, height, tracheal diameter (TD), or personal experience. However, there are no Indian data to match these recommendations. Aim: To find out whether the size of DLT used correlates with height, weight, TD, or left main stem bronchus diameter (LMBD). We also documented clinical consequences of any of our current practice. Setting and Design: Single-center observational pilot study. Subjects and Methods: Prospective, observational study of 41 patients requiring one-lung ventilation with left-side DLT. The choice of DLT was entirely on the discretion of anesthesiologist in charge of the case. Data were collected for TD, LMBD, height, weight, age, sex, and amount of air used in the tracheal and bronchial cuff. Any intraoperative complications and difficulty in isolation were also noted. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analysis was done with the National Council of Statistical Software version 11. Results: Average TD and LMBD were 16.5 ± 0.9 and 10.7 ± 0.8 mm for males and 14.2 ± 1.1 and 9.4 ± 1.1 mm for females, respectively. There was a weak correlation between DLT size and height (R2 = 0.0694), TD (R2 = 0.3396), and LMBD (R2 = 0.2382) in the case of males. For females, the correlation between DLT size and height (R2 = 0.2656), TD (R2 = 0.5302), and LMBD (R2 = 0.5003) was slightly better. Conclusion: Although there was a weak correlation between DLT size and height, TD, and LMBD, the overall intraoperative outcome and lung isolation were good.

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Perioperative management of intramyocardial hydatid cyst with off-pump technique

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Yamini Gupta, Madhuri Priyadarshi

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):92-95

Cardiac echinococcosis is a rare disease. Depending on the location of hydatid cyst in the heart, clinical presentation can be an asymptomatic case or lethal stroke, arrhythmias, valvular dysfunction, cardiac tamponade, cardiac failure, shock, and even death. Treatment of choice for cardiac hydatid cysts is surgical excision, even in an asymptomatic patient. We present a case report of an asymptomatic case of off-pump removal of intramyocardial hydatid cyst. A 21-year-old male presented asymptomatically and was diagnosed with a hydatid cyst incidentally during a regular checkup. Echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography angiography images demonstrated an intramyocardial hydatid cyst on the lateral aspect of the left ventricle with slight extension over the anterior and posterior regions. Important aspects of diagnosis and management specific to cardiac hydatid cyst along with the review of literature have been discussed.

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A survey of practices during cardiopulmonary bypass in India: An Indian association of cardiovascular and thoracic anesthesiologist endeavor

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Deepak Prakash Borde, Shreedhar S Joshi, Murali Chakravarthy, Vishwas Malik, Ranjith B Karthekeyan, Antony George, Thomas Koshy, Uday Gandhe, Suresh G Nair

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):56-66

Context: Cardiac anesthesiologists play a key role during the conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). There are variations in the practice of CPB among extracorporeal technologists in India. Aims: The aim of this survey is to gather information on variations during the conduct of CPB in India. Settings and Design: This was an online conducted survey by Indian College of Cardiac Anaesthesia, which is the research and academic wing of the Indian Association of Cardiovascular Thoracic Anaesthesiologists. Subjects and Methods: Senior consultants heading cardiac anesthesia departments in both teaching and nonteaching centers (performing at least 15 cases a month) were contacted using an online questionnaire fielded using SurveyMonkey™ software. There were 33 questions focusing on institute information, perfusion practices, blood conservation on CPB; monitoring and anesthesia practices. Results: The response rate was 74.2% (187/252). Fifty-one (26%) centers were teaching centers; 18% centers performed more than 1000 cases annually. Crystalloid solution was the most common priming solution used. Twenty-three percent centers used corticosteroids routinely; methylprednisone was the most commonly used agent. The cardioplegia solution used by most responders was the one available commercially containing high potassium St. Thomas solution (55%), followed by Del Nido cardioplegia (33%). Majority of the responders used nasopharyngeal site to monitor intraoperative patient temperature. Antifibrinolytics were commonly used only in patients who were at high risk for bleeding by 51% of responders, while yet, another 39% used them routinely, and 11% never did. About 59% of the centers insist on only fresh blood (<7 days old) when blood transfusion was indicated. The facility to use vaporizer on CPB was available in 62% of the centers. All the teaching centers or high volume centers in India had access to transesophageal echocardiography probe and echo machine, with 51% using them routinely and 38% using them at least sometimes. Conclusions: There is a wide heterogeneity in CPB management protocols among various Indian cardiac surgery centers. The survey suggests that adherence to evidence-based and internationally accepted practices appears to be more prevalent in centers that have ongoing teaching programs and/or have high volumes, strengthening the need to devise guidelines by appropriate body to help bring in uniformity in CPB management to ensure patient safety and high quality of clinical care for best outcomes.

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Massive subcutaneous emphysema after off-pump coronary bypass surgery

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Monish S Raut, Sumir Dubey, Ganesh Shivnani, Arun Maheshwari, Sibashankar Kar

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):97-98

Subcutaneous emphysema is a condition when air gets accumulated into the tissues under the skin and in the soft tissues of the chest wall or neck but can also spread to other parts of the body. It generally causes minimal symptoms and nonlethal; sometimes, it may be severe and life-threatening if deeper tissues of the thoracic outlet and chest are involved. It is essential to know the mechanisms of subcutaneous emphysema after cardiac surgery.

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Descriptive statistics and normality tests for statistical data

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Prabhaker Mishra, Chandra M Pandey, Uttam Singh, Anshul Gupta, Chinmoy Sahu, Amit Keshri

Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia 2019 22(1):67-72

Descriptive statistics are an important part of biomedical research which is used to describe the basic features of the data in the study. They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Measures of the central tendency and dispersion are used to describe the quantitative data. For the continuous data, test of the normality is an important step for deciding the measures of central tendency and statistical methods for data analysis. When our data follow normal distribution, parametric tests otherwise nonparametric methods are used to compare the groups. There are different methods used to test the normality of data, including numerical and visual methods, and each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. In the present study, we have discussed the summary measures and methods used to test the normality of the data.

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Ask good assessment questions to get good answers

Remember that a patient can be your best source in acquiring clinical information. By asking good questions and getting good answers, you can start treatment more quickly than you otherwise would.

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Diagnostik der Sepsis – Teil 2: Erregeridentifikation

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 38-48
DOI: 10.1055/a-0756-4651

Im Rahmen der Sepsis und des septischen Schocks spielen, trotz der zunehmenden Verbreitung von neuen molekularbiologischen Verfahren, der kulturelle Erregernachweis und die Resistenztestung weiterhin die entscheidende Rolle in der antimikrobiellen Therapie auf der Intensivstation. Hierbei kann der Erregernachweis für die antimikrobielle Therapie einerseits direkt aus dem Patientenblut, andererseits aber auch aus diversen anderen Probenmaterialien (respiratorische Sekrete, Punktat, intraoperative Abstriche etc.) geführt werden. Ein Nachteil konventioneller kultureller Verfahren im Kontext kritisch kranker Patienten ist die zeitliche Latenz bis zum Erregernachweis bzw. zum Ergebnis der Resistenztestung. Molekularbiologische Verfahren wie Techniken der Erregerdiagnostik und Resistenztestung, die auf Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) oder vor allem Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) basieren, versprechen hier zwar kürzere Umlaufzeiten, sind aber aktuell noch kein klinischer Standard. Trotzdem besitzen diese Verfahren das Potenzial, einen Paradigmenwechsel in der Erregerdiagnostik herbeizuführen.
[...]

Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Article in Thieme eJournals:
Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text



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Sechs-Monats-Outcome nach restriktivem oder liberalem Transfusionsregime in der Herzchirurgie

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 4-4
DOI: 10.1055/a-0817-3208



Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Article in Thieme eJournals:
Table of contents  |  Full text



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Sepsis-Update: Definition und Epidemiologie

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 10-20
DOI: 10.1055/a-0625-5492

Sepsis ist eine häufige Erkrankung auf den Intensivstationen weltweit, die mit einer relevanten Morbidität und Mortalität einhergeht. Bis heute gibt es keine spezifische Therapie der Sepsis – allein die frühe Diagnosestellung und schnellstmögliche therapeutische Intervention können das Outcome der Patienten verbessern. Daher ist eine Definition des Krankheitsbildes der Sepsis mit hoher diagnostischer Sensitivität und Spezifität unabdingbar.
[...]

Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

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Ketamin: weniger Nebenwirkungen bei langsamer Infusion?

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 5-6
DOI: 10.1055/a-0817-2141



Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

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DGEM-Leitlinie: Klinische Ernährung in der Intensivmedizin – Kurzversion

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 63-73
DOI: 10.1055/a-0805-4118

Fragestellung Variationen in der klinischen Ernährungstherapie können die Prognose kritisch kranker Patienten beeinflussen. Hier präsentieren wir die Kurzversion der aktualisierten, konsensbasierten S2k-Leitlinie „Klinische Ernährung in der Intensivmedizin" der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ernährungsmedizin (DGEM) in Kooperation mit 7 anderen nationalen Fachgesellschaften. Als Zielpopulation der Leitlinie wurden kritisch kranke, erwachsene Patienten, die an mindestens einer akuten, medikamentös und/oder mechanisch unterstützungspflichtigen Organdysfunktion leiden, definiert. Methodik Die früheren Leitlinien der DGEM wurden in Einklang mit den aktuellen Richtlinien der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften e. V. (AWMF) als S2k-Leitlinie aktualisiert. Als Grundlage für die Empfehlungen wurde die Evidenz von randomisiert-kontrollierten Studien, Metaanalysen und Beobachtungsstudien mit angemessener Fallzahl und hoher methodologischer Qualität (bis Mai 2018) sowie aktuell gültige Leitlinien internationaler Fachgesellschaften herangezogen und kommentiert. Die Empfehlungsstärke ist rein sprachlich beschrieben. Jede Empfehlung wurde mittels Delphi-Verfahren abschließend bewertet und konsentiert. Ergebnisse In der vorliegenden Kurzversion werden alle 69 Empfehlungen für essenzielle, praxisrelevante Bestandteile der klinischen Ernährung der Zielpopulation zusammenfassend dargestellt. Ein spezifischer Fokus ist die Adjustierung der Ernährung gemäß den Phasen der kritischen Erkrankung sowie gemäß der individuellen Toleranz gegenüber exogener Substratzufuhr. Unter anderem werden Empfehlungen zur Beurteilung des Ernährungszustandes, zur Indikation für eine klinische Ernährungstherapie, zum Zeitpunkt des Beginns, zum Applikationsweg, zur Menge und Zusammensetzung der Ernährungssubstrate (Makro- und Mikronährstoffe) sowie zu speziellen Aspekten der Ernährung bei adipösen kritisch kranken Patienten und Patienten mit extrakorporalen Unterstützungsverfahren gegeben. Schlussfolgerung Die Kurzversion der Leitlinie gibt eine prägnante Übersicht über alle 69 aktualisierten Handlungsempfehlungen zur enteralen und parenteralen Ernährung erwachsener kritisch kranker Patienten, die an mind. einer akuten, medikamentös und/oder mechanisch unterstützungspflichtigen Organdysfunktion leiden. Die Gültigkeit der Leitlinie beträgt voraussichtlich 5 Jahre (2018 – 2023).
[...]

Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

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ICU: Lactoferrin gegen nosokomiale Infektionen?

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 6-7
DOI: 10.1055/a-0817-2154



Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

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Diagnostik der Sepsis – Teil 1: allgemeine Diagnostik und Fokussuche-/sanierung

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 22-36
DOI: 10.1055/a-0625-5507

Die Sepsis ist ein medizinischer Notfall mit weiterhin hoher Sterblichkeit. Die Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) gibt für die Diagnostik und die Gabe eines adäquaten Breitspektrumantibiotikums ein Zeitfenster von max. 1 h nach Stellen der Verdachtsdiagnose „Sepsis" vor. Aktuell wird dieses sog. 1 h-Maßnahmenbündel kritisch diskutiert. Als Kernaspekt der Fokussuche orientiert sich die Art der Bildgebung am vermuteten Fokus und dem Patientenkollektiv. Bei kritisch kranken Patienten ist die kontrastmittelverstärkte Computertomografie häufig Mittel der Wahl. Die Erregerdetektion erfolgt meist kulturbasiert. Daher sind mikrobiologische Proben aus einfach zugänglichen Kompartimenten, mindestens aber die Entnahme von 2 Blutkultursets, obligat und sollten vor der Gabe eines Antibiotikums erfolgen. Von herausragender Bedeutung sind vor allem intraoperative Abstriche aus sonst sterilen Kompartimenten. Suspekte Katheter (z. B. zentralvenöse Katheter, Dialysekatheter) oder potenziell infizierte implantierte Medizinprodukte (z. B. Schrittmacher, Defibrillatoren) sollten – wenn vertretbar – zügig entfernt und einer mikrobiologischen Aufarbeitung zugeführt werden. Generell sollten alle notwendigen Maßnahmen zur Fokussanierung/-kontrolle so schnell wie medizinisch/logistisch möglich, mindestens aber innerhalb von 6(– 12)h nach Beginn der Sepsis, erfolgt sein. Es existiert bislang kein spezifischer Biomarker für das Krankheitsbild der Sepsis. Biomarker wie das Procalcitonin (PCT) und das C-reaktive Protein (CRP) spielen im Kontext der Sepsis beim infektiologischen Management und Therapiemonitoring auf der Intensivstation eine wichtige Rolle. Vielversprechende Biomarker wie das midregionale Pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) oder das Presepsin werden außerhalb von Studien noch nicht in der klinischen Routine eingesetzt. Als Marker von Mikrozirkulationsstörungen und eines gestörten Metabolismus spielt das Laktat (bzw. die Laktat-Clearance) als prognostischer Parameter der Sepsis eine große Rolle.
[...]

Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

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Sepsis – weiter eine große Herausforderung!

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 8-9
DOI: 10.1055/a-0808-1194



Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

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Sepsis-Update: evidenzbasierte Therapie

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 50-62
DOI: 10.1055/a-0625-5521

Sepsis und septischer Schock stellen medizinische Notfälle dar, die einer kompetenten Früherkennung und eines entsprechenden sofortigen, zielgerichteten Managements bedürfen. Die Therapie der Sepsis und des septischen Schocks hat sich während der letzten Jahre kontinuierlich weiterentwickelt. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die aktuelle Evidenz der Therapie der Sepsis und des septischen Schocks und deren Umsetzung in die klinische Praxis.
[...]

Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

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Heute aus der Gynäkologie: Neugeborenenreanimation und Notsectio

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 74-78
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-101628



Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

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ICU: welches Antibiotikum bei vancomycinresistenten Enterokokken (VRE)?

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2019; 54: 4-5
DOI: 10.1055/a-0817-2987



Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

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HIV peptidome-wide association study reveals patient-specific epitope repertoires associated with HIV control [Genetics]

Genetic variation in the peptide-binding groove of the highly polymorphic HLA class I molecules has repeatedly been associated with HIV-1 control and progression to AIDS, accounting for up to 12% of the variation in HIV-1 set point viral load (spVL). This suggests a key role in disease control for HLA...

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Blacklisting variants common in private cohorts but not in public databases optimizes human exome analysis [Genetics]

Computational analyses of human patient exomes aim to filter out as many nonpathogenic genetic variants (NPVs) as possible, without removing the true disease-causing mutations. This involves comparing the patient's exome with public databases to remove reported variants inconsistent with disease prevalence, mode of inheritance, or clinical penetrance. However, variants frequent...

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Constitutive Dicer1 phosphorylation accelerates metabolism and aging in vivo [Genetics]

DICER1 gene alterations and decreased expression are associated with developmental disorders and diseases in humans. Oscillation of Dicer1 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulates its function during the oocyte-to-embryo transition in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dicer1 is also phosphorylated upon FGF stimulation at conserved serines in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and HEK293 cells. However, whether...

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Genomic imprinting disorders: lessons on how genome, epigenome and environment interact

Genomic imprinting disorders: lessons on how genome, epigenome and environment interact

Genomic imprinting disorders: lessons on how genome, epigenome and environment interact, Published online: 15 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0092-0

Disruption of genomic imprinting can lead to disease. Recent studies suggest that interactions between the genome, the epigenome and the environment in germ cells and early embryos have an impact on developmental outcomes and on the heritability of imprinting disorders.

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Structural-functional modifications of the liver to chronic radioactive exposure in pygmy wood mouse (Apodemus uralensis) within the East-Urals Radioactive Trace

Publication date: April 2019

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volumes 199–200

Author(s): Natal´ya A. Orekhova, Makar V. Modorov, Yulia A. Davydova

Abstract

The hepatic parameters (contents of glycogen, total lipids, nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, DNA and RNA, fructose-6-phosphate, water, lipid peroxidation products, as well as activities of succinate dehydrogenase and glucose phosphate isomerase), radiometric data, and the relative population abundance of the pygmy wood mouse (Apodemus uralensis Pall., 1811) inhabiting natural (Middle Urals, Southern Urals, and Trans-Urals) areas and radioactivity territory (the EURT zone after of the Kyshtym accident in the South Urals in 1957) were analysed. Structural-functional modifications of the liver in A. uralensis from the EURT area are presented, taking into account irradiation power by dose-forming radionuclides (external and internal exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr), population size, and reproductive status (sexually immature and sexually mature yearlings, representing different ontogenetic patterns). The sexually immature mice from the EURT area can be considered to be the more sensitive (reactive) intrapopulation group to synergistic factors, such as radiation burden and population overabundance. The extent of structural-functional hepatic modification under current conditions of radionuclide exposure, in addition to the 60 year long effect of radioactive contamination in the EURT, can exceed the level of natural (geographic) variation observed in this species in the Urals region, which points to a long term evolutionary-ecological process.

Graphical abstract

Image 1



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Editorial Board

Publication date: March 2019

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 198

Author(s):



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Physical activity in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida: an observational study

Even though typically developing youth are already at risk for physical inactivity, youth with spina bifida may be even at higher risk as a consequence of their reduced mobility. No objective data is available...

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A modified standardized nine hole peg test for valid and reliable kinematic assessment of dexterity post-stroke

Impairments in dexterity after stroke are commonly assessed by the Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT), where the only outcome variable is the time taken to complete the test. We aimed to kinematically quantify and to c...

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Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, a publication of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, is a peer-reviewed online journal with Quarterly print on demand compilation of issues published. The journal's full text is available online at: http://www.jnmsjournal.org. The journal allows free access (Open Access) to its contents and permits authors to self-archive final accepted version of the articles on any OAI-compliant institutional / subject-based repository.

ORIGINAL ARTICLES 

The effect of concurrent endurance and resistance training on cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular risk markers among sedentary overweight or obese post-menopausal womenp. 123
Anahita Shabani, Ramin Shabani, Setila Dalili, Afagh Hassanzadeh Rad
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_34_18  
Context: Exercise training has been inversely associated with cardiovascular risk factors. However, the clinical trials examining the effect of exercise training on reducing cardiovascular risk factors have produced conflicting results. Aims: We aimed to assess the effect of concurrent exercise training on cardiorespiratory capacity and cardio-vascular risk factors among sedentary overweight or obese post-menopausal women. Settings and Design: This randomized controlled trial was done in 2016. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 22 healthy post-menopausal overweight and obese females, which randomly divided into concurrent endurance and resistance (ER) exercise (n = 12) and control (n = 10) groups. The participants did not have any history of any serious medical condition or using drugs. Demographic questionnaire was completed, vital signs and biochemical tests were measured, and Rockport one-mile submaximal exercise test for assessing maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was performed before and after the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean, standard deviation, and paired and independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The data from the ER groups showed that the body mass index (BMI), heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased, high-density lipoprotein, and VO2max increased significantly, during the 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Moreover, no changes were found in the cardiovascular risk factors of women who did not exercise (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Concurrent ER training can be a suitable exercise program for improving plasma lipid profile as well as reducing body composition, high-sensitivity CRP, and increasing VO2max in postmenopausal women.
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The effect of staff training on the amount of sound pollution in the intensive care unitp. 130
Kobra Zamani, Hossein Ali Asgharnia, Jamshid Yazdani, Zohreh Taraghi
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_38_18  
Context: Sound pollution is a common problem in intensive care units (ICUs) with unfavorable consequences.Aims: The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of staff training on the amount of sound pollution in the ICU. Setting and Design: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the ICU of Rouhani Hospital in Babol. Materials and Methods: Level of equivalent (leq) sound was measured in three work shifts for 2 weeks, before and after training, in 2 workdays and a holiday, using a systematic network stationing method. The sample size was determined based on the days of measurement, work-shift, and measuring stations (6 × 3 × 10 = 180). Indirect training was performed. A 2-week opportunity was given to study materials. Statistical Analysis Used:Data were analyzed using paired t-test and RMANOVA. Results: Following the training, the mean leq in all stations (ten stations) decreased from 67.21 to 62.11 dB (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Although the amount of sound pollution decreased significantly after training, it was still higher than standard. To achieve the desired level of sound, continuous monitoring of sound at intervals of 6 months, along with structural engineering and equipment, is suggested.
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The effect of relaxation exercises on emotions of primigravida women in fameninp. 134
Farzaneh Soltani, Samerah Ghlichkhani, Arezoo Shayan, Parisa Parsa, Ghodratollah Roshanaei
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_32_18  
Context: Recognizing effective interventions for improving women's positive emotion can improve mental health and self-confidence in anxious women, at least during pregnancy. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of relaxation training on positive and negative emotions of primigravida women. Setting and Design: In this randomized quasi-experimental study, 100 primigravida women with gestational age of 28–32 weeks, who were referred to the prenatal care centers in Famenin City (Hamadan, Iran), were randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control, using randomized blocking. Methods and Material: All the pregnant women completed the positive and negative affect schedule questionnaire. In the intervention group, eight sessions were held twice a week with emphasis on relaxation techniques. The control group received routine prenatal care.Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics, independent and paired t-tests were used to compare the difference between and within two groups. Results: The mean score of positive emotion increased from 31.92 ± 6.39 to 34.12 ± 5.41 after intervention (P = 0.034). In contrast, the mean score of positive emotion in the control group reduced from 33.62 ± 6.58 to 26.92 ± 6.35 after the intervention (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of positive emotion in the two groups after the intervention (P < 0.001). The mean score of negative emotion reduced from 24.12 ± 7.06 to 17.18 ± 5.95 in the intervention group (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the mean score of negative emotion in the control group increased from 22.08 ± 6.85 to 28.42 ± 7.24 after the intervention (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the mean scores of negative emotion in the two groups after the intervention (P < 0.001). The mean score of positive emotion of the women increased after the intervention (from 31.92 ± 6.39 to 34.12 ± 5.41) (P = 0.034). In contrast, the mean score of positive emotion of the women in the control group reduced after the intervention (from 33.62 ± 6.58 to 26.92 ± 6.35) (P < 0.001). Also, the mean score of negative emotion reduced in the intervention group (from 24.12 ± 7.06 to 17.18 ± 5.95). On the other hand, the mean score of negative emotion of the women in the control group significantly increased after the intervention (from 22.08 ± 6.85 to 28.42 ± 7.24).Conclusion: Research findings suggest that relaxation training may increase positive emotion and reduced negative emotion in pregnant women. It is recommended that relaxation techniques are used in prenatal care centers as a simple and available health intervention in pregnancy.
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Qualitative needs assessment: Iranian parents' perspectives in sexuality education of their childrenp. 140
Jila Ganji, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Raziyeh Maasoumi, Afsanah Keramat, Effat Merghati-Khoei
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_42_18  
Context: Parental education in sexuality plays a vital role in children's lives. Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian parents' perspectives about the needs of children sexuality education. Setting and Design: This qualitative study was done in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative inquiry, seven sessions of community group interview and focus group discussions were conducted with the parents of Ghaemshahr, Iran, using purposive sampling (n = 39, 27 mothers and 12 fathers). Statistical Analysis Used:We employed thematic analysis method to extract our findings. Results: The findings were categorized into three essential needs: (1) parents' preparedness, (2) efficacious parental management, and (3) supportive environments. The sub-theme describing the theme 1 includes "the need for adequate knowledge to answer the sexual questions and the child's sexual curiosity" and "the need for awareness about the time of beginning an appropriate sexuality education for children." Moreover, the sub-theme describing theme 2 includes "the need for sufficient skills to begin proper and intimate communication," "the need for effective monitoring and care," and "the need for capability in managing the child sexual behavior." Moreover, the sub-theme describing theme 3 includes "the need to receive training from sexual health professionals," "the need for authorized sexuality education programs," "the need for national-wide policy-making and strategy planning in sexuality education," and "the need for a comprehensive and complete educational resource." Conclusion: Our findings suggest that to address the goals in sexuality education for children, parents' need to be prepared in knowledge, and gaining positive attitude and practical skills. To achieve these goals, supportive environments must be provided by policy-makers and health providers with culturally appropriate strategy planning.
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Strategies for improving the integrated program of HIV/AIDS with sexual and reproductive health: using nominal group techniquep. 147
Maryam Hajizadevalokolaee, Zohreh Shahhosseini, Soghra Khani, Fereshteh Yazdani, Zeinab Hamzeghardeshi
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_35_18  
Context: The spread of HIV is growing, so that its way of transmission has created worries in the field of sexual and reproductive health, because the wave of transmission has changed from injection to sexual activities.Aims: To evaluate the perspectives of sexual and reproductive health experts and providers on strategies for improving the integrated program of HIV/AIDS with sexual and reproductive health using the nominal group technique (NGT). Setting and Design: Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. NGT. Materials and Methods: It was a semiquantitative/qualitative methodology research through NGT, based on the opinions of 30 experts and sexual and reproductive health providers in the field of health in Mazandaran (2016).Statistical Analysis Used: Semiquantitative/qualitative analysis. Results: In total, 15 cases got the scores of 2–62 as strategies to improve the integrated program of HIV/AIDS with sexual and reproductive health. The highest scores were found in society-centered level and stigma management, and the lowest scores were found in individual-centered level and negotiation skill training. Conclusion: One of the strategies to improve the integrated program of HIV/AIDS was the empowerment of women and men in sexual and reproductive health and stigma management. Based on the results, the NGT is a useful tool for doing researches and prioritizing the programs. Based on the expert opinion, it can be concluded that designing strategies based on individual-, community-, and society-centered approach would be an appropriate approach for improving the integrated program of HIV/AIDS with sexual and reproductive health issues in Iranian society.
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Evaluation of occupational hazards for nurses in intensive care units of tertiary care centersp. 153
Kobra Abdi Zarrini, Akram Sanagoo, Leila Jouybari, Mohammad Ali Vakili, Ali Kavosi
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_52_18  
Context: Nursing is a high-risk occupation, and intensive care units (ICUs) are one of the most sensitive hospital wards. Aim: This study aimed to determine the level of occupational hazards among nurses in the ICUs. Setting and Design: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on a total of 281 nurses in the ICUs of tertiary care centers in Golestan and Mazandaran Universities of Medical Sciences in 2017. Materials and Methods: Data were collected using a five-dimensional occupational hazard questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed in SPSS software (version 16) and descriptive and inferential statistics were considered statistically significant (P < 0.05). Results: In this study, 75.1% of the nurses were female and 50.9% of the participants were within the age range of 26–35 years. The total mean and standard deviation of occupational hazards was 3.20 ± 0.66. In addition, the mean values and standard deviations of chemical, ergonomic, biological, psychosocial, and organizational, as well as physical hazards were reported to be 2.43 ± 1.06, 2.6 ± 0.82, 2.63 ± 0.91, 3.38 ± 0.7, and 3.38 ± 0.86, respectively. According to the results, significant differences were observed between occupational hazards and variables of gender, marital status, educational level, and work experience (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Occupational hazard level was moderate among nurses in the ICUs, and most of the damages were related to the physical dimension. In addition to holding educational workshops in tertiary care centers by the related officials, proper preventive plans must be designed to reduce occupational injuries.
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Incidence and risk factors of pressure ulcers among general surgery patientsp. 159
Ensieh Ramezanpour, Amir Emami Zeydi, Mohammad Ali Heidari Gorji, Jamshid Yazdani Charati, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Vida Shafipour
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_23_17  
Context: Pressure ulcers are among the main postoperative complications which isassociated with an increased length of hospitalization. Determining risk factors of postsurgical pressureulcers is crucial for developing prevention and treatment strategies. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the incidence rate of pressure ulcer and related risk factors after general surgery. Settings and Design: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in three hospitals in Mazandaran province in 2016. Materials and Methods: The sample size was 191 surgical patients undergoing general surgery by using census method. Data were collected in pre-, intra-, and post-operative period using demographic and clinical questionnaires and also, through the Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics, t-test, Chi-square, and univariateand multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The incidence rate of postoperative pressure ulcers in patients was 17.8% (34 out of 191 patients). Based on the multivariate logistic regression model, significant correlations existed between the incidence of pressure ulcers and the following variables: age over 70 years old (P = 0.003), history of hypertension (P = 0.035), history of heart diseases (P = 0.029), Braden score <15 (P = 0.017), type of surgery (P = 0.003), and type of anesthesia (P = 0.015).Conclusions: Since it is critical to consider the incidence of postoperative pressure ulcers among patients, further measurements are required to identify high-risk people and use preventive protocols by nurses at pre-, intra-, and post-operative levels. Moreover, it requires extra attention in patients over 70 years, those with a history of hypertension and heart diseases, and those undergoing emergency surgery and spinal anesthesia.
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The relationship between the quality of nursing care and the satisfaction of pregnant mothersp. 165
Ali Hatami, Zohreh Saeidlandi, Azam Jahanghiri Mehr, Akram Hemmatipour
DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_44_18  
Context: The Health System Development Plan is one of the key steps taken by the eleventh government to promote health services in the country. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the quality of nursing care and the satisfaction of pregnant mothers from the implementation of the health system development plan. Settings and Design: This research was an analytic cross-sectional study. The study population included 163 mothers who were hospitalized before delivery and 18 nurses from maternity sections who were selected by the census method during the 3 months of September 2017–November 2017. Material and Methods: The data collection tool was a demographic data form, quality patient care scale, and a researcher-made questionnaire on the satisfaction of hospitalized mothers in maternity sections of the implementation of the Health System Reform Plan. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mann–Whitney test, and correlation coefficient in SPSS-16 software. Results: The results showed that the quality of care in nurses at the desired level (63%) and the satisfaction of mother maternity sections of the delivery system had a moderate level of implementation of the Health System Development Plan (56.3%). The results of Pearson's correlation test showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between the quality of nursing care and patient satisfaction (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The satisfaction of the mothers participating in the research was that the quality of nursing care was often modest after implementing the Health System Reform Plan.
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