Σάββατο, 21 Οκτωβρίου 2017

Open Journal of Genetics Vol.7,No.3 (September 2017)

Mitochondrial Haplotype Analysis of Pomoxis nigromaculatus Inhabiting Three Georgian Lakes
Pomoxis nigromaculatus, Black Crappie, Cytochrome Oxidase, COI, Haplotype, Mitochondria
Paper Information Full Paper: PDF (Size:2549KB)
DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2017.73009



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The Psychosocial Experiences and Needs of Children Undergoing Surgery and Their Parents: A Systematic Review

Surgery in children can be difficult for patients and parents. We aimed to summarize pediatric patients' and parents' psychosocial experiences and needs in surgery.

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A Method for the Topographical Identification and Quantification of High Frequency Oscillations in Intracranial Electroencephalography Recordings

Up to one third of patients with focal seizures are medically refractory, and resective epilepsy surgery or responsive nerve stimulation (RNS) placement is required to reduce seizure burden or render the patient seizure free (Wiebe et al., 2001; Engel et al., 2012). High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs) consist of brief (<200 μsec) bursts of energy with a spectral content ranging between 80-600 Hz and have shown promise as a electrophysiological biomarker of epileptogenic brain tissue (Engel et al., 2009; Gotman, 2010; Jacobs et al., 2012).

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Cerebellum and dystonia: The story continues. Will the patients benefit from new discoveries?

When reading the recent paper of Avanzino and colleagues with cogent evidence supporting a possible role of the cerebellum in the expression of the clinical phenotype in dystonia (Avanzino et al., 2017, this issue of Clinical Neurophysiology), I could not resist to feel reminded of an invited review paper published in 2013 in the Clinical Neurophysiology, where we provided a state-of-the-art overview of cerebellar involvement in dystonia, even with possible therapeutic targets for dystonic patients in the future (Bares and Filip, 2013).

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Ecomorphological analysis of bovid mandibles from Laetoli Tanzania using 3D geometric morphometrics: Implications for hominin paleoenvironmental reconstruction

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Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 114
Author(s): Frances L. Forrest, Thomas W. Plummer, Ryan L. Raaum
The current study describes a new method of mandibular ecological morphology (ecomorphology). Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GM) was used to quantify mandibular shape variation between extant bovids with different feeding preferences. Landmark data were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA resulted in a continuum from grazers to browsers along PC1 and DFA classified 88% or more of the modern specimens to the correct feeding category. The protocol was reduced to a subset of landmarks on the mandibular corpus in order to make it applicable to incomplete fossils. The reduced landmark set resulted in greater overlap between feeding categories but maintained the same continuum as the complete landmark model. The DFA resubstitution and jackknife analyses resulted in classification success rates of 85% and 80%, respectively. The reduced landmark model was applied to fossil mandibles from the Upper Laetolil Beds (∼4.3–3.5 Ma) and Upper Ndolanya Beds (∼2.7–2.6 Ma) at Laetoli, Tanzania in order to assess antelope diet, and indirectly evaluate paleo-vegetation structure. The majority of the fossils were classified by the DFA as browsers or mixed feeders preferring browse. Our results indicate a continuous presence of wooded habitats and are congruent with recent environmental studies at Laetoli indicating a mosaic woodland-bushland-grassland savanna ecosystem.



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Climatic controls on Later Stone Age human adaptation in Africa's southern Cape

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Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 114
Author(s): Brian M. Chase, J. Tyler Faith, Alex Mackay, Manuel Chevalier, Andrew S. Carr, Arnoud Boom, Sophak Lim, Paula J. Reimer
Africa's southern Cape is a key region for the evolution of our species, with early symbolic systems, marine faunal exploitation, and episodic production of microlithic stone tools taken as evidence for the appearance of distinctively complex human behavior. However, the temporally discontinuous nature of this evidence precludes ready assumptions of intrinsic adaptive benefit, and has encouraged diverse explanations for the occurrence of these behaviors, in terms of regional demographic, social and ecological conditions. Here, we present a new high-resolution multi-proxy record of environmental change that indicates that faunal exploitation patterns and lithic technologies track climatic variation across the last 22,300 years in the southern Cape. Conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum and deglaciation were humid, and zooarchaeological data indicate high foraging returns. By contrast, the Holocene is characterized by much drier conditions and a degraded resource base. Critically, we demonstrate that systems for technological delivery – or provisioning – were responsive to changing humidity and environmental productivity. However, in contrast to prevailing models, bladelet-rich microlithic technologies were deployed under conditions of high foraging returns and abandoned in response to increased aridity and less productive subsistence environments. This suggests that posited links between microlithic technologies and subsistence risk are not universal, and the behavioral sophistication of human populations is reflected in their adaptive flexibility rather than in the use of specific technological systems.



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Suidae from Kanapoi

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Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
Source:Journal of Human Evolution
Author(s): Denis Geraads, René Bobe
The whole collection of Suidae from Kanapoi is revised in the context of the systematics and evolution of Nyanzachoerus in the Pliocene of Eastern Africa. It contains only two species, Nyanzachoerus kanamensis and Notochoerus jaegeri. The size and morphology of their premolars overlap, but not those of their m3s. No transitional form between them is known in Kenya, but some populations from Uganda and Ethiopia display intermediate characters, suggesting that No. jaegeri could be descended from a kanamensis-like ancestor. However, the cranial remains of No. jaegeri from Kanapoi are insufficient to formally establish the affinities of the species. On the basis of the dentition, Notochoerus euilus could be descended from No. jaegeri. The noticeable absence of Kolpochoerus at Kanapoi (and in the whole Turkana Basin at that time) remains unexplained. The presence of a species with affinity to Nyanzachoerus tulotos at Ekora raises the possibility that uppermost Miocene sediments occur there.



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Sedation After Cardiac Surgery With Propofol or Dexmedetomidine: Between Scylla and Charybdis?

No abstract available

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Descriptive Statistics: Reporting the Answers to the 5 Basic Questions of Who, What, Why, When, Where, and a Sixth, So What?

imageDescriptive statistics are specific methods basically used to calculate, describe, and summarize collected research data in a logical, meaningful, and efficient way. Descriptive statistics are reported numerically in the manuscript text and/or in its tables, or graphically in its figures. This basic statistical tutorial discusses a series of fundamental concepts about descriptive statistics and their reporting. The mean, median, and mode are 3 measures of the center or central tendency of a set of data. In addition to a measure of its central tendency (mean, median, or mode), another important characteristic of a research data set is its variability or dispersion (ie, spread). In simplest terms, variability is how much the individual recorded scores or observed values differ from one another. The range, standard deviation, and interquartile range are 3 measures of variability or dispersion. The standard deviation is typically reported for a mean, and the interquartile range for a median. Testing for statistical significance, along with calculating the observed treatment effect (or the strength of the association between an exposure and an outcome), and generating a corresponding confidence interval are 3 tools commonly used by researchers (and their collaborating biostatistician or epidemiologist) to validly make inferences and more generalized conclusions from their collected data and descriptive statistics. A number of journals, including Anesthesia & Analgesia, strongly encourage or require the reporting of pertinent confidence intervals. A confidence interval can be calculated for virtually any variable or outcome measure in an experimental, quasi-experimental, or observational research study design. Generally speaking, in a clinical trial, the confidence interval is the range of values within which the true treatment effect in the population likely resides. In an observational study, the confidence interval is the range of values within which the true strength of the association between the exposure and the outcome (eg, the risk ratio or odds ratio) in the population likely resides. There are many possible ways to graphically display or illustrate different types of data. While there is often latitude as to the choice of format, ultimately, the simplest and most comprehensible format is preferred. Common examples include a histogram, bar chart, line chart or line graph, pie chart, scatterplot, and box-and-whisker plot. Valid and reliable descriptive statistics can answer basic yet important questions about a research data set, namely: "Who, What, Why, When, Where, How, How Much?"

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“Houston, We Have a Problem!”: The Role of the Anesthesiologist in the Current Opioid Epidemic

imageNo abstract available

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Chronic Opioid Use After Surgery: Implications for Perioperative Management in the Face of the Opioid Epidemic

Physicians, policymakers, and researchers are increasingly focused on finding ways to decrease opioid use and overdose in the United States both of which have sharply increased over the past decade. While many efforts are focused on the management of chronic pain, the use of opioids in surgical patients presents a particularly challenging problem requiring clinicians to balance 2 competing interests: managing acute pain in the immediate postoperative period and minimizing the risks of persistent opioid use after the surgery. Finding ways to minimize this risk is particularly salient in light of a growing literature suggesting that postsurgical patients are at increased risk for chronic opioid use. The perioperative care team, including surgeons and anesthesiologists, is poised to develop clinical- and systems-based interventions aimed at providing pain relief in the immediate postoperative period while also reducing the risks of opioid use longer term. In this paper, we discuss the consequences of chronic opioid use after surgery and present an analysis of the extent to which surgery has been associated with chronic opioid use. We follow with a discussion of the risk factors that are associated with chronic opioid use after surgery and proceed with an analysis of the extent to which opioid-sparing perioperative interventions (eg, nerve blockade) have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic opioid use after surgery. We then conclude with a discussion of future research directions.

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The Opioid Crisis in the United States: Chronic Pain Physicians Are the Answer, Not the Cause

No abstract available

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Neurosurgical Intensive Care

No abstract available

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Do Not Resuscitate and the Surgical Patient: Not a Contradiction in Terms

No abstract available

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Opioids for the Treatment of Chronic Pain: Mistakes Made, Lessons Learned, and Future Directions

imageAn overreliance on opioids has impacted all types of pain management, making it undoubtedly a root cause of the "epidemic" of prescription opioid abuse in the United States. Yet, an examination of the statistics that led the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to declare that prescription opioid abuse had reached epidemic levels shows that the abuse occurrences and deaths are arising outside the hospital or hospice setting, which strongly implicates the outpatient use of opioids to treat chronic pain. Such abuse and related deaths are occurring in chronic pain patients themselves and also through diversion. Overprescribing to outpatients has afforded distressed and vulnerable individuals access to these highly addictive drugs. The focus of this article is on what we have learned since opioid treatment of chronic pain was first popularized at the end of the 20th century and how this new information can guide chronic pain management in the future.

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Venovenous Bypass Associated With Acute Kidney Injury Prevention in Liver Transplantation: An Ode to the Retrospective Data Researcher

No abstract available

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Reducing Mortality in Acute Kidney Injury

No abstract available

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The Perioperative Surgical Home Is Not Just a Name

No abstract available

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A Limitation of Intensive Care Unit Sedation Using Volatile Anesthetics

No abstract available

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Tracking Speckles: Overcoming Conventions to Evaluate Right Ventricular Function

No abstract available

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Women and Leadership in Anesthesiology: Can We “Lean In” Further?

No abstract available

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Surveying the Literature: Synopsis of Recent Key Publications

No abstract available

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An Evidence-Based Approach to the Prescription Opioid Epidemic in Orthopedic Surgery

imageOrthopedic surgery is associated with significant perioperative pain. Providing adequate analgesia is a critical component of patient care and opioids play a vital role in the acute postoperative setting. However, opioid prescribing for patients undergoing orthopedic procedures has recently been identified as a major contributor to the current opioid epidemic. As opioid usage and related morbidity and mortality continue to rise nationwide, opioid-prescribing practices are under increased scrutiny. Here, we update the evidence base and recommendations behind a set of interventions developed at the Hospital for Special Surgery to address the national epidemic at the local level. The main components of our program include (1) guidelines for managing patients who are opioid tolerant and/or have a substance abuse disorder; (2) education programs for patients, emphasizing the role of opioids in recovery after elective orthopedic surgery; (3) education programs for prescribers of controlled substances, including clinical and regulatory aspects; (4) the development of surgery-specific prescribing recommendations for opioid-naive patients; and (5) mechanisms to modify prescribing habits to limit unnecessary prescribing of controlled substances.

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High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Improves the Diagnosis of Perioperative MI

imageBACKGROUND: BACKGROUND:The diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) after noncardiac surgery has traditionally relied on using relatively insensitive contemporary cardiac troponin (cTn) assays. We hypothesized that using a recently introduced novel high-sensitivity cTnT (hscTnT) assay would increase the detection rate of perioperative MI. METHODS: METHODS:In this ancillary study of the Vitamins in Nitrous Oxide trial, readjudicated incidence rates of myocardial injury (new isolated cTn elevation) and MI were compared when diagnosed by contemporary cTnI versus hscTnT. We probed various relative (eg, >50%) or absolute (eg, +5 ng/L) hscTnT change metrics. Inclusion criteria for this ancillary study were the presence of a baseline and at least 1 postoperative hscTnT value. RESULTS: RESULTS:Among 605 patients, 70 patients (12%) had electrocardiogram changes consistent with myocardial ischemia; 82 patients (14%) had myocardial injury diagnosed by contemporary cTnI, 31 (5.1%) of which had an adjudicated MI. After readjudication, 67 patients (11%) were diagnosed with MI when using hscTnT, a 2-fold increase. Incidence rates of postoperative myocardial injury ranged from 12% (n = 73) to 65% (n = 393) depending on the hscTnT metric used. Incidence rates of MI using various hscTnT change metrics and the presence of ischemic electrocardiogram changes, but without event adjudication, ranged from 3.6% (n = 22) to 12% (n = 74), a >3-fold difference. New postoperative hscTnT elevation, either by absolute or relative hscTnT change metric, was associated with an up to 5-fold increase in 6-month mortality. CONCLUSIONS: CONCLUSIONS:The use of hscTnT compared to contemporary cTnI increases the detection rate of perioperative MI by a factor of 2. Using different absolute or relative hscTnT change metrics may lead to under- or overdiagnosis of perioperative MI.

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Novel mutations in the LRP5 gene in patients with Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome



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Themed Issue on the Opioid Epidemic: What Have We Learned? Where Do We Go From Here?

No abstract available

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Molecular Targets for Pain Management: More Than Just Mu

imageNo abstract available

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Basic/Translational Development of Forthcoming Opioid- and Nonopioid-Targeted Pain Therapeutics

imageOpioids represent an efficacious therapeutic modality for some, but not all pain states. Singular reliance on opioid therapy for pain management has limitations, and abuse potential has deleterious consequences for patient and society. Our understanding of pain biology has yielded insights and opportunities for alternatives to conventional opioid agonists. The aim is to have efficacious therapies, with acceptable side effect profiles and minimal abuse potential, which is to say an absence of reinforcing activity in the absence of a pain state. The present work provides a nonexclusive overview of current drug targets and potential future directions of research and development. We discuss channel activators and blockers, including sodium channel blockers, potassium channel activators, and calcium channel blockers; glutamate receptor–targeted agents, including N-methyl-D-aspartate, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid, and metabotropic receptors. Furthermore, we discuss therapeutics targeted at γ-aminobutyric acid, α2-adrenergic, and opioid receptors. We also considered antagonists of angiotensin 2 and Toll receptors and agonists/antagonists of adenosine, purine receptors, and cannabinoids. Novel targets considered are those focusing on lipid mediators and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Of interest is development of novel targeting strategies, which produce long-term alterations in pain signaling, including viral transfection and toxins. We consider issues in the development of druggable molecules, including preclinical screening. While there are examples of successful translation, mechanistically promising preclinical candidates may unexpectedly fail during clinical trials because the preclinical models may not recapitulate the particular human pain condition being addressed. Molecular target characterization can diminish the disconnect between preclinical and humans' targets, which should assist in developing nonaddictive analgesics.

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Unraveling the Mystery of THC: Cannabinoids and Neuropathic Pain

imageNo abstract available

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Impact of moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity physical activity on mortality.

Purpose: Physical activity guidelines recommend at least 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA), 75 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA), or combination of MPA and VPA. However, few epidemiological studies have examined whether the general population can derive equal health benefits from MPA or VPA. This study examined the associations of different activity intensities with mortality. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, a total of 83,454 community-dwelling Japanese who answered a questionnaire in 2000-2003 were followed for all-cause mortality through 2012. Subjects were classified into four groups by physical activity guidelines and also by the proportion of VPA to total MVPA, i.e., physically inactive, physically active without any VPA (0% VPA), and active with some VPA (less than 30%) or with more VPA (30% or more). Hazard ratios (HR) of all-cause mortality were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders including PA volume. Results: During 894,718 person-years of follow-up, 8,891 deaths were identified. Compared with physically inactive subjects, the adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.75-1.08), 0.78 (0.68-0.89), and 0.74 (0.64-0.86) among men, and 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.66 (0.54-0.79), and 0.64 (0.50-0.81) among women for "0% VPA," "less than 30%," and "30% or more," respectively. In addition, men in the "30% or more" group showed somewhat lower mortality risk than "0% VPA" men (0.81, 0.66-1.01), but women did not. Conclusions: Meeting the guidelines in either pattern of physical activity is important for lowering mortality risk. In addition, compared with subjects who did not engage in any VPA, there was a suggestion that those who participated in VPA may experience lower risks, especially for men. (C) 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

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