Σάββατο, 16 Ιουνίου 2018
Balanced Crystalloids Versus Saline for Perioperative Intravenous Fluid Administration in Children Undergoing Neurosurgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial
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Selection of Patients’ Recumbent Position Laterality According to Physician Handedness Bias Increases the Success Rate of Lumbar Puncture: A Multicenter Study
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An Unusual Case of Difficult Nasogastric Tube Insertion in a Patient With Displaced Cervical Spine Fracture
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Mental health assessment in rehabilitation: a descriptive study through an international internet survey
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Multi-component intrinsic brain activities as a safe, alternative to cortical stimulation for sensori-motor mapping in neurosurgery
Functional brain mapping for the precise identification of the primary sensori-motor area (S1-M1) prior to epilepsy surgery is key for reducing the risk of postoperative functional deficits. This particular functional brain map was traditionally introduced by several methodologies, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Chakraborty et al., 2008), somatosensory evoked potentials (Dinner et al., 1986), and electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) (Ojemann et al., 1989, Awad et al., 1991, Branco et al., 2003).
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Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution
Author(s): Mark Grabowski, Kevin G. Hatala, William L. Jungers
Many hypotheses regarding the paleobiology of the earliest possible hominins, Orrorin tugenensis and Ardipithecus ramidus, are dependent upon accurate body mass estimates for these taxa. While we have previously published body mass predictions for Orrorin and Ardipithecus, the accuracies of those estimates depend on the assumption that the postcranial skeletal dimensions and body masses of these taxa followed scaling patterns that were similar to those observed in modern humans. This assumption may not be correct because certain aspects of postcranial morphology in Orrorin and Ardipithecus differ from modern humans, and suggest that their overall body plans might be unique but more similar to modern non-human great apes than to modern humans. Here we present individual body mass predictions for O. tugenensis and Ar. ramidus assuming that they followed postcranial scaling patterns similar to those of chimpanzees. All estimates include individual prediction intervals as measures of uncertainty. In addition, we provide equations for predicting body mass from univariate postcranial measurements based on the largest sample (n = 25) yet compiled of common chimpanzee skeletons with known body masses, which is vital for calculating prediction intervals for individual fossils. Our results show that estimated body masses in Orrorin and Ardipithecus are generally larger when derived from a chimpanzee-like scaling pattern compared to estimates that assume a human-like pattern, though the prediction intervals of the two sets of estimates overlap. In addition, the more complete of the two known Orrorin femora has an overall scaling pattern that is more similar to common chimpanzees than to modern humans, supporting the application of a non-human great ape comparative model. Our new estimates fall near the male (Ardipithecus) average and in between the male and female averages (Orrorin) for wild-caught common chimpanzees. If a chimpanzee-like pattern of scaling between postcranial dimensions and body mass did exist in these earliest hominins, our results suggest the large body masses found in some early australopiths were already present in taxa near the origins of our lineage, and perhaps also in the Pan-Homo last common ancestor.
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Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an innovative early childhood mental health intervention, Massachusetts Project LAUNCH. Early childhood mental health clinicians and family partners (paraprofessionals with lived experience) were embedded within community pediatric medical homes. Methods A longitudinal study design was used to test the hypotheses that (1) children who received services would experience decreased social, emotional and behavioral problems over time and (2) caregivers' stress and depressive symptoms would decrease over time. Families who were enrolled in services and who consented to participate in the evaluation study were included in analyses (N = 225). Individual growth models were used to test longitudinal effects among MA LAUNCH participants (children and caregivers) over three time points using screening tools. Results Analyses showed that LAUNCH children who scored in age-specific clinically significant ranges of social, emotional and behavioral problems at Time 1 scored in the normal range on average by Time 3. Caregivers' stress and depressive symptoms also declined across the three time points. Results support hypotheses that the LAUNCH intervention improved social and emotional health for children and caregivers. Conclusions for Practice This study led to sustainability efforts, an expansion of the model to three additional communities across the state and development of an online toolkit for other communities interested in implementation.
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