Σάββατο, 21 Ιουλίου 2018

Application of nuclear techniques to environmental plastics research

Publication date: December 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 192

Author(s): Chantal M. Lanctôt, Maya Al-Sid-Cheikh, Ana I. Catarino, Tom Cresswell, Bruno Danis, Hrissi K. Karapanagioti, Tracy Mincer, François Oberhänsli, Peter Swarzenski, Imma Tolosa, Marc Metian

Abstract

Plastic pollution is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and its potential impacts to wildlife and humans present a growing global concern. Despite recent efforts in understanding environmental impacts associated with plastic pollution, considerable uncertainties still exist regarding the true risks of nano- and micro-sized plastics (<5 mm). The challenges faced in this field largely relate to the methodological and analytical limitations associated with studying plastic debris at low (environmentally relevant) concentrations. The present paper highlights how radiotracing techniques that are commonly applied to trace the fate and behaviour of chemicals and particles in various systems, can contribute towards addressing several important and outstanding questions in environmental plastic pollution research. Specifically, we discuss the use of radiolabeled microplastics and/or chemicals for 1) determining sorption/desorption kinetics of a range of contaminants to different types of plastics under varying conditions, 2) understanding the influence of microplastics on contaminant and nutrient bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, and 3) assessing biokinetics, biodistribution, trophic transfer and potential biological impacts of microplastic at realistic concentrations. Radiotracer techniques are uniquely suited for this research because of their sensitivity, accuracy and capacity to measure relevant parameters over time. Obtaining precise and timely information on the fate of plastic particles and co-contaminants in wildlife has widespread applications towards effective monitoring programmes and environmental management strategies.



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Neuromodulation of lower limb motor responses with transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord direct current stimulation

Publication date: September 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 9

Author(s): Mariana Pereira, Sofia Rita Fernandes, Pedro C. Miranda, Mamede de Carvalho

Abstract
Objective

Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a promising technique to modulate spinal circuits. Combining clinical with modelling studies can improve effectiveness of tsDCS protocols. The aim of this study is to measure the effects of lumbar tsDCS on motor spinal responses and observe if these are consistent with the electric field (E-field) predicted from a computational model.

Methods

The exploratory study design was double-blind crossover and randomized. tsDCS was delivered for 15 min (anodal, cathodal, sham) at L2 vertebra level (2.5 mA, 90 C/cm2) in 14 healthy subjects. F-wave, H-reflex, cortical silent period, motor evoked potential and sympathetic skin response were analyzed. Statistical methods were applied with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, a p < 0.05 was set as significant. A human volume conductor model was obtained from available databases. E-field distributions in the spinal grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) were calculated.

Results

No tsDCS effects were observed. E-field magnitude predicted in the lumbosacral spinal GM and WM was <0.15 V/m, insufficient to ensure neuromodulation, which is consistent with the absence of effects.

Conclusion

The tsDCS protocol applied did not change motor response to delivered stimulus, thus we observed no effect on motor spinal circuits.

Significance

Future tsDCS protocols should be supported by computational models.



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Alpha-syntrophin dependent expression of tubulin alpha 8 protein in hepatocytes

Abstract

The scaffold protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is a component of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex and has been comprehensively studied in skeletal muscle and adipocytes. SNTA is further expressed in the liver where its biological role remains unclear. Unpublished data from our group suggested that SNTA deficiency is associated with altered tubulin alpha 8 (TUBA8) levels in fat. TUBA8 is highly expressed in different cell lines including hepatoma cells, and here we analyzed whether SNTA has a role herein. In Hepa1-6 cells, TUBA8 protein levels were increased upon SNTA knock down and were reduced upon overexpression of SNTA. This regulation was not identified when analyzing mRNA expression. In the liver of SNTA-deficient mice, TUBA8 protein was higher compared to the respective wild-type controls while RNA expression was even suppressed. Using the HaloTag platform, TUBA8 was found to form a complex with SNTA in Hepa1-6 cells. In the hepatic stellate cell line LX-2, the lack or overexpression of SNTA did, however, not change TUBA8 protein expression. SNTA and TUBA8 are described to regulate cell proliferation. Yet, knock down of SNTA did neither affect proliferation nor viability of Hepa1-6 cells. The present study shows that SNTA protein levels are inversely related to TUBA8 protein expression in the hepatocyte cell line Hepa1-6.



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Cortical thickness in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury including sports-related concussion

Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018

Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology

Author(s): Erin D. Bigler, Chris Finuf, Tracy J. Abildskov, Naomi J. Goodrich-Hunsaker, Jo Ann Petrie, Dawn-Marie Wood, John R. Hesselink, Elisabeth A. Wilde, Jeffrey E. Max

Abstract

This investigation explored whether differences in cortical thickness could be detected in children who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) compared to those with orthopedic injury (OI) and whether cortical thickness related parental reporting of symptoms. To achieve this objective, FreeSurfer®-based cortical thickness measures were obtained in 330 children, 8 to 15 years of age, with either a history of mTBI or OI. Imaging was performed in all participants with the same 3 Tesla MRI scanner at six-months post-injury, where a parent-rated Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI) was also obtained. Robust age-mediated reductions in cortical thickness were observed, but no consistent group-based differences between the mTBI and OI groups were observed. Also, the relation between mechanism of injury (i.e., sports-related, recreational, fall, motor vehicle accident or other) and cortical thickness was examined. Injuries associated with any type of abuse were excluded and children with OI could not have experienced a MVA. Mechanism of injury did not differentially relate to cortical thickness, although in the fall group, parental rating using the PCSI showed increased symptom reporting to be associated with reduced cortical thickness in the left interior frontal, temporal pole and lateral temporal lobe as well as in the right temporal pole. Results from these preliminary findings are discussed in terms of injury variables and developmental factors associated with mTBI in childhood.



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The inhibitory role of purinergic P2Y receptor on Mg 2+ transport across intestinal epithelium-like Caco-2 monolayer

Abstract

The mechanism of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) suppressing intestinal Mg2+ uptake is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role of purinergic P2Y receptors in the regulation of Mg2+ absorption in normal and omeprazole-treated intestinal epithelium-like Caco-2 monolayers. Omeprazole suppressed Mg2+ transport across Caco-2 monolayers. An agonist of the P2Y2 receptor, but not the P2Y4 or P2Y6 receptor, suppressed Mg2+ transport across control and omeprazole-treated monolayers. Omeprazole enhanced P2Y2 receptor expression in Caco-2 cells. Forskolin and P2Y2 receptor agonist markedly enhanced apical HCO3 secretion by control and omeprazole-treated monolayers. The P2Y2 receptor agonist suppressed Mg2+ transport and stimulated apical HCO3 secretion through the Gq-protein coupled-phospholipase C (PLC) dependent pathway. Antagonists of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na+-HCO3 cotransporter-1 (NBCe1) could nullify the inhibitory effect of P2Y2 receptor agonist on Mg2+ transport across control and omeprazole-treated Caco-2 monolayers. Our results propose an inhibitory role of P2Y2 on intestinal Mg2+ absorption.



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Editorial Board



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Editorial Board



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High BIS and low rSO 2 during CPB: seizure?



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Similarities in Maternal Weight and Birth Weight Across Pregnancies and Across Sisters

Abstract

Objectives The current study examined how prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and birth weight cluster between births within women and between women who are sisters. Methods Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we utilized nested, multivariable hierarchical linear models to examine the correlation of these three outcomes between births (n = 6006) to women (n = 3605) and sisters (n = 3170) so that we can quantify the clustering by sibship and by woman for these three pregnancy-related outcomes. Results After controlling for confounding covariates, prepregnancy BMI (intraclass correlation (ICC) 0.24, 95% CI 0.16, 0.32), gestational weight gain (ICC 0.23, 95% CI 0.16, 0.31), and infant's birthweight (ICC 0.07, 95% CI 0.003, 0.13) were correlated between sisters. Additionally, all three outcomes were significantly correlated between births for each sister, suggesting that prepregnancy BMI (ICC 0.82, 95% CI 0.81, 0.83), gestational weight gain (ICC 0.45, 95% CI 0.42, 0.49), and birth weight (ICC 0.31, 95% CI 0.28, 0.35) track between pregnancies in the same woman. Conclusions for Practice The observed clustering both within women and between sisters suggests that shared genetic and environmental factors among sisters play a role in pregnancy outcomes above and beyond that of women's own genetic and environmental factors. Findings suggest that asking a woman about her sisters' pregnancy outcomes could provide insight into the possible outcomes for her current pregnancy. Future research should test if collecting such a family history and providing tailored clinical recommendations accordingly would be useful.



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Effect of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)-induced ethylene on cellulose synthase A ( CesA ) genes in flax ( Linum usitatissimum L. ‘Nike’) seedlings

Abstract

Introduction

Cellulose microfibril is a major cell wall polymer that plays an important role in the growth and development of plants. The gene cellulose synthase A (CesA), encoding cellulose synthases, is involved in the synthesis of cellulose microfibrils. However, the regulatory mechanism of CesA gene expression is not well understood, especially during the early developmental stages.

Objective

To identify factor(s) that regulate the expression of CesA genes and ultimately control seedling growth and development.

Methods

The presence of cis-elements in the promoter region of the eight CesA genes identified in flax (Linum usitatissimum L. 'Nike') seedlings was verified, and three kinds of ethylene-responsive cis-elements were identified in the promoters. Therefore, the effect of ethylene on the expression of four selected CesA genes classified into Clades 1 and 6 after treatment with 10−4 and 10−3 M 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was examined in the hypocotyl of 4–6-day-old flax seedlings.

Results

ACC-induced ethylene either up- or down-regulated the expression of the CesA genes depending on the clade to which these genes belonged, age of seedlings, part of the hypocotyl, and concentration of ACC.

Conclusion

Ethylene might be one of the factors regulating the expression of CesA genes in flax seedlings.



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Studies of particle size distribution of Non-Exchangeable Organically Bound Tritium activities in the soil around Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

Publication date: December 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 192

Author(s): Qin Zhang, Lin Du, Zhong-qin Dai, Yu-hua Ma, Lai-lai Qin, Ke Deng, Zhao-wei Ma, Guo Yang, Jia-yu Liu, Wei Liu

Abstract

The NE-OBT (Non-Exchangeable Organically Bound Tritium) in the soil plays a significant role in tritium migration and transformation. In order to further understand the NE-OBT activity in the soil, the particle size, vertical profile and spatial distribution of the NE-OBT activities in the soil were determined around the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in China. The experimental results indicated that the NE-OBT preferred to concentrate in the soil particle sizes of 53–250 μm within the soil depth of 5 cm–25 cm. The NE-OBT activity showed significantly vertical variations, however, its largest activity did not appear at the surface soil (0–5 cm). Meanwhile, the NE-OBT had a significant spatial distribution, its activity decreased with the increasing distance from the NPP, especially from the HWRs. In this study, the NE-OBT activities have no significant relationship to the organic matter content in the soil. But the vertical profile distribution of the NE-OBT activity has a strong correlation with the NE-OBT/HTO ratio in the soil, which reflect the capability of living organisms converting HTO into NE-OBT. According to these analyses, we supposed that the NE-OBT in the soil may be derived from the microbial transformation of HTO.



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Thirty-Day Acute Health Care Resource Utilization Following Outpatient Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery

Background and Objectives The need for hospital-based acute care following outpatient surgical procedures is expensive and measured as marker for quality. However, little information is available about events leading to emergency department visit or inpatient admission after ambulatory anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Methods We studied adult patients who underwent outpatient ACL surgery in New York State between 2009 and 2013 using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database. Emergency department visits and inpatient admissions within 30 days of surgery were identified by cross-matching 2 additional independent Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project databases. Results The final cohort included 26,873 subjects. We identified 1208 (3.90%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6%–4.1%) secondary health care encounters of interest. The majority of these encounters were emergency department visits (951). The most common reasons were musculoskeletal pain (349 [28.9%]), any infection (122 [10.1%]), drug abuse (98 [8.1%]), wound infection (87 [7.2%]), deep venous thrombosis (77 [6.4%]), and psychotic events (54 [4.5%]). Patients operated on in high-volume surgical centers were less likely to require acute care (odds ratio, 0.47; P

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Adjusting the Ventilator? Not Only Size Matters!

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The Future of Activated Clotting Time?

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Global Health: Issues, Challenges, and Global Action

No abstract available

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Bubble Trouble: Venous Air Embolism in Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

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The Stress Hormone Cortisol Enhances Interferon-υ–Mediated Proinflammatory Responses of Human Immune Cells

imageBACKGROUND: Cortisol is a prototypical human stress hormone essential for life, yet the precise role of cortisol in the human stress response to injury or infection is still uncertain. Glucocorticoids (GCs) such as cortisol are widely understood to suppress inflammation and immunity. However, recent research shows that GCs also induce delayed immune effects manifesting as immune stimulation. In this study, we show that cortisol enhances the immune-stimulating effects of a prototypical proinflammatory cytokine, interferon-υ (IFN-υ). We tested the hypothesis that cortisol enhances IFN-υ–mediated proinflammatory responses of human mononuclear phagocytes (monocyte/macrophages [MOs]) stimulated by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). METHODS: Human MOs were cultured for 18 hours with or without IFN-υ and/or cortisol before LPS stimulation. MO differentiation factors granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or M-CSF were added to separate cultures. We also compared the inflammatory response with an acute, 4-hour MO incubation with IFN-υ plus cortisol and LPS to a delayed 18-hour incubation with cortisol before LPS exposure. MO activation was assessed by interleukin-6 (IL-6) release and by multiplex analysis of pro- and anti-inflammatory soluble mediators. RESULTS: After the 18-hour incubation, we observed that cortisol significantly increased LPS-stimulated IL-6 release from IFN-υ–treated undifferentiated MOs. In GM-CSF–pretreated MOs, cortisol increased IFN-υ–mediated IL-6 release by >4-fold and release of the immune stimulant IFN-α2 (IFN-α2) by >3-fold, while suppressing release of the anti-inflammatory mediator, IL-1 receptor antagonist to 15% of control. These results were reversed by either the GC receptor antagonist RU486 or by an IFN-υ receptor type 1 antibody antagonist. Cortisol alone increased expression of the IFN-υ receptor type 1 on undifferentiated and GM-CSF–treated MOs. In contrast, an acute 4-hour incubation of MOs with IFN-υ and cortisol showed classic suppression of the IL-6 response to LPS. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal a surprisingly robust proinflammatory interaction between the human stress response hormone cortisol and the immune activating cytokine IFN-υ. The results support an emerging physiological model with an adaptive role for cortisol, wherein acute release of cortisol suppresses early proinflammatory responses but also primes immune cells for an augmented response to a subsequent immune challenge. These findings have broad clinical implications and provide an experimental framework to examine individual differences, mechanisms, and translational implications of cortisol-enhanced immune responses in humans.

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Rashomon Effect and the Contradiction of Data, Practice, and Regulations

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Physics for Anesthesiologists: From Daily Life to the Operating Room

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Agreement Between Transesophageal Echocardiography and Thermodilution-Based Cardiac Output

No abstract available

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More on Fatigue Mitigation for Anesthesiology Residents

No abstract available

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The Costs and Costing of Regulatory Compliance

No abstract available

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Adding to Our Competitive Advantage: Making the Case for Teaching Communication and Professionalism

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Vascular Air Embolism and Endoscopy: Every Bubble Matters

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Perioperative Management in Robotic Surgery, 1st ed

No abstract available

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Treating Chronic Pain: Is Buprenorphine the (or Even an) Answer?

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In Response

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The Mythology of Plasma Transfusion

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Troubleshooting Technical Difficulties With Videolaryngoscope Use in Children: Initial Steps Toward Improving Tracheal Tube Passage

No abstract available

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Beyond Emergence: Understanding postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD)

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Surveying the Literature: Synopsis of Recent Key Publications

No abstract available

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Repeated Measures Designs and Analysis of Longitudinal Data: If at First You Do Not Succeed—Try, Try Again

imageAnesthesia, critical care, perioperative, and pain research often involves study designs in which the same outcome variable is repeatedly measured or observed over time on the same patients. Such repeatedly measured data are referred to as longitudinal data, and longitudinal study designs are commonly used to investigate changes in an outcome over time and to compare these changes among treatment groups. From a statistical perspective, longitudinal studies usually increase the precision of estimated treatment effects, thus increasing the power to detect such effects. Commonly used statistical techniques mostly assume independence of the observations or measurements. However, values repeatedly measured in the same individual will usually be more similar to each other than values of different individuals and ignoring the correlation between repeated measurements may lead to biased estimates as well as invalid P values and confidence intervals. Therefore, appropriate analysis of repeated-measures data requires specific statistical techniques. This tutorial reviews 3 classes of commonly used approaches for the analysis of longitudinal data. The first class uses summary statistics to condense the repeatedly measured information to a single number per subject, thus basically eliminating within-subject repeated measurements and allowing for a straightforward comparison of groups using standard statistical hypothesis tests. The second class is historically popular and comprises the repeated-measures analysis of variance type of analyses. However, strong assumptions that are seldom met in practice and low flexibility limit the usefulness of this approach. The third class comprises modern and flexible regression-based techniques that can be generalized to accommodate a wide range of outcome data including continuous, categorical, and count data. Such methods can be further divided into so-called "population-average statistical models" that focus on the specification of the mean response of the outcome estimated by generalized estimating equations, and "subject-specific models" that allow a full specification of the distribution of the outcome by using random effects to capture within-subject correlations. The choice as to which approach to choose partly depends on the aim of the research and the desired interpretation of the estimated effects (population-average versus subject-specific interpretation). This tutorial discusses aspects of the theoretical background for each technique, and with specific examples of studies published in Anesthesia & Analgesia, demonstrates how these techniques are used in practice.

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Impact of Medicaid Policy on the Oral Health of Publicly Insured Children

Abstract

Objective Fluoride varnish (FV) applications among non-dentist primary care providers has increased due to state Medicaid policies. In this study we examine the impact of FV policies on the oral health of publicly insured children aged 2–6 years old. Methods Using three waves of the National Survey of Children's Health (2003, 2007, 2011/12), we used a logistic regression model with state and year fixed effects, adjusting for relevant child characteristics, to examine the association between years since a state implemented a FV policy and the odds of a publicly insured child having very good or excellent teeth. We compared children with public insurance in states with FV policies to children with public insurance in states without FV policies, controlling for the same difference among children with private insurance who were unlikely to be affected by Medicaid FV policies. Results Among 68,890 children aged 2–6 years, 38% had public insurance. Compared to privately insured children, publicly insured children had significantly lower odds of having very good or excellent teeth [odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.62–0.81]. Publicly insured children in states with FV policies implemented for four or more years had significantly greater odds of having very good or excellent teeth (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03–1.60) compared to publicly insured children in states without FV policies. Conclusions for Practice State policies supporting non-dental primary care providers application of FV were associated with improvements in oral health for young children with public insurance.



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Mechanisms of acute and chronic pain after surgery: update from findings in experimental animal models

Purpose of review Management of postoperative pain is still a major issue and relevant mechanisms need to be investigated. In preclinical research, substantial progress has been made, for example, by establishing specific rodent models of postoperative pain. By reviewing most recent preclinical studies in animals related to postoperative, incisional pain, we outline the currently available surgical-related pain models, discuss assessment methods for pain-relevant behavior and their shortcomings to reflect the clinical situation, delineate some novel clinical-relevant mechanisms for postoperative pain, and point toward future needs. Recent findings Since the development of the first rodent model of postoperative, incisional pain almost 20 years ago, numerous variations and some procedure-specific models have been emerged including some conceivably relevant for investigating prolonged, chronic pain after surgery. Many mechanisms have been investigated by using these models; most recent studies focussed on endogenous descending inhibition and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. However, surgical models beyond the classical incision model have so far been used only in exceptional cases, and clinical relevant behavioral pain assays are still rarely utilized. Summary Pathophysiological mechanisms of pain after surgery are increasingly discovered, but utilization of pain behavior assays are only sparsely able to reflect clinical-relevant aspects of acute and chronic postoperative pain in patients. Correspondence to Esther Pogatzki-Zahn, Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, A1, 48149 Münster, Germany. Tel: +49 251 8347261; fax: +49 251 88704; e-mail: pogatzki@anit.uni-muenster.de Copyright © 2018 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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