Δευτέρα, 13 Αυγούστου 2018

Omics tools for the needle out of haystack?

Publication date: 20 July 2018

Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Volume 45, Issue 7

Author(s): Zhiwei Cao, Xiu-Jie Wang, Shihua Zhang



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Cultural Orientation and Psychosocial Adjustment Among Immigrant Adolescents in South Korea

Abstract

The present study primarily uses Berry's theoretical model to examine national identity, acculturation (to South Korea), ethnic identity, and enculturation (to country-of-origin), and how they are linked to immigrant adolescents' aggression and depression in South Korea. Data were collected from 120 immigrant youths (i.e., those born in South Korea and those born in their country-of-origin) in eight middle schools. Analyses include multivariate regression and cluster analyses. Findings indicate that South Korean identity (m = 48, F = 77.0, p < .001), acculturation to South Korean culture (m = 44.9, F = 52.3, p < .01), and mother's Korean proficiency (m = 3.6, F = 10.9, p < .001) were higher among Korea-born adolescents. Enculturation (m = 35.5, F = 13.7, p < .001) and depression (m = 36.4, F = 15.3, p < .001) were higher among foreign-born adolescents. Aggression (r = − .26, p < .01) and depression (r = − .46, p < .01) were lower among native-born Korean adolescents. South Korean identity (B = − .27, p = .02) and acculturation (B = − .28, p = .01) were negatively associated with aggression. South Korean identity (B = − .22, p = .04), acculturation (B = − .21, p = .03), and ethnic identity (B = − .17, p = .02) were negatively associated with depression. Integration youth (M = 12.7) and assimilation youth (M = 11.5) reported lower aggression than marginalization youth (M = 15.8, F = 5.48, p < .01). Assimilation type had better outcomes than separation and marginalization types.



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Estimating Genetic Relatedness in Admixed Populations

Estimating genetic relatedness, and inbreeding coefficients is important to the fields of quantitative genetics, conservation, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and population genetics. Traditional estimators of genetic relatedness assume an underlying model of population structure. Each individual is assigned to a population, depending on a priori assumptions about geographical location of sampling, proximity, or genetic similarity. But often, this population assignment is unknown and assumptions about assignment can lead to erroneous estimates of genetic relatedness. I develop a generalized method of estimating relatedness in admixed populations, to account for (1) multi-allelic genomic data, (2) including all nine Identity By Descent (IBD) states, and implement a maximum likelihood based estimator of pairwise genetic relatedness in structured populations, part of the software, InRelate. Replicated estimations of genetic relatedness between admixed full sib (FS), half sib (HS), first cousin (FC), parent-offspring (PO) and unrelated (UR) dyads in simulated and empirical data from the HGDP-CEPH panel shows considerably low bias and error while using InRelate, compared to several previously developed methods. I also propose a bootstrap scheme, and a series of Wald Tests to assign relatedness categories to pairs of individuals.



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Sorption of 137Cs, 90Sr, Se, 99Tc, 152(154)Eu, 239(240)Pu on fractured rocks of the Yeniseysky site (Nizhne-Kansky massif, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia)

Publication date: December 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 192

Author(s): K.B. Rozov, V.G. Rumynin, A.M. Nikulenkov, P.G. Leskova

Abstract

The study demonstrates the effect of sorption properties of fractured host rocks from the Yeniseysky site (Nizhne-Kansky rock massif, Krasnoyarsk region) on the migration of dissolved radioactive components (137Cs, 90Sr, 79Se, 99Tc, 152(154)Eu, 239(240)Pu) in the deep geological conditions of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Estimates of radionuclide distribution coefficients between the aqueous solution and fractured rocks obtained from sorption experiments were used to study the influence of various petrographic types and fracture-filling substances on the retardation of radioactive components by different fractured rock units of Nizhne-Kansky rock massif. Based on the results of sorption experiments, we concluded that the type and attributes of rock discontinuities, as well as the mineral composition of the material in fractures, are crucial for the immobilization of radionuclides during their migration through a geological environment.



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Modelling the dispersion of radon-222 from a landform covered by low uranium grade waste rock

Publication date: December 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 192

Author(s): Che Doering, Scott A. McMaster, Mathew P. Johansen

Abstract

The dispersion of 222Rn from the planned remediation of the Ranger U mine in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia was modelled. Dry and wet season contour maps of 222Rn dose normalised to 226Ra activity concentration in the proposed waste rock substrate on the remediated landform were developed. Three example exposure scenarios were assessed based on an anticipated waste rock 226Ra activity concentration of 800 Bq kg−1. The estimated above-background annual dose from 222Rn to hypothetical receptors at the Aboriginal community at Mudginberri (∼10 km NNW) was 0.005 mSv and at the township of Jabiru (∼7 km W) was 0.033 mSv. The estimated above-background annual dose for the hypothetical worst case scenario, representing a receptor 1 km WNW of the landform centroid during the dry season and at the centroid during the wet season, was 0.13 mSv. Variability analysis on the 20 y meteorological dataset used in the dispersion modelling showed that the dry and wet season 222Rn dose predictions in any single year could be approximately double those of an average year, which suggests that estimates of average 222Rn dose should potentially be doubled if the assessment aim is to demonstrate compliance with the public dose limit.



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Removal capacity and chemical speciation of groundwater iodide (I−) and iodate (IO3−) sequestered by organoclays and granular activated carbon

Publication date: December 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 192

Author(s): Dien Li, Daniel I. Kaplan, Allison Sams, Brian A. Powell, Anna S. Knox

Abstract

Radioiodine (present mostly as 129I) is difficult to remove from waste streams or contaminated groundwater because it tends to exist as multiple anionic species (i.e., iodide (I), iodate (IO3) and organo-iodide) that do not bind to minerals or synthetic materials. In this work, the efficacy of organoclay OCB and OCM, and granular activated carbon (GAC) as sorbents to bind I and IO3 from artificial groundwater (AGW) was examined. These sorbents were highly effective at removing I and IO3 from AGW under oxic condition, with the adsorption capacity up to 30 mg I/g sorbent. Based on X-ray spectroscopy measurements, I was bound to organic ligands in organoclays OCB and OCM, but when GAC was exposed to I in groundwater, the sequestered I species was molecular I2. For IO3 interacting with organoclay OCB and GAC, the adsorbed I species remained being IO3, but when organoclay OCM that contains both quaternary amine and sulfur was exposed to IO3, the sulfur compound would reduce IO3 to I that was then bound to organic ligands. Thus, the inexpensive and high-capacity organoclays and GAC may provide a practical solution for removing 129I contaminant from environmental systems and liquid nuclear wastes.



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Removing deep brain stimulation artifacts from the electroencephalogram: issues, recommendations and an open-source toolbox

Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology

Author(s): Guillaume Lio, Stéphane Thobois, Bénédicte Ballanger, Brian Lau, Philippe Boulinguez

Abstract

A major question for deep brain stimulation (DBS) research is understanding how DBS of one target area modulates activity in different parts of the brain. EEG gives privileged access to brain dynamics, but its use with implanted patients is limited since DBS adds significant high-amplitude electrical artifacts that can completely obscure neural activity measured using EEG. Here, we systematically review and discuss the methods available for removing DBS artifacts. These include simple techniques such as oversampling, antialiasing analog filtering and digital low-pass filtering, which are necessary but typically not sufficient to fully remove DBS artifacts when each is used in isolation. We also cover more advanced methods, including techniques tracking outliers in the frequency-domain, which can be effective, but are rarely used. The reason for that is twofold: First, it requires advanced skills in signal processing since no user friendly tool for removing DBS artifacts is currently available. Second, it involves fine-tuning to avoid over-aggressive filtering. We highlight an open-source toolbox incorporating most artifact removal methods, allowing users to combine different strategies.



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Stimulus complexity matters when you hear your own voice: Attention effects on self-generated voice processing

Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018

Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology

Author(s): Tatiana Conde, Óscar F. Gonçalves, Ana P. Pinheiro

Abstract

The ability to discriminate self- and non-self voice cues is a fundamental aspect of self-awareness and subserves self-monitoring during verbal communication. Nonetheless, the neurofunctional underpinnings of self-voice perception and recognition are still poorly understood. Moreover, how attention and stimulus complexity influence the processing and recognition of one's own voice remains to be clarified. Using an oddball task, the current study investigated how self-relevance and stimulus type interact during selective attention to voices, and how they affect the representation of regularity during voice perception.

Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 18 right-handed healthy males. Pre-recorded self-generated (SGV) and non-self (NSV) voices, consisting of a nonverbal vocalization (vocalization condition) or disyllabic word (word condition), were presented as either standard or target stimuli in different experimental blocks.

The results showed increased N2 amplitude to SGV relative to NSV stimuli. Stimulus type modulated later processing stages only: P3 amplitude was increased for SGV relative to NSV words, whereas no differences between SGV and NSV were observed in the case of vocalizations. Moreover, SGV standards elicited reduced N1 and P2 amplitude relative to NSV standards.

These findings revealed that the self-voice grabs more attention when listeners are exposed to words but not vocalizations. Further, they indicate that detection of regularity in an auditory stream is facilitated for one's own voice at early processing stages. Together, they demonstrate that self-relevance affects attention to voices differently as a function of stimulus type.



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Removing deep brain stimulation artifacts from the electroencephalogram: issues, recommendations and an open-source toolbox

During the past two decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been recognized as an efficient therapy that alleviates the symptoms of various treatment-resistant movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and tremor (Lyons, 2011; Vidailhet et al., 2013; Aviles-Olmos et al., 2014; Fasano et al., 2014; Kalia et al., 2013; Larson, 2014). Recent reports suggest that DBS can also be effective for treating psychiatric disorders such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome (Holtzheimer and Mayberg, 2011) as well as dementia-related disorders and Alzheimer's disease (Laxton et al., 2013; Hescham et al., 2013).

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New SERVPRO First Responder Bowl to be played at Cotton Bowl Stadium

DALLAS — In a joint effort to honor the service and sacrifice of America's First Responders, the annual college football bowl game played at Cotton Bowl Stadium in Dallas, Texas has been renamed the SERVPRO First Responder Bowl. Kickoff for the newly christened SERVPRO First Responder Bowl is set for December 26 at 12:30 p.m. CT (1:30 p.m. ET) and will be televised by ESPN. The...

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The effect of exhaustive exercise on the choice of technique and physiological response in classical roller skiing

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise on technique preference and the accompanying physiological response during classic skiing at constant workload, but with varying incline–speed combinations.

Methods

Seven male competitive cross-country skiers performed four tests, each lasting 23 min, at constant 200 W workload roller skiing on a treadmill using classic style, three in unfatigued state, and one after exhaustion. The incline and speed combination (that determined the 200 W) were altered each minute during the tests. The athletes were allowed to change sub-technique at free will. Physiological variables and cycle rate were recorded continuously as well as the incline–speed combinations at which the sub-technique was changed.

Results

Exhaustive exercise did not (or hardly) affect cycle rate and choice of technique. The physiological response was most prominent in slight incline—high speed conditions, independent of exercise duration. Exhaustive exercise affected the physiological response in a differentiated manner. HR and RER remained, respectively, higher and lower after fatigue, while \(\dot {V}_2}\) (and thereby GE) were affected only during approximately the first 8 min of post-exhaustion exercise.

Conclusions

Exhaustive exercise has a minimal effect on choice of technique in classic cross-country skiing with free choice of sub-technique, even though physiological stress is increased.



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Two in, two out: Maintaining your marriage in EMS

Your partner at home can be your best resource in regard to your mental health

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Genetic diversity and population structure among accessions of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton in East Asia using new developed microsatellite markers

Abstract

SSRs were successfully isolated from the Perilla crop in our current study, and used to analyze Perilla accessions from East Asia. Analyses of the clear genetic diversity and relationship for Perilla crop still remain insufficient. In this study, 40 new simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer sets were developed from RNA sequences using transcriptome analysis. These new SSR markers were applied to analyze the diversity, relationships, and population structure among 35 accessions of the two cultivated types of Perilla crop and their weedy types. A total of 220 alleles were identified at all loci, with an average of 5.5 alleles per locus and a range between 2 and 10 alleles per locus. The MAF (major allele frequency) per locus varied from 0.229 to 0.943, with an average of 0.466. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.603, ranging from 0.102 to 0.837. The genetic diversity (GD) ranged from 0.108 to 0.854, with an average of 0.654. Based on population structure analysis, all accessions were divided into three groups: Group I, Group II and the admixed group. This study demonstrated the utility of new SSR analysis for the study of genetic diversity and population structure among 35 Perilla accessions. The GD of each locus for accessions of cultivated var. frutescens, weedy var. frutescens, cultivated var. crispa, and weedy var. crispa were 0.415, 0.606, 0.308, and 0.480, respectively. Both weedy accessions exhibited higher GD and PIC values than their cultivated types in East Asia. The new SSR primers of Perilla species reported in this study may provide potential genetic markers for population genetics to enhance our understanding of the genetic diversity, genetic relationship and population structure of the cultivated and weedy types of P. frutescens in East Asia. In addition, new Perilla SSR primers developed from RNA-seq can be used in the future for cultivar identification, conservation of Perilla germplasm resources, genome mapping and tagging of important genes/QTLs for Perilla breeding programs.



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Emergency Medical Services Coordinator (Nurse Educator) - City of Torrance

The Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Coordinator is a professional level civilian position responsible for ensuring quality emergency medical care services are provided by Fire  Department personnel in conformance with regulatory requirements and internal standards. The EMS Coordinator will work closely with the Fire Captain and Assistant Fire Chief assigned to the EMS program to provide oversight of ...

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Resuscitation education: What’s changed and what you need to know

The American Heart Association recently released a statement updating cardiac arrest resuscitation guidelines

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What is a stroke?

A stroke is different from other conditions, as it essentially a term for the symptoms and not the cause

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Resuscitation education: What’s changed and what you need to know

The American Heart Association recently released a statement updating cardiac arrest resuscitation guidelines

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Comparison between self-reported and observed locomotion ability scores in patients with stroke: a cross-sectional study

This study aimed to investigate (i) the validity of self-reported scores of locomotion ability in stroke survivors using the ABILOCO-Benin questionnaire, and (ii) the congruence between online Rasch analysis of the ABILOCO-Benin raw scores and a conversion table set along with the questionnaire development. Thirty-five adult poststroke patients [mean age: 52 (SD: 10) years, 60% men] recruited from the rehabilitation department of National University Hospital of Cotonou (Benin), self-reported their locomotion ability, filling out the ABILOCO-Benin questionnaire [self-reported scores (SRS)]. Afterwards, a physical therapist observed and rated the patients' locomotion ability, while they performed each of the 15 items of the questionnaire [performance-based scores (PBS)]. Both raw SRS and PBS were then converted to linear measures using (i) an online Rasch analysis method and (ii) an ordinal-to-interval transformation table. Analyses showed high correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.74, P

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Maternal Knowledge and Unsafe Baby Sleep Position: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Southern Brazil

Abstract

Objective to evaluate women's knowledge about the best baby sleeping position and to identify factors associated with a greater probability of putting infants to sleep in an unsafe position, in Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Method This is a cross-sectional population-based study that included all women who bore children in 2013 in this municipality. A single, standardized questionnaire was given within 48 h after delivery in the only two local maternity hospitals. The outcome was that women reported the lateral and the ventral decubitus as the best sleeping positions for babies. A Chi square test was used for proportions and Poisson regression was used with robust variance adjustment in the multivariate analysis. The prevalence ratio was the measure of effect used. Results We included 2624 women in this study. Of these, 82.1% (95% CI 80.6–83.6) stated that the baby should sleep in the lateral or ventral decubitus positions. 76.4% reported having acquired this knowledge from their mothers and 34.7% were willing to adopt the correct (supine) sleeping position for their child if recommended by doctors. The adjusted analysis showed that the lower the schooling of the mothers and the greater the number of people per bedroom and number of children, the greater the probability of women choosing an unsafe baby sleeping position. Conclusions for Practice This study showed that the percentage of women who are unaware of the correct baby sleeping position is very high, that doctors should be convinced to recommend the supine baby sleeping position, and that campaigns on this subject should also include grandparents as a priority intervention group.



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A randomized controlled trial of lusutrombopag in Japanese patients with chronic liver disease undergoing radiofrequency ablation

Abstract

Background

Thrombocytopenia represents an obstacle for invasive procedures in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. We aimed to estimate the appropriate dose and evaluate the efficacy and safety of lusutrombopag for the treatment of thrombocytopenia before percutaneous liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for primary hepatic cancer in patients with CLD.

Methods

In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in Japan, 61 CLD patients with platelet count < 50 × 103/µL at screening were randomized to placebo or lusutrombopag 2, 3, or 4 mg once daily for 7 days, followed by a 28-day post-treatment assessment period. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients who did not require platelet transfusion before RFA. The pre-specified key secondary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of responders. Adverse events (AEs) and thrombosis-related AEs were evaluated.

Results

The proportion of patients who did not require platelet transfusion before RFA and that of responders were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the 2-mg (80.0, 66.7%), 3-mg (81.3, 68.8%), and 4-mg groups (93.3, 80.0%) compared with the placebo group (20.0, 6.7%) and showed a dose-dependent effect. The incidence of AEs was 97.8 and 100% in the lusutrombopag (all groups) and placebo groups, respectively; no dose-related increase was observed. Four patients experienced thrombosis-related events (one each in the placebo and 2-mg groups, and two in the 4-mg group). A total of 16 (18%) adverse drug reactions occurred in the safety analysis set.

Conclusions

Lusutrombopag 3 mg once daily for 7 days was effective without raising concerns about excessive increases in platelet count.

Clinical trial registration

The study is registered at JapicCTI-121944.



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Intimate Partner Violence and Help-Seeking Behaviour: A Systematic Review of Cross-Cultural Differences

Abstract

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an issue that affects women across all cultures. It is essential to understand how women could be assisted to prevent and reduce the effects of violence. This systematic review examined studies that made cross-cultural comparisons of differences in help-seeking behaviour of women who have experienced IPV. Databases including the Cochrane Library, PsychInfo and others were searched for literature published between 1988 and 2016. Seventeen articles with a total of 40,904 participants met the inclusion criteria. This review found some differences in the procurement of support across cultural groups. While Caucasian women were more likely to seek assistance from formal services such as mental health and social services, Latina/Hispanic and African-American women were more likely to utilize other types of formal supports such as hospital and law enforcement services. The findings regarding utilization of informal support systems showed mixed results. Overall, the findings of this systematic review suggest that women from culturally diverse minority backgrounds should be educated and encouraged to access support before and after experiencing IPV. Further, potential barriers to help-seeking need to be identified and addressed across women from all cultures.



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Acute High-Intensity Exercise Impairs Skeletal Muscle Respiratory Capacity

PURPOSE The impact of an acute bout of exercise, especially high-intensity exercise, on the function of mitochondrial respiratory complexes is not well understood, with potential implications for both the healthy population and patients undergoing exercise based rehabilitation. Therefore, this study sought to comprehensively examine respiratory flux through the different complexes of the electron transport chain (ETC) in skeletal muscle mitochondria before and immediately after high-intensity aerobic exercise. METHOD Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained at baseline and immediately following a 5 km time-trial performed on a cycle ergometer. Mitochondrial respiratory flux through the complexes of the ETC was measured in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers by high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS Complex I+II state 3 respiration (state 3CI+CII), a measure of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, was diminished immediately after the exercise (PRE: 27±3 ρm.mg-1.s-1; POST: 17±2 ρm.mg-1.s-1, P

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Effect of Unintentional Boosting on Exercise Performance in a Tetraplegic Athlete

Boosting is the induction of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) to reflexively activate otherwise dormant thoracolumbar sympathetic circuitry to 'boost' the capacity of the cardiovascular system and enhance exercise performance. AD is a life-threatening condition unique to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by a sudden increase in sympathetic activity below the level of the SCI. Here we report on the temporal heart rate response to an episode of unintentional boosting during a validated field-based exercise performance test in an athlete with tetraplegia. An athlete with SCI (C6 motor-complete, sensory-incomplete) completed a 20x20 m repeated sprint field test on two consecutive days. During the 13th sprint on day 2 the athlete unintentionally boosted via bladder over-distension. Average heart rate (HR) when boosted (i.e. sprints 14-20) was considerably higher than before boosting (141±4 vs. 116±7 bpm) and compared to corresponding sprints on day 1 (141±4 vs. 120±1 bpm). Average time to complete 20m sprints when boosted was also faster than the corresponding sprints on day 1 (6.70±0.05 vs. 6.87±0.05 s). This case report highlights the immediate effect of boosting on HR and field based exercise performance and supports the suggestion that exercise performance in athletes with SCI is limited by cardiovascular capacity. Corresponding author: Dr. Christopher West, PhD, ICORD-BSCC, UBC, 818 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V5Z 1M9. Email: west@icord.org. TEL: 1 604 675 8809, FAX: 1 604 675 8820 The authors disclose no conflict of interest. Results of the present study do not constitute endorsement by the American College of Sports Medicine. The results of the study are presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. Accepted for Publication: 18 July 2018 © 2018 American College of Sports Medicine

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Leucine Metabolites Do Not Enhance Training-induced Performance or Muscle Thickness

Leucine metabolites, α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (α-HICA) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (calcium, HMB-Ca and free acid, HMB-FA), have been proposed to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. PURPOSE We aimed to conduct a double-blind randomized controlled pragmatic trial to evaluate the effects of off-the-shelf leucine metabolite supplements of α-HICA, HMB-FA and HMB-Ca, on resistance training-induced changes in muscle thickness, and performance. METHODS Forty men were randomly assigned to receive α-HICA (n=10, fat-free mass [FFM]=62.0 ± 7.1 kg), HMB-FA (n=11, FFM=62.7 ± 10.5 kg), HMB-Ca (n=9, FFM=65.6 ± 10.1 kg), or placebo (PLA; n=10, FFM=64.2 ± 5.7 kg). The training program consisted of whole body thrice weekly resistance training for 8wk (7 exercises/session, 3–4 sets per session, at 70-80% 1RM). Skeletal muscle thickness by ultrasound, performance measures, and blood measures (creatine kinase [CK], insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1], growth hormone [GH], cortisol and total testosterone) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of weeks 4 and 8. RESULTS Time-dependent changes were observed for muscle thickness (p

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BLUNTED CARDIAC OUTPUT FROM OVERTRAINING IS RELATED TO INCREASED ARTERIAL STIFFNESS

Purpose Moderate overtraining has been characterized by decreased exercising heart rate (HR) and recently, decreased exercising stroke volume (SV), independent of alterations to blood volume. The aim of this study was to assess changes in arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics, and their relationship to exercising SV, following three weeks of overload training. Methods Twenty-six cyclists and triathletes completed 3-weeks of either regular training (CON; n=13) or overload training (OL; n=13). Testing took place before (PRE), and after regular or overload training (POST). Resting measures included brachial blood pressure, HR, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity to assess arterial stiffness, and carotid pulse wave analysis to assess wave reflections and central hemodynamics. An incremental cycle test was used to assess peak power, maximal HR, and maximal lactate in order to assess overtraining status. Cardiac output (Q[Combining Dot Above]), SV, and HR were assessed using cardiac impedance. Results Resting arterial stiffness was unaltered in CON but increased with OL following increased training (CON -0.1±0.6m/s vs OL +0.5±0.8m/s, P=0.04). Resting blood pressure and central hemodynamics including aortic pressures, augmentation index, and sub-endocardial viability ratio did not change (All P>0.05). Maximal SV (CON +3mL vs OL -9mL, P=0.04), HR (CON -2±4bpm vs OL -9±3bpm, P

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Genome-wide Association Study of Leisure-Time Exercise Behavior in Japanese Adults

Purpose Although several genetic factors may play a role in leisure-time exercise behavior, there is currently no evidence of a significant genome-wide association, and candidate gene replication studies have produced inconsistent results. Methods We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association study on leisure-time exercise behavior using 13,980 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study, and 2,036 replication samples from the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center-2 (HERPACC-2) study. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using a self-administered questionnaire that inquired about the type, frequency and duration of exercise. Participants with ≥ 4 metabolic equivalents-hours per week of leisure-time physical activity were defined as exhibiting leisure-time exercise behavior. Association testing using mixed linear regression models was performed on the discovery and replication samples, after which the results were combined in a meta-analysis. In addition, we tested 6 candidate genetic variants derived from previous GWASs. Results We found that one novel SNP (rs10252228) located in the intergenic region between NPSR1 and DPY19L1 was significantly associated with leisure-time exercise behavior in discovery samples. This association was also significant in replication samples (combined P-value by meta-analysis = 2.2×10-9). Several SNPs linked with rs10252228 were significantly associated with gene expression of DPY19L1 and DP19L2P1 in skeletal muscle, heart, whole blood and the nervous system. Among the candidate SNPs, rs12612420 in DNAPTP6 demonstrated nominal significance in discovery samples but not in replication samples. Conclusion We identified a novel genetic variant associated with regular leisure-time exercise behavior. Further functional studies are required to validate the role of these variants in exercise behavior. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. Correspondence: Megumi Hara, MD., PhD. Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan, Phone: (+81) 952 34-2287, Fax: (+81) 952 34-2065, E-mail: harameg@cc.saga-u.ac.jp. This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research for Priority Areas of Cancer (No. 17015018) and Innovative Areas (No. 221S0001) and by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP15H02524, JP16H06277, JP16K09058 from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. This study was supported in part by funding for the BioBank Japan Project from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development since April 2015, and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology from April 2003 to March 2015. We declare that the results of the study are presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. The results of the present study do not constitute endorsement by the American College of Sports Medicine. Accepted for Publication: 21 June 2018 © 2018 American College of Sports Medicine

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Appropriate Amount of Regular Exercise is Associated with a Reduced Mortality Risk

Purpose This study aimed at investigating whether there is a continuous dose-response relationship between the amount of physical activity (PA) and longevity benefit. Methods We evaluated the records of 23,257,723 Koreans aged ≥20 years who had undergone one biennial medical evaluation by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Participants with ≥20 minutes of vigorous or ≥30 minutes of moderate PA or walking were stratified into four groups: 0 days/week; 1-3 days/week; 4-5 days/week; and 6-7 days/week. After calculating total metabolic equivalent task-hours per week (MET-h/wk), we created eight categories of MET-h/wk (0, 0.1-4.9, 5.0-9.9, 10.0-14.9, 15.0-19.9, 20.0-24.9, 25.0-29.9, and ≥30.0). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed. Results A reverse J-shaped risk curve was observed, with the lowest mortality risk in the participants exercising 4-5 days/week (reference). Participants who did not exercise at all and those who exercised with a PA frequency of 1-3 days/week or 6-7 days/week showed a significantly increased mortality risk compared with the reference group. When we repeated the Cox analysis among the eight MET-h/wk categories with the participants reporting 20.0-24.9 MET-h/wk of PA as the reference group, we found that those with physical inactivity and 25.0-29.9 or ≥30.0 MET-h/wk of PA showed a higher mortality risk than the reference group. These relationships were persistently observed after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions An appropriate amount of regular exercise in each specific type of PA was associated with the lowest risk of mortality. The inactive participants showed an increased mortality risk, and daily PA did not show any additional benefit in the mortality risk. *These authors contributed equally to this work. Address for correspondence: Won-Young Lee, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 29 Saemunan-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03181, Republic of Korea, Tel: +82-2-2001-2579; Fax: +82-2-757-0436; E-mail: wonyoung2.lee@samsung.com This study was supported by grant HC16C2285 from the Korean Health Technology and Research and Development project, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea. The results of the study do not constitute endorsement by the American College of Sports Medicine. Funding: None. Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Accepted for Publication: 11 June 2018 © 2018 American College of Sports Medicine

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