Δευτέρα, 16 Μαΐου 2016

Altered Function of the DnaJ Family Co-Chaperone DNJ-17 Modulates Locomotor Circuit Activity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Seizure Model

The highly conserved co-chaperone DnaJ/Hsp40 family proteins are known to interact with molecular chaperone Hsp70, and can regulate many cellular processes including protein folding, translocation and degradation. In studies of C. elegans locomotion mutants, we identified a gain-of-function (gf) mutation in dnj-17 closely linked to the widely used e156 null allele of C. elegans GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase) unc-25. dnj-17 encodes a DnaJ protein orthologous to human DNAJA5. In C. elegans DNJ-17 is a cytosolic protein and is broadly expressed in many tissues. dnj-17(gf) causes a single amino acid substitution in a conserved domain, and behaves as a hypermorphic mutation. The effect of this dnj-17(gf) is most prominent in mutants lacking GABA synaptic transmission. In a seizure model caused by a mutation in the ionotropic aceytylcholine receptor acr-2(gf), dnj-17(gf) exacerbates the convulsion phenotype in conjunction with absence of GABA. Null mutants of dnj-17 show mild resistance to aldicarb, while dnj-17(gf) is hypersensitive. These results highlight the importance of DnaJ proteins in regulation of locomotor circuit, and provide insights to the possible roles of DnaJ proteins in human disease.



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Exhaustive Genome-Wide Search for SNP-SNP Interactions Across Ten Human Diseases

Background: The identification of statistical SNP-SNP interactions may help explain the genetic etiology of many human diseases, but exhaustive genome-wide searches for these interactions have been difficult, due to a lack of power in most datasets. We aimed to use data from the Resource for Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) study to search for SNP-SNP interactions associated with ten common diseases. Methods: FastEpistasis and BOOST were used to evaluate all pairwise interactions among approximately N=300,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.15, for the dichotomous outcomes of allergic rhinitis, asthma, cardiac disease, depression, dermatophytosis, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hemorrhoids, hypertensive disease, and osteoarthritis. A total of N = 45,171 subjects were included after quality control steps were applied. These data were divided into discovery and replication subsets; the discovery subset had > 80% power, under selected models, to detect genome-wide significant interactions (P<10-12). Interactions were also evaluated for enrichment in particular SNP features, including functionality, prior disease relevancy, and marginal effects. Results: No interaction in any disease was significant in both the discovery and replication subsets. Enrichment analysis suggested that, for some outcomes, interactions involving SNPs with marginal effects were more likely to be nominally replicated, compared to interactions without marginal effects. Conclusions: If SNP-SNP interactions play a role in the etiology of the studied conditions, they likely have weak effect sizes, involve lower-frequency variants, and/or involve complex models of interaction that are not captured well by the methods that were utilized.



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mCAL: A New Approach for Versatile Multiplex Action of Cas9 Using One sgRNA and Loci Flanked by a Programmed Target Sequence

Genome editing exploiting CRISPR/Cas9 has been adopted widely in academia and in the biotechnology industry to manipulate DNA sequences in diverse organisms. Molecular engineering of Cas9 itself and its guide RNA, and the strategies for using them, have increased efficiency, optimized specificity, reduced inappropriate off-target effects, and introduced modifications for performing other functions (transcriptional regulation, high-resolution imaging, protein recruitment, and high-throughput screening). Moreover, Cas9 has the ability to multiplex, i.e. to act at different genomic targets within the same nucleus. Currently, however, introducing concurrent changes at multiple loci involves: (i) identification of appropriate genomic sites, especially the availability of suitable PAM sequences; (ii) the design, construction, and expression of multiple sgRNA directed against those sites; (iii) potential difficulties in altering essential genes; and, (iv) lingering concerns about "off-target" effects. We have devised a new approach that circumvents these drawbacks, as we demonstrate here using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, any gene(s) of interest are flanked upstream and downstream with a single unique target sequence that does not normally exist in the genome. Thereafter, expression of one sgRNA and co-transformation with appropriate PCR fragments permits concomitant Cas9-mediated alteration of multiple genes (both essential and non-essential). The system we developed also allows for maintenance of the integrated, inducible Cas9-expression cassette or its simultaneous scarless excision. Our scheme—dubbed mCAL for "Multiplexing of Cas9 at Artificial Loci" —can be applied to any organism in which the CRISPR/Cas9 methodology is currently being utilized. In principle, it can be applied to install synthetic sequences into the genome, to generate genomic libraries, and to program strains or cell lines so that they can be conveniently (and repeatedly) manipulated at multiple loci with extremely high efficiency.



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Dynamics of a Novel Highly Repetitive CACTA Family in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Transposons are ubiquitous genomic components that play pivotal roles in plant gene and genome evolution. We analyzed two genome sequences of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and identified a new CACTA transposon family named pvCACTA1. The family is extremely abundant as more than 12,000 pvCACTA1 elements were found. To our knowledge, this is the most abundant CACTA family reported thus far. The computational and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses indicated that the pvCACTA1 elements were concentrated in terminal regions of chromosomes and frequently generated AT rich 3-bp target site duplications (TSD, WWW, W is A or T). Comparative analysis of the common bean genomes from two domesticated genetic pools revealed that new insertions or excisions of pvCACTA1 elements occurred after the divergence of the two common beans, and some of the polymorphic elements likely resulted in variation in gene sequences. pvCACTA1 elements were detected in related species but not outside the Phaseolus genus. We calculated the molecular evolutionary rate of pvCACTA1 transposons using orthologous elements which indicated that most transposition events likely occurred before the divergence of the two gene pools. These results reveal unique features and evolution of this new transposon family in the common bean genome.



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A Review Study on Uttarabasti of Yavakshara Taila in the Management of Vandhyatva W.S.R. Fallopian Tubal Blockage

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Hetal P. Baraiya, Shilpa B.Donga, L.P.Dei, Kashyap Chauhan.
Tubal blockage is one important causative factors of female infertility. This review is an attempt to evaluate the efficacy of Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti in tubal blockage. Studies on patients of child bearing age with active marital life of one year or more having complaint of failure to conceive with at least one fallopian tube blocked diagnosed by Hysterosalpingography (HSG) were selected. Collective data of 52 patients from three studies with similar treatment protocol and criteria for selection and assessment is being presented here. Among forty seven patients who completed the treatment, 42.31% had unilateral and 57.70% had bilateral tubal blockage. The intervention in these studies included Yavakshara Taila (5 ml) Intrauterine Uttarabasti for 6 days (with interval of three days in between), after completion of menses for two consecutive cycles. The results indicated that the tubal patency achieved in 80.85% of patients and conception was achieved in 06.38% without any complication. Uttarabasti is an imperative and an exclusive Ayurvedic procedure stated in classics particularly for the management of Vandhyatva and other gynecological disorders. Yavakshara Taila Uttarabasti may be an effective procedure for treating tubal blockage with no apparent evidence of complication.


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Hyperoxygenation for Wound Healing : Exploring the Ancient Breathing Practices to Newer Scales

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Pradeoth Mukundan Korambayil, Prashanth Varkey Ambookan, Raghu Angappan.
Aim: Hyperoxygenation to the tissue through respiratory regulation have always been an emphasis in ayurvedic science. The study is to emphasis on hyperoxygenation by machinery system for recovery of acute injury and thereafter continue by ayurvedic techniques for further regulation of respiration. Material and Methods: The study was conducted from February 2012 to December 2014 in the department of plastic surgery. 132 patients of diabetic ulcers were treated with surgical treatment and hyperbaric oxygen therapy simultaneously. The patients were followed up in terms of results and recurrence. Results: The results were satisfactory in 132 patients treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy and surgery. 18 patients underwent soft tissue reconstruction procedure, 47 underwent skin grafting procedures, 35 patients underwent amputation procedures and 32 patients were managed conservatively with antibiotics and analgesics. All patients underwent Hyperbaric oxygen therapy according to the wound requirements. About 37 patients ( 28%)recurred with the symptoms, which were treated accordingly with surgery and hyperbaric therapy. Conclusion:Usage of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a known entity for acute injury. The follow-up of the patient from hyperbaric oxygen to hyperoxygenation should be considered by combining both the system for better outcome in patients.


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Opuntia elatior Mill.(Nagaphani): A Review on its Ethnobotany,Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Shashikant Manharlal Prajapati, Rabinarayan Acharya.
Background: Opuntia elatior Mill.(Cactaceae), a folklore plant known as Nagaphani or Hathlo-thore is widely available across the globe and in India, widely prevalent in the state of Gujarat. Different parts of this xerophytic perennial bushy shrub of 1-3 m tall like stem, flowers, fruits, thorn, leaves are used in traditionally to combat different diseases conditions. Though used widely, single hand information about its ethno-botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological action is lacking. Aim: The present study was planned to review the different ethno-botanical uses, phytochemical and Pharmacological properties of Opuntia elatior Mill. Materials and Methods: Opuntia elatior Mill. was searched from available literature, with regards to its ethno-botanical uses and latest research carried out on its phytochemical and pharmacological properties, from different web based search engines. Results: Present review revealed that O. elatior is being used traditionally in different disease condition like abscess & wound, burning sensation in the stomach, diabetes, diphtheria, asthma and anemia. The principal constituents present in the plant are â-sitosterol, opuntiol and opuntiol acetate. Plant shows notable pharmacological activities such as haematinic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-leukemic and anti-ulcer activity including its safety reports during acute toxic study. Conclusion: The observations of present review regarding the ethno-medicinal uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological properties of O. elatior may give a lead to for the research on this plant.


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Pharmaceutical Standardization of Swarna Bhasma (incinerated gold) by adopting traditional method

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Sanjay B Khedekar, Biswajyoti Patgiri, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati.
Swarna Bhasma (SB) (incinerated gold) is one of the most potent and popular medicine among all Ayurvedic Medicines.Several procedures of its preparation are mentioned in the classical texts of Rasashastra. In the present study Swarna Bhasma is prepared and anlysed to develop its standard parameters. Three batches of SB were prepared and analyzed. Its different procedures like Shodhana (purification), Marana (incineration) were followed as per mentioned in texts. Specialized heating pattern was adopted for the preparation of SB. 18% loss was observed after the completion of thirty subsequent Putas (heating procedure). As a result, finished product contains 52.33 % elemental gold.


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Hypolipidemic Effect of Different Coconut Oil Extracts of Vyosakatvivaradi Formulation in Wistar Rats

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Anita Mahapatra, Sudhir Rajurkar, Sujith Subash, Ram Manohar.
Hyperlipidemia is a major, modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease. Daily intake of coconut oil increases serum HDL cholesterol, produces very little free radicals, is rapidly absorbed, oxidized and does not deposit in the body. In order to add up to these benefits, different types of coconut oils were blended with Vyosakatvivaradi, a classical Ayurvedic formulation. . Four different coconut oil extracts [VCO (virgin coconut oil), TCO (Traditional coconut oil), CCO (Commercial coconut oil), TCO + Coconut Milk + HERBS] of Vyosakatvivaradi formulation were prepared and their preventive and therapeutic hypolipidemic effects were studied in wistar rats. The medicated oil extract TCO + Coconut Milk + HERBS and CCO + HERBS showed encouraging therapeutic and preventive effects on hyperlipidemia. However, the oil extract TCO + Coconut Milk + HERBS is observed to be better than the oil extract CCO + HERBS. The oil extracts VCO + HERBS and TCO + HERBS exhibited moderate hypolipidemic action and their effect at different dose levels needs to be further evaluated.


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Ayurvedic Management of Smack (Opium) Addiction- A Case Report

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Sharad Maroti Porte.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimates that there were between 12 and 21 million opiate users worldwide in 2009. Opiate addiction gives physical and mental toxic effect along with inhibition of morality and social awareness. It is difficult to stop due to dependence. One Opium powder addicted patient taking smack smoking since 2 years and injection since 1 month was given ayurvedic treatment. Patient developed withdrawal symptoms due to sudden stoppage of Opium Powder and managed with Samirgajkesari Rasa, Agnitundi Vati, Kanakasav, Yograj Guggul, Abhyanga (Massage), Swedan (Sudation), Shiro-Abhyanga and Pranayam (Meditation). Samiragajkesari Rasa was tapered up gradually along with supportive medication. At baseline Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) was found 20. One week and two weeks after the treatment, it reduced to 8, and 3 respectively. During the management, no complication was observed related with ayurvedic therapy .


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Perceptions of Dravyaguna students about Small Group Teaching and Classroom Teaching

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Meena Shamrao Deogade, Siva Rama Prasad Kethamakka, Arati Panchabai, Sonali P Chalakh, Priti R Desai.
Background: The Ayurveda an Indian Traditional Health Science in multi lingual, multi ethnic and multi facet reveal undisclosed specific learning difficulties. Students need to cope up with challenges in both classroom and in clinical practice. Educational Researches offer various models and Specific Learning Methods to overcome these problems. Objectives: To observe the benefit of Small group teaching versus classroom teaching in Ayurveda students Materials and Methods: A sample size of 50 distributed equally in to two groups observed with a Pre and Post test and feedback analysis is taken. Graph pad software for paired and unpaired Students T test is used for Data Interpretation and final result assessment. Results: Pre-post test assessment comparison for Group A and B Small Group Teaching (SGT) and Class Room Teaching (CRT) were extremely significant with p


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Go behind the scenes at the technical base

With 16 medical helicopters it`s plenty to do for technical base at Gardermoen. 20 technicians ensures that Norwegian Air Ambulance AS always have an airworthy helicopters on each base . After 1000 hours of flight should the helicopter into a larger inspection. Here you get a glimpse of one such inspection. NLA in Jotunheimen: https://youtube/k1fz89S5B0Y ( Some music for the flight BigBang -Wild Bird https://youtube/3p52_NI2uTk ) ExEMTNor :-)

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Go behind the scenes at the technical base

With 16 medical helicopters it`s plenty to do for technical base at Gardermoen. 20 technicians ensures that Norwegian Air Ambulance AS always have an airworthy helicopters on each base . After 1000 hours of flight should the helicopter into a larger inspection. Here you get a glimpse of one such inspection. NLA in Jotunheimen: https://youtube/k1fz89S5B0Y ( Some music for the flight BigBang -Wild Bird https://youtube/3p52_NI2uTk ) ExEMTNor :-)

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How to Subscribe the Journal

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Team AAM.
How to Subscribe the Journal


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Go behind the scenes at the technical base

With 16 medical helicopters it`s plenty to do for technical base at Gardermoen. 20 technicians ensures that Norwegian Air Ambulance AS always have an airworthy helicopters on each base . After 1000 hours of flight should the helicopter into a larger inspection. Here you get a glimpse of one such inspection. NLA in Jotunheimen: https://youtube/k1fz89S5B0Y ( Some music for the flight BigBang -Wild Bird https://youtube/3p52_NI2uTk ) ExEMTNor :-)

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Ayurveda News

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Team AAM.
Ayurveda News


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Go behind the scenes at the technical base

With 16 medical helicopters it`s plenty to do for technical base at Gardermoen. 20 technicians ensures that Norwegian Air Ambulance AS always have an airworthy helicopters on each base . After 1000 hours of flight should the helicopter into a larger inspection. Here you get a glimpse of one such inspection. NLA in Jotunheimen: https://youtube/k1fz89S5B0Y ( Some music for the flight BigBang -Wild Bird https://youtube/3p52_NI2uTk ) ExEMTNor :-)

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Journal Watch

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Team AAM.
Journal Watch


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Challenges of Pharmaceutics in Ayurveda

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
C K Katiyar.
Development of Pharmaceutics in Ayurveda is an interesting exploration of evolution of newer and newer dosage forms by the ancient Ayurvedic experts.


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Doing Ayush in India Today: Against All Odds

2016-05-16T20-59-44Z
Source: Annals of Ayurvedic Medicine
Prof R. H. Singh.
There has been an arousal of global interest in AYUSH specially Ayurveda with proportionate resurfacing of controversies, contradictions and disproportionate expectation from all corners including consumers.


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Selection of Amikacin Hyper-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa After Stepwise Exposure to High Amikacin Concentrations

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Detection of blaOXA-23-like and blaNDM-1 in Acinetobacter baumannii from the Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Randomized controlled analysis-autogenous bone peg graft improved offset hemiarthroplasty in high risk patients: a novel cost effective technique

2016-05-16T06-54-54Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Hashmukh Shantilal Varma, Sachin Upadhyay*, Nuthan Jagadeesh.
Background: Femoral neck fractures in elderly with comorbidities are a serious and increasing challenge. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for early rehabilitation. In present Indian scenario, the two major factors that drive our strategy for treatment are affordability and use of cemented prosthesis in high risk patients. The primary objective is to develop a technique that not only maintains the hip biomechanics after arthroplasty but also cost-effective. Methods: Fifty high risk elderly patients of either sex with fracture neck femur after randomization were divided into two groups. Hemiarthroplasty through postero-lateral approach was done .Unipolar prosthesis were used in both the groups. A new measurement X was defined. Radiologically correlation between the value of X and the variation in femoral offset is measured with novel technique and compared the parameters with conventional technique. P


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The dynamics of diagnosis of salivary gland tumours: histopathology matters

2016-05-16T06-54-54Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Madabhushi Venugopal*, Chaganti Padmavathi Devi, Kuppili Deepthi, Koteswari Mutte.
Background: Tumours of salivary glands are rare neoplasms of head and neck region accounting for less than one percent of all tumours. Parotid gland accounts for majority of tumors followed by submandibular gland. As such many challenges are encountered in establishing histological diagnosis, classification, grading and management of salivary gland neoplasms. This study is taken up to study the incidence of salivary gland tumours in our institution and analyse histological criteria for diagnosis and grading systems in vogue for common malignant lesions. Methods: Clinical data at presentation, resected specimens received from Government General Hospital, Guntur and tissue sections stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin are retrieved from the archives in the Department of Pathology for the study. Relevant Immunohistochemical markers are done in difficult cases. Salivary gland tumours reported between 2011 and 2015 in the Department of Pathology, Guntur Medical College, Guntur, are taken for the study. Results: Majority of the salivary gland tumours in our study were observed in the fourth and fifth decades with a male preponderance (62.68%). Parotid gland was the most common site (83.63%) for all tumours and pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour with 76 out of 110 cases (69.09%). Other benign tumours in the study included three cases each of Warthin tumour and basal cell adenoma. Malignant tumours accounted for 28 out of 110 tumours (25.45%). Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was the most common malignant lesion in the study with 13 cases (46.42%). Conclusions: Salivary gland tumours are rare. But the wide spectrum of tumour entities and histological complexities lead to diagnostic problems in many cases. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour overall and parotid gland was the most common site for both benign and malignant tumours.


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Histological correlates of gastro esophageal reflux disease in South Indian population

2016-05-16T06-54-54Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Jawahar Ramasamy, George Kurian, Renu GBoy Varghese, Thomas Alexander.
Background: Diagnosing gastroeosopageal reflux disease (GERD) accurately is a complex problem. This study was conducted to examine the histological findings of GERD in Indian subjects. Esophageal biopsy can be combined with pH monitoring and endoscopy to define the histological damage that occurs due to acid regurgitation. The sensitivity and specificity of the individual findings needs clarity in this clouded area in order to be of use to the pathologist. Methods: A total of 102 patients with dyspepsia were included in this study. Those with heartburn and /or regurgitation were identified as patients with GERD and those without these symptoms were treated as cases of non GERD dyspepsia. Biopsies were taken 2cm above 'Z' line in all cases. The biopsies were read by a single pathologist. Basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), neutrophilic exocytosis (NE), dilated intercellular spaces (DIS), papillary elongation (PE) and lymphoid aggregates (LA), necrosis (NEC) and eosinophilic infiltration were studied. Results: 68 patients had GERD dyspepsia and 34 had non GERD dyspepsia. The histological findings of BCH, NE, PE, DIS, LA were found to be found much more often in patients with GERD symptoms (p values ranged from 0.0001 to 0.0008). We found BCH and papillary elongation together were the most sensitive histological findings. Specificity was highest when DIS combined with NE. Conclusions: In this study we found basal cell hyperplasia is the most common histological finding, and when combined with DIS or papillary elongation enhances its sensitivity. However to exclude other causes of dyspepsia, a combination of DIS, PE and NE can be used effectively.


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Epidemiological evaluation (age, sex, mode of injury, organ injured) of two hundred and sixty two cases of trauma admitted through the emergency department of tertiary care centre and their relation to mortality

2016-05-16T06-54-54Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Moorat Singh Yadav, Vibhore Agarwal.
Background: Trauma is a global phenomenon and a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. It is the disease of young and the leading cause of death in the first four decades of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate this developing country trauma centre in terms of treatment and outcome and compare it with centers around the world. Methods: Two hundred and sixty two consecutive cases of polytrauma of adult age group admitted in casualty of Hamidia Hospital, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India from 1 July 2014 to 1 December 2014. Results: Trauma principally affects the young population. In our study 28.2% of the patients were between the age group 20-29 years. 29.8% of the patients were between the age group 30-39 years. In our study, males comprised 87.8% (232 out of the total 262 patients). In our study, traffic collisions were responsible for 91% of cases (238 cases out of 262). Region affected by trauma: head and neck accounted for 43.7% of injured patients followed by lower limb injuries (33.8%). Conclusions: Out of the 262 patients included in our study 242 were discharged alive while 20 (7.6%) died. The analysis of effect of age on mortality in our study brought forward the fact that mortality increase with age and becomes nearly double for patients over 50 years of age (11.78% age specific mortality) of age for the same degree of injury severity as compared to patients below 50 years of age (5.2% of age specific mortality).


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Functional characterization of the ABCG2 5’ non-coding exon variants: stem cell specificity, translation efficiency and the influence of drug selection

Publication date: Available online 15 May 2016
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms
Author(s): Sára Sándor, Theodora Jordanidisz, Anita Schamberger, György Várady, Zsuzsa Erdei, Ágota Apáti, Balázs Sarkadi, Tamás I. Orbán
ABCG2 is a multidrug transporter with wide substrate specificity, and is believed to protect several cell types from various xenobiotics and endobiotics. This "guardian" function is important in numerous cell types and tissue barriers but becomes disadvantageous by being responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype in certain tumor cells. ABCG2 regulation at the protein level has already been extensively studied, however, regulation at the mRNA level, especially the functional role of the various 5' untranslated exon variants (5' UTRs) has been elusive. In the present work, we describe a comprehensive characterization of four ABCG2 mRNA variants with different exon 1 sequences, investigate drug inducibility, stem cell specificity, mRNA stability, and translation efficiency. Although certain variants (E1B and E1C) are considered as "constitutive" mRNA isoforms, we show that chemotoxic drugs significantly alter the expression pattern of distinct ABCG2 mRNA isoforms. When examining human embryonic stem cell lines, we provide evidence that variant E1A has an expression pattern coupled to undifferentiated stem cell stage, as its transcript level is regulated parallel to mRNAs of Oct4 and Nanog pluripotency marker genes. When characterizing the four exon 1 variants we found no significant differences in terms of mRNA stabilities and half-lives of the isoforms. In contrast, variant E1U showed markedly lower translation efficiency both at the total protein level or regarding the functional presence in the plasma membrane. Taken together, these results indicate that the different 5' UTR variants play an important role in cell type specific regulation and fine tuning of ABCG2 expression.

Graphical abstract

image


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NM AMR offering free CPR training for EMS Week

Compression-only CPR allows bystanders to keep blood flowing through a victim's body just by pressing on the chest. (Photo courtesy AMR)

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Efficacy of power strips as an alternate pain relief method in dental extractions: a clinical trial

2016-05-16T05-59-46Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Amanpreet Kaur, Ramandeep Singh Gambhir, Randeep Singh Mann, Jyotsna Goyal, Bikramjit Singh Gill, Sanjeet Gill.
Background: Reducing post-interventional inflammation and pain in odontostomatological surgery procedures, such as tooth extractions, implants or oral biopsies is a relevant clinical goal. Therefore the present study was conducted to access the effect of PowerStrips on the patients with the post- operative pain associated with the extraction of tooth. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted among 88 subjects who were to undergo non-surgical extraction of their tooth a private clinic. PowerStrips patch was applied on the side of extraction after the procedure. Post-procedure pain was assessed on the same day after tooth extraction before application of PowerStrips and three days after application by means of a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) (from 0: no pain to 10: extreme pain). The data obtain from the study subjects were statistically evaluated using Paired t-test. Results: The mean difference in VAS score after application of PowerStrips on 1st and 3rd day was found to be 4.68 which was found to be statistically significant (P


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NM AMR offering free CPR training for EMS Week

By Jacqueline Devine
The Alamogordo Daily News

OTERO COUNTY, N.M. — The American Medical Response of Otero County is offering the community free compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation training that can possibly help save a life on Wednesday, May 18, outside of Walmart.

In observation of National Emergency Medical Services Week and World CPR Challenge Day, American Medical Response operations across the country will train thousands of people to save lives through compression-only CPR.

CPR is a lifesaving technique used when someone is suffering from a heart attack or has been in a near drowning situation where their breathing or heartbeat has stopped.

Compressions-only CPR involves hands compressing on the chest uninterrupted about 100 times a minute until paramedics arrive. Rescuing breathing is not necessary. The maneuver applies to adults, children and infants but not newborns.

AMR Administrator Supervisor David Wheeler said compression-only CPR allows bystanders to keep blood flowing through a victim's body just by pressing on the chest in a hard, fast rhythm.

"We do compressions at 100 per minute and we don't stop and that's the big key with doing compressions, is to not stop so that when the responders get to the scene we continue CPR. We don't move the patient," Wheeler said. "That's what's going to keep the oxygen going to the brain and then we can do the rest of the lifesaving maneuvers with the medications and the IVs plus we talk to physicians on the communications systems that way we get the best chances of the patient surviving."

Wheeler has been working for the Otero County American Medical Response team for 17 years and he was a paramedic for 37 years. When he was 16-years-old he became a junior volunteer firefighter and has wanted to help people ever since he witnessed an infant get hit by a car.

"I was a junior volunteer firefighter and I actually saw an 18 month old get hit by a car. I felt helpless," Wheeler said. "I was 16-years-old, I didn't know what to do and from that point on I decided I will never be in that situation ever again. I was an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) before I graduated high school, the year I graduated high school I was a licensed paramedic. I was one of the youngest licensed paramedics in the state of Texas."

He said the American Medical Response has really been pushing communities across the nation to learn compression-only CPR because heart attacks are one of the top causes of death in the United States and the training only lasts about 5 to 10 minutes.

"We're really pushing it this year and trying to educate the public as much as we can. It doesn't take long, they can do it before they get their groceries," Wheeler said. "We are really enhancing the emergency responders in Otero County. Anyone can learn CPR, even kids. After a course, people will receive certificates. It's not a full CPR course, they have those for workplaces or if you're a healthcare provider. The compression-only CPR is designed for the general public."

He said it is crucial that a victim receives CPR if they are unconscious because as soon as their heart stops it takes an average of about seven minutes for heart damage and brain failure to occur.

"When the heart stops that's when zero time starts, within four to six minutes that's when brain death starts. Beyond 10 minutes the brain is without resuscitation," Wheeler said. "Our average response time for Alamogordo is seven minutes, so anything after that brain damage can start occurring. We want the public to be doing CPR. If the brain goes without oxygen for too long it can be tough to bring the patient back."

In July 2015 Gerald Champion Regional Medical Center (GCRMC) opened their first cardiac catheterization lab which has increased the chance of survival for victims of cardiac arrest.

Wheeler said before the cath lab opened patients were transferred to Las Cruces by ambulance or helicopter and CPR was one of the only ways to keep a patient alive. But now that the cath lab is in operation medical physicians can now guide a catheter into a clogged artery.

"In the cath lab they will go in and guide a catheter into a clogged artery in the heart and put stents in to keep that area alive so blood supply will keep going," he said. "We are progressing with medicine in rural communities, it's getting sophisticated. It's all about saving patients. With the cath lab here hopefully we catch a lot more patients before they get into major trouble and they can correct them there that way they don't get into that cardiac arrest situation."

Wheeler said if anyone experiences any chest pains, pain running down their left arm, shortness of breath or nausea must dial 9-1-1 immediately. Compression-only CPR should only be done if the victim is unconscious and they are waiting for a paramedic to arrive.

"We don't move the patient because we don't want to interrupt CPR. We used to put them on a board and put them in an ambulance but every time we stop CPR the blood supply drastically stops. The pressure we built on the chest drastically drops and now the brain is without oxygen and it takes time to build that back up," he said. "Every time we do that chances of survival decreases significantly. Always dial 9-1-1 if you are feeling any kind of chest discomfort."

Wheeler said a healthy lifestyle is key to maintaining a healthy heart.

"Exercise watch your diet, if you smoke, stop. That's the number one contributor to heart attacks," he said. "Getting annual physicals is also important."

Copyright 2016 the Alamogordo Daily News



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Calculating and interpreting Cronbach’s alpha using Rosenberg assessment scale on paediatrician’s attitude and perception on self esteem

2016-05-16T05-59-46Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Surya Kumar Namdeo, Sushil Dev Rout.
Background: Items used in a questionnaire should have internal consistency, which reflects its reliability. The most common and useful measure for internal consistency is cronbachs alpha. Though it is the most widely used tool in qualitative medical research, it is also the most commonly misunderstood statistic. A misinterpreted cronbachs alpha may lead to the question about the reliability of an item or scale. So this study has been undertaken with an objective of calculating and interpreting cronbachs alpha for evaluation of the internal consistency of items by using Rosenberg Assessment Scale (RAS) on attitude and perception of paediatricians about self-esteem. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done in bhubaneswar during a CME. Responses of 50 paediatricians were taken by close ended, pretested RAS. Results: The result of the reliability measure was good: α=0.724 in our study that means all the items in our survey were internally consistent and reliable to assess the attitude and perception of paediatricians. Conclusions: It was concluded that measure of internal consistency, Cronbachs alpha (α) was easy to calculate, had a direct interpretation & less time consuming.


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Prevalence of obesity in Chambal region and predictors of risk factors

2016-05-16T04-45-42Z
Source: International Journal of Advances in Medicine
Sushma Trikha, Neelima Singh.
Background: The prevalence of obesity is alarmingly high, affecting both developed and developing countries of all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. As the prevalence of obesity increases so does the burden of its associated co-morbidities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalences of overweight and obesity in our region, study the association between family history of diabetes (FHD) and body mass index (BMI) and to assess the relationship between family history of obesity and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A cross sectional population based study of 1017 randomly selected individuals was conducted. Pregnant patients and those with hypothyroidism, severe disability or severe psychiatric disturbance were excluded. Study included school going children, college going students, employees of medical college GRMC Gwalior and attendants of indoor and outdoor patients. Weight and height were measured and body mass index calculated. Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 were defined as overweight and those with BMI 27.5 kg/m2 and above were labelled as obese as per the WHO recommendation for Asian population. Results: A total of 1017 patients were included in this study. There were 573 (56.34%) males and 444(43.66 %) females. Overall prevalence of overweight was 251(24.6%) and prevalence of obesity was (25) 2.4%. 93 (33.69%) of those with BMI >23 had family history of obesity while the figure was 81 (10.93%) in those with BMI 23 had family history of diabetes and 40 (5.39%) with BMI 23 consumed alcohol compared to 11 (7.5%) cases with BMI


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A role for loop G in the β1 strand in GABAA receptor activation

The GABAA receptor α subunit β1 strand runs anti-parallel to the β2 strand, which contains loop D, known to participate in receptor activation and agonist binding. However, a role for the β1 strand has yet to be established. We used molecular dynamics simulation to quantify the solvent accessible surface area (SASA) of β1 strand residues in the GABAA β3 homopentamer structure. Residues in the complementary interface equivalent to those between Asp43 and Thr47 in the a1 subunit have an alternating pattern of high and low SASA consistent with a β strand structure. We investigated the functional role of these β1 strand residues in the α1 subunit by individually replacing them with Cys residues. D43C and T47C substitutions reduced the apparent potency of GABA at α1β2γ2 receptors by around 50-fold and 8-fold, respectively, whereas the F45C substitution caused a biphasic GABA concentration-response relationship and increased spontaneous gating. Receptors with D43C or T47C substitutions were sensitive to MTSEA modification. However, GABA-evoked currents mediated by α1(F45C)β2γ2 receptors were unaffected by MTSEA, suggesting that this residue is inaccessible. Both GABA and the allosteric agonist propofol reduced MTSEA modification of α1(D43C)β2γ2 and α1(T47C)β2γ2 receptors indicating movement of the β1 strand even during allosteric activation. This is in contrast to α1(F64C)β2γ2 receptors where only GABA, but not propofol reduced MTSEA modification. These findings provide the first functional evidence for movement of the β1 strand during gating of the receptor and identify residues that are critical for maintaining GABAA receptor function.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Antibiotics prescribing habits: an evaluation of dental practitioners in Manipur, North east India

2016-05-16T04-00-56Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
Tanya Nandkeoliar, Pragya W. Pandey, Priyanka Bhushan, Amandeep Kour, Prerna Basnett.
Background: Dental practitioners need to be thoroughly aware of the clinical indications for antibiotic prescription in order to prevent the insult of these medicaments. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions among oral healthcare providers in Manipur, North East India. Multitude of studies has been conducted in various parts of the world and in India however, this is the first in the North east region of India and in Manipur. Methods: It was a questionnaire based study with the inclusion of types, dosage, clinical situations and medical situations when antibiotics were prescribed by active dental practitioners. Results: Antibiotic most commonly prescribed among individuals with no medical allergies was amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. 625 mg (72%) while in case of allergy azithromycin (48%) was the preferred choice. Antibiotics were prescribed in a vast majority of acute and chronic conditions. The analysis of the clinical scenarios for therapeutic prescriptions by dentists also proved to be considerably high and unnecessary. Conclusions: The present study determined that the pattern of antibiotic prescription among oral healthcare providers in Manipur, North east India was extremely high.


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Evaluation of anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves in albino rats

2016-05-16T04-00-56Z
Source: International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology
A. Sudha Madhuri, Rajalakshmi Mohanvelu, S. Ramabhimaiah.
Background: Mangifera indica (MI) commonly known as mango belongs to the family anacardiaceae, distributed in rural and semi urban parts of India. According to Ayurveda, various medical properties are attributed to different parts of the mango tree. The purpose of the study was to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves. Methods: Aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves was prepared and tested for anti-inflammatory activity in albino rats weighing 200-250 gm. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using Acute (carrageenan induced paw edema) and chronic (Formalin induced paw edema) animal models. Rats were divided into 4 groups, 6 rats in each group. Group I (control) received 0.1 ml 4% gum acacia suspension. Group II and Group III received Mangifera indica extract at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight. Group IV (standard) received diclofenac 10 mg/kg body weight. All the drugs were administered orally. Anti-inflammatory activity was expressed as percentage inhibition of paw edema. Results: The percentage inhibition in carrageenan induced paw edema with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg Mangifera indica extract was 44.8% and 53% and in formalin induced paw edema was 47.5% and 64.4% respectively. The two doses of Mangifera indica extract showed significant anti-inflammatory action (p


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Prenatal diagnosis of congenital myopathies and muscular dystrophies

Abstract

Congenital myopathies and muscular dystrophies constitute a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of rare inherited diseases characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy, motor delay and respiratory insufficiency. To date, curative care is not available for these diseases, which may severely affect both life-span and quality of life. We discuss prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for families at risk, as well as diagnostic possibilities in sporadic cases.

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Graphical Abstract



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Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 replication in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2/C3A

Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology

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FOLFIRINOX for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and patient-level meta-analysis

The Lancet Oncology

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The Hippo pathway in intestinal regeneration and disease

Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Parallel declines in HIV and hepatitis C virus prevalence, but not in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection: A 10-year, serial cross-sectional study in an inner-city emergency department

Journal of Clinical Virology

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Factors predicting adverse events associated with therapeutic colonoscopy for colorectal neoplasia: a retrospective nationwide study in Japan

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

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Effect of fibre supplementation on chronic idiopathic constipation in adults

Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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Immunologic and metabolic features of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma define prognostic subtypes of disease

Clinical Cancer Research

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Effectiveness of add-on therapy with domperidone vs alginic acid in proton pump inhibitor partial response gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in systemic sclerosis: Randomized placebo-controlled trial

Rheumatology

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Allele-specific transcriptional activity of the variable number of tandem repeats of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with idiopathic achalasia

United European Gastroenterology Journal

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Hepatitis E virus mutations associated with ribavirin treatment failure result in altered viral fitness and ribavirin sensitivity

Journal of Hepatology

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Full title: a meta-analysis of the diagnostic value of detecting K-ras mutation in pancreatic juice as a molecular marker for pancreatic cancer

Pancreatology

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Multiple hepatitis B virus (HBV) quasispecies and immune-escape mutations are present in HBV surface antigen and reverse transcriptase of patients with acute hepatitis B

The Journal of Infectious Diseases

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Biologic therapies and risk of infection and malignancy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review and network meta-analysis

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Tobacco carcinogen induces both lung cancer and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinomas in ferrets which can be attenuated by lycopene supplementation

International Journal of Cancer

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Plasma renin concentration represents an independent risk factor for mortality and is associated with liver dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Invasive Fusobacterium nucleatum may play a role in the carcinogenesis of proximal colon cancer through the serrated neoplasia pathway

International Journal of Cancer

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Prevalence of QT interval prolongation in inflammatory bowel disease

The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology

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Impact of Helicobacter pylori eradication on refractory thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic HCV awaiting antiviral therapy

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases

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Long-term pulmonary function in esophageal atresia - A case-control study

Pediatric Pulmonology

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The all-age prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and potential transmission routes. A population-based study

Helicobacter

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