Παρασκευή, 6 Απριλίου 2018

The expression of fgfr3 in the zebrafish head

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Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
Source:Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Joanna K. Ledwon, Sergey Y. Turin, Arun K. Gosain, Jolanta M. Topczewska
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for many developmental processes and plays a pivotal role in skeletal homeostasis, regeneration and wound healing. FGF signals through one of five tyrosine kinase receptors: Fgfr1a, -1b, −2, −3, −4. To characterize the expression of zebrafish fgfr3 from the larval stage to adulthood, we used RNAscope in situ hybridization on paraffin sections of the zebrafish head. Our study revealed spatial and temporal distribution of fgfr3 transcript in chondrocytes of the head cartilages, osteoblasts involved in bone formation, ventricular zone of the brain, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells of the skin, and lens epithelium of the eye. In general, the expression pattern of zebrafish fgfr3 is similar to the expression observed in higher vertebrates.



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An in vitro evaluation of the influence of neonatal endotracheal tube diameter and length on the work of breathing

Pediatric Anesthesia, EarlyView.


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The Pseudokinase Domain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tra1 Is Required for Nuclear Localization and Incorporation into the SAGA and NuA4 Complexes

Tra1 is an essential component of the SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 complexes in S. cerevisiae, recruiting these co-activator complexes to specific promoters. As a PIKK family member, Tra1 is characterized by a C-terminal phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) domain. Unlike other PIKK family members (e.g. Tor1, Tor2, Mec1, Tel1), Tra1 has no demonstrable kinase activity. We identified three conserved arginine residues in Tra1 that reside proximal or within the cleft between the N- and C-terminal subdomains of the PI3K domain. To establish a function for Tra1's PI3K domain and specifically the cleft region, we characterized a tra1 allele where these three arginine residues are mutated to glutamine. The half-life of the Tra1Q3 protein is reduced but its steady state level is maintained at near wild-type levels by a transcriptional feedback mechanism. The tra1Q3 allele results in slow growth under stress and alters the expression of genes also regulated by other components of the SAGA complex. Tra1Q3 is less efficiently transported to the nucleus than the wild-type protein. Likely related to this, Tra1Q3 associates poorly with SAGA/SLIK and NuA4. The ratio of Spt7SLIK to Spt7SAGA increases in the tra1Q3 strain and truncated forms of Spt20 become apparent upon isolation of SAGA/SLIK. Intragenic suppressor mutations of tra1Q3map to the cleft region further emphasizing its importance. We propose that the PI3K domain of Tra1 is directly or indirectly important for incorporating Tra1 into SAGA and NuA4 and thus the biosynthesis and/or stability of the intact complexes.



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diploS/HIC: An Updated Approach to Classifying Selective Sweeps

Identifying selective sweeps in populations that have complex demographic histories remains a difficult problem in population genetics. We previously introduced a supervised machine learning approach, S/HIC, for finding both hard and soft selective sweeps in genomes on the basis of patterns of genetic variation surrounding a window of the genome. While S/HIC was shown to be both powerful and precise, the utility of S/HIC was limited by the use of phased genomic data as input. In this report we describe a deep learning variant of our method, diploS/HIC, that uses unphased genotypes to accurately classify genomic windows. diploS/HIC is shown to be quite powerful even at moderate to small sample sizes.



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Genetic Loci Governing Androgenic Capacity in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

Immature pollen can be induced to switch developmental pathways from gametogenesis to embryogenesis and subsequently regenerate into homozygous, diploid plants. Such androgenic production of doubled haploids is particularly useful for species where inbreeding is hampered by effective self-incompatibility systems. Therefore, increasing the generally low androgenic capacity of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) germplasm would enable the efficient production of homozygous plant material, so that a more effective exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding schemes can be realized. Here, we present the results of a genome-wide association study in a heterozygous, multi-parental population of perennial ryegrass (n = 391) segregating for androgenic capacity. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to interrogate gene dense genomic regions and revealed over 1,100 polymorphic sites. Between one and 10 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for anther response, embryo and total plant production, green and albino plant production and regeneration. Most traits were under polygenic control, although a major QTL on linkage group 5 was associated with green plant regeneration. Distinct genetic factors seem to affect green and albino plant recovery. Two intriguing candidate genes, encoding chromatin binding domains of the developmental phase transition regulator, Polycomb Repressive Complex 2, were identified. Our results shed the first light on the molecular mechanisms behind perennial ryegrass microspore embryogenesis and enable marker-assisted introgression of androgenic capacity into recalcitrant germplasm of this forage crop of global significance.



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New Visions and Current Evidence for Safety in Anesthesia

No abstract available

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American Society for Enhanced Recovery: Advancing Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Medicine

As the population ages, the increasing surgical volume and complexity of care are expected to place additional care delivery burdens in the perioperative setting. In this age of integrated multidisciplinary care of the surgical patients, there is increasing recognition that an evidence-based perioperative pathway is associated with the optimal outcomes. These pathways, collectively referred to as Enhanced Recovery Pathways, have resulted in shortened length of hospital stay, reduced complications, and variance in outcomes, as well as earlier return to baseline activities. The American Society for Enhanced Recovery (ASER) is a multispecialty, nonprofit international organization, dedicated to the practice of enhanced recovery in perioperative patients through education and research. Perioperative Quality Initiatives were formed whose intent is to organize a series of consensus conferences on topics of interest related to perioperative medicine. The journal affiliation between American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Anesthesia& Analgesia will enable these evidence-based practices to be disseminated widely and swiftly to the practicing perioperative health care professionals so they can be adopted to improve the quality of perioperative surgical care. Accepted for publication March 12, 2018. Funding: None. Conflicts of Interest: See Disclosures at the end of the article. Reprints will not be available from the authors. Address correspondence to Tong J. Gan, MD, MBA, MHS, FRCA, Department of Anesthesiology, Stony Brook University, HSC Level 4, Rm 060, Stony Brook, NY 11794. Address e-mail to tong.gan@stonybrookmedicine.edu. © 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society

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Dezocine Alleviates Morphine-Induced Dependence in Rats

BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence is a major public health issue without optimal therapeutics. This study investigates the potential therapeutic effect of dezocine, a nonaddictive opioid, in opioid dependence in rat models. METHODS: Dezocine was administered intraperitoneally to a morphine-dependent rat model to investigate its effect on withdrawal and conditioned place preference (CPP). Effect of dezocine on morphine withdrawal syndrome and CPP was analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Buprenorphine and vehicle solution containing 20% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide were used for positive and negative control, respectively. The astrocytes activation in nucleus accumbens was assessed by immunofluorescence assay of glial fibrillary acidic protein. Effect of dezocine and buprenorphine on the internalization of κ opioid receptor (KOR) was investigated using Neuro2A expressing KOR fused to red fluorescent protein tdTomato (KOR-tdT). Buprenorphine and dezocine were screened against 44 G-protein–coupled receptors, ion channels, and transporter proteins using radioligand-binding assay to compare the molecular targets. RESULTS: The mean withdrawal score was reduced in rats treated with 1.25 mg·kg−1 dezocine compared to vehicle-treated control animals starting from the day 1 (mean difference: 7.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.35–9.25; P

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Case Studies in Adult Intensive Care Medicine

No abstract available

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Lack of Evidence for Ceiling Effect for Buprenorphine Analgesia in Humans

No abstract available

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Potential Benefits of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors in the Perioperative Period

No abstract available

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Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Gastric Ultrasound

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents is associated with significant perioperative morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have investigated the validity, reliability, and possible clinical impact of gastric ultrasound for the assessment of gastric content at the bedside. In the present study, we examined the accuracy (evaluated as sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios) of point-of-care gastric ultrasound to detect a "full stomach" in a simulated scenario of clinical equipoise. METHODS: After a minimum fasting period of 8 hours, 40 healthy volunteers were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either remain fasted or ingest a standardized quantity of clear fluid or solid. Each subject was randomized twice on 2 independent study sessions at least 24 hours apart. A gastric ultrasound examination was performed by a blinded sonographer following a standardized scanning protocol. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative findings, the result was summarized in a dichotomous manner as positive (any solid or >1.5 mL/kg of clear fluid) or negative (no solid and ≤1.5 mL/kg of clear fluid) for full stomach. RESULTS: Data from 80 study sessions were analyzed. In this simulated clinical scenario with a pretest probability of 50%, point-of-care gastric ultrasound had a sensitivity of 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.925–1.0), a specificity of 0.975 (95% CI, 0.95–1.0), a positive likelihood ratio of 40.0 (95% CI, 10.33–∞), a negative likelihood ratio of 0 (95% CI, 0–0.072), a positive predictive value of 0.976 (95% CI, 0.878–1.0), and a negative predictive value of 1.0 (95% CI, 0.92–1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that bedside gastric ultrasound is highly sensitive and specific to detect or rule out a full stomach in clinical scenarios in which the presence of gastric content is uncertain. Accepted for publication February 27, 2018. Funding: This study was supported by a peer-reviewed grant from Physician Services Incorporated, Ontario, Canada. Conflicts of Interest: See Disclosures at the end of the article. Trial Registry Number: Registration ID: NCT02588495. Reprints will not be available from the authors. Address correspondence to Anahi Perlas, MD, FRCPC, Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, 399 Bathurst St, McLaughlin Pavilion 2–405, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada. Address e-mail to anahi.perlas@uhn.ca. © 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society

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In Response

No abstract available

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Reduced Ketobemidone Usage in Quadratus Lumborum Block Patients After Cesarean Delivery: Clinical Pharmacology Views

No abstract available

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Profound Intraoperative Hypotension Associated With Transfusion via the Belmont Fluid Management System

This retrospective observational case series conducted at 2 large academic centers over a 4-year period consists of 15 cases of profound hypotension in surgical patients immediately after initiation of the Belmont Fluid Management System for rapid transfusion of blood products. Halting the infusion and administering vasoactive agents led to resolution of hypotension. Repeat transfusion with the Belmont system resulted in repeat hypotension unless counteracted with vasopressors. No etiology was elucidated. This represents the largest documented association of acute hypotensive transfusion reaction with any rapid infusion system in surgical patients. Accepted for publication February 1, 2018. Funding: None. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Reprints will not be available from the authors. Address correspondence to Joanna Miller, MD, Mount Sinai Hospital, 1 Gustave Levy Pl, New York, NY 10129. Address e-mail to joanna.miller@mountsinai.org. © 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society

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In Response

No abstract available

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Comparison of Intraoperative Sedation With Dexmedetomidine Versus Propofol on Acute Postoperative Pain in Total Knee Arthroplasty Under Spinal Anesthesia: A Randomized Trial

BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty under spinal anesthesia, we compared the postoperative analgesic effect of intraoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine versus propofol. We hypothesized that sedation with dexmedetomidine would result in lower postoperative opioid analgesic consumption than with propofol. METHODS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either a dexmedetomidine group (n = 24), which received a loading dose of 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine over 10 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.1–0.5 μg·kg−1·hour−1, or a propofol group (n = 24), which received a continuous infusion of propofol via a target-controlled infusion to maintain the effect-site concentration within a range of 0.5–2.0 μg/mL. The drug infusion rate was determined according to the sedation level, targeting a modified observer's assessment of alertness/sedation score of 3 or 4. The cumulative amounts of fentanyl administered via intravenous patient-controlled analgesia were recorded at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively (primary outcome). The postoperative numerical rating scale for pain was assessed at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours (secondary outcome). The postoperative use of additional rescue analgesic (ketoprofen) and antiemetic drugs was also compared between the 2 groups at 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced postoperative fentanyl consumption (median [interquartile range]) during 0–24 hours (45 [30–71] vs 150 [49–248] μg, P = .004; median difference = −105 μg [99.98% CI, 210–7.5]), 24–48 hours (90 [45–143] vs 188 [75–266] μg, P = .005; median difference = −98 μg [99.98% CI, 195–45]), and 0–48 hours (135 [68–195] vs 360 [146–480] μg, P = .003; median difference = −225 μg [99.98% CI, 405–7.5]). The numerical rating scale (median [interquartile range]) was lower at 6 hours (1 [0–2] vs 2 [1–3], P = .003), 12 hours (1 [1–2] vs 3 [2–3], P

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Flupirtine, an Effective Analgesic, but Hepatotoxicity Should Limit Its Use

No abstract available

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Comparison of adult spinal deformity patients with and without rheumatoid arthritis undergoing primary non-cervical fusion surgery: a nationwide analysis of 52,818 patients

Numerous studies have analyzed the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the cervical spine and its related surgical interventions. However, there is a paucity of literature available conducting the same analyses in patients with non-cervical spine involvement.

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Does approach matter? a comparative radiographic analysis of spinopelvic parameters in single level lumbar fusion.

Lumbar fusion is a popular and effective surgical option to provide stability and restore anatomy. Particular attention has recently been focused on sagittal alignment and radiographic spinopelvic parameters that apply to lumbar fusion as well as spinal deformity cases. Current literature has demonstrated the effectiveness of various techniques of lumbar fusion, however comparative data of these techniques is limited.

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S18-2. Advancement of research in event related potentials (ERP): Brain functional evaluation in children with developmental disorders

ERP is the measured brain response with electroencephalography that is direct result of a specific event. First cognitive components were discovered in the 1960s, and currently ERP is one of the most widely used methods in cognitive neuroscience research. The studies of ERP for pediatrics make advance with developmental disorders. It is possible for ERP to stimulate with suitable tasks for each disorder. Patients with ADHD have problems with executive functions, especially inhibitory function. NoGo potentials indicate inhibitory function.

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S21-1. A new analysis method using surface electromyography to assess finger function in patients with severe stroke

We have conducted our research into kinesthetic illusions induced by visual stimuli (KiNvis), which are sensations of being in motion that result from watching artificial images of the body part moving. Our previous studies revealed characteristic neural networks related to KiNvis; since then, we have initiated clinical studies adapting KiNvis in patients with stroke. In patients with severe stroke, it is often difficult to measure joint angles, because voluntary movement does not occur or simultaneous contraction of the agonist and antagonist muscles prevent controlled voluntary joint exercise.

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S19-2. The possibility for applying to rehabilitation in MEG study – Variation of cortical magnetic fields by sensory input

MEG provides good localization accuracy within a few millimeters, particularly for superficial cortical sources such as those located in M1 and somatosensory cortex. Although exercising is the basic approach for patients in rehabilitation, the evidences is unclear. We have investigated the changes in cortical magnetic fields according to external stimulus as somatosensory, visual during movements.At first, we investigated practice-induced changes in PPC visuomotor processing during a Go/NoGo task in healthy subjects.

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S17-4. Nerve and muscle ultrasound assessment in ALS

In the diagnosis and assessment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the roles of nerve and muscle ultrasound vary widely. Nerve ultrasound has revealed that cross-sectional area (CSA) was decreased in the median and ulnar nerves and the nerve roots in ALS. In addition, a longitudinal study demonstrated the possibility that ulnar nerve CSA could be a useful biomarker to monitor disease progression in ALS. Muscle ultrasound is useful for detecting widespread fasciculations in the diagnosis of ALS.

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Parasympathetic and sympathetic activity are associated with individual differences in neural indices of selective attention in adults

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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The impact of cognitive training on spontaneous gamma oscillations in schizophrenia

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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Relationships between dysphagia and tongue pressure during swallowing in Parkinson's disease patients

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, EarlyView.


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The start of a human life program

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Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Falong Lu




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A Meta-Analysis of Resistance Training in Female Youth: Its Effect on Muscular Strength, and Shortcomings in the Literature

Abstract

Background

Resistance training is an effective way to enhance strength in female youth but, to date, no researcher has meta-analysed its effect on muscular strength in that population.

Objectives

This meta-analysis characterised female youths' adaptability to resistance training (RT). A second objective was to highlight the limitations of the body of literature with a view to informing future research.

Data Sources

Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science.

Study Eligibility Criteria

Resistance training interventions in healthy females with a mean age between 8 and 18 years. Programmes of between 4 and 16 weeks' duration that included a control group.

Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods

The inverse-variance random effects model for meta-analyses was used because it allocates a proportionate weight to trials based on the size of their individual standard errors and facilitates analysis whilst accounting for heterogeneity across studies. Effect sizes, calculated from a measure of muscular strength, are represented by the standardised mean difference and are presented alongside 95% confidence intervals.

Results

The magnitude of the main effect was 'small' (0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.23–0.85). Effect sizes were larger in older (> 15 years; ES = 0.72 [0.23–1.21] vs. 0.38 [− 0.02–0.79]), taller (> 163 cm; ES = 0.67 [0.20–1.13] vs. 0.55 [0.08–1.02]) and heavier (< 54 kg; ES = 0.67 [0.30–1.03] vs. 0.53 [− 0.00–1.06]) participants.

Conclusions and Implications of Key Findings

Resistance training is effective in female youth. These findings can be used to inform the prescription of RT in female youth.



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Analysis of synonymous codon usage bias in helicase gene from Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus

Abstract

The helicase gene of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is not only involved in viral DNA replication, but also plays a role in viral host range. To identify the codon usage bias of helicase of AcMNPV, the codon usage bias of helicase was especially studies in AcMNPV and 41 reference strains of baculoviruses by calculating the codon adaptation index (CAI), effective number of codon (ENc), relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), and other indices. The helicase of baculovirus is less biased (mean ENc = 50.539 > 40; mean CAI = 0.246). AcMNPV helicase has a strong bias toward the synonymous codons with G and C at the third codon position (GC3s = 53.6%). The plot of GC3s against ENc values revealed that GC compositional constraints are the main factor that determines the codon usage bias of major of helicase. Several indicators supported that the codon usage pattern of helicase is mainly subject to mutation pressure. Analysis of variation in codon usage and amino acid composition indicated AcMNPV helicase shows the significant preference for one or more postulated codons for each amino acid. A cluster analysis based on RSCU values suggested that AcMNPV is evolutionarily closer to members of group I alphabaculovirus. Comparison of the codon usage pattern among E. coli, yeast, mouse, human and AcMNPV showed that yeast is a suitable expression system for AcMNPV helicase. AcMNPV helicase shows weak codon usage bias. This study may help in elucidating the functional mechanism of AcMNPV helicase and the evolution of baculovirus helicases.



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Engineering improved balance confidence among older adults with complex health care needs: Learning from the Muscling Up Against Disability study

Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Sharon Hetherington, Tim Henwood, Paul Swinton, Justin Keogh, Paul Gardiner, Anthony Tuckett
ObjectiveTo investigate the associations of balance confidence with physical and cognitive markers of wellbeing among older adults receiving government-funded aged care services, and whether progressive resistance plus balance training could positively influence change.DesignIntervention study.SettingCommunity-based older-adult-specific exercise clinic.ParticipantsOlder adults (N=245) with complex care needs who were receiving government aged care support.Intervention24 weeks of twice-weekly progressive resistance plus balance training carried out under the supervision of accredited exercise physiologists.Main Outcome MeasuresThe primary measure was the Activity-specific Balance Confidence score. Secondary measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery, fall history, hierarchical timed balance tests, Geriatric Anxiety Index, Geriatric Depression Score, FRAIL scale and EuroQol 5D 3L.ResultsAt baseline, higher physical performance (r = 0.54, p < .01) and quality of life (r = 0.52, p < .01) predicted better balance confidence. In contrast, at baseline, higher levels of frailty predicted worse balance confidence (r = -0.55, p < .01). Change in balance confidence following the exercise intervention was accompanied by improved physical performance (+12%) and decreased frailty (-11%). Baseline balance confidence was identified as the most consistent negative predictor of change scores across the intervention.ConclusionsThis study shows that reduced physical performance and quality of life, and increasing frailty, are predictive of poor balance confidence among older adults with aged care needs. However, when a targeted intervention of resistance and balance exercise is implemented, that reduces frailty and increases physical performance, balance confidence will also improve. Given the influence of balance confidence on a raft of wellbeing determinants, including the capacity for positive physical and cognitive change, this study offers important insight to those looking to reduce falls among older adults.



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The Effectiveness of Oral Pain Medication and Corticosteroid Injections for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome–A Systematic Review

Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Bionka MA. Huisstede, Manon S. Randsdorp, Janneke van den Brink, Thierry PC. Franke, Bart W. Koes, Peter Hoogvliet
ObjectiveTo present an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of oral pain medication and corticosteroid injections to treat carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS).Data SourcesThe Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched for relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs).Data Selection and ExtractionTwo reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted the data on pain (VAS), function or recovery and assessed the methodological quality.Data SynthesisA best-evidence synthesis was performed to summarize the results of the included studies. Four reviews and nine RCTs were included. For oral pain medication strong and moderate evidence was found for the effectiveness of oral steroids versus placebo in the short-term. Moderate evidence was found in favor of oral steroids versus splinting in the short-term. No evidence was found for the effectiveness of oral steroids in the long-term. For corticosteroid injections, strong evidence was found in favor of a corticosteroid injection versus a placebo injection and moderate evidence was found in favor of corticosteroid injection versus oral steroids in the short-term. Also in short-term, moderate evidence was found in favor of a local versus a systematic corticosteroid injection. Higher doses of corticosteroid injections seem to be more effective in the midterm, however the benefits of corticosteroid injections were not maintained in the long-term.ConclusionThe reviewed evidence supports that oral steroids and corticosteroid injections benefit patient with CTS particular in the short-term. Although a higher dose of steroid injections seems to be more effective in the midterm, the benefits of oral pain medication and corticosteroid injections were not maintained in the long-term.



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High-throughput mouse phenomics for characterizing mammalian gene function

High-throughput mouse phenomics for characterizing mammalian gene function

High-throughput mouse phenomics for characterizing mammalian gene function, Published online: 06 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0005-2

High-throughput mouse phenomics for characterizing mammalian gene function

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Cross-Sectional Associations of Reallocating Time Between Sedentary and Active Behaviours on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young People: An International Children’s Accelerometry Database (ICAD) Analysis

Abstract

Introduction

Sedentary time and time spent in various intensity-specific physical activity are co-dependent, and increasing time spent in one behaviour requires decreased time in another.

Objective

The aim of the present study was to examine the theoretical associations with reallocating time between categories of intensities and cardiometabolic risk factors in a large and heterogeneous sample of children and adolescents.

Methods

We analysed pooled data from 13 studies comprising 18,200 children and adolescents aged 4–18 years from the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD). Waist-mounted accelerometers measured sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Cardiometabolic risk factors included waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), triglycerides, insulin, and glucose. Associations of reallocating time between the various intensity categories with cardiometabolic risk factors were explored using isotemporal substitution modelling.

Results

Replacing 10 min of sedentary time with 10 min of MVPA showed favourable associations with WC, SBP, LDL-C, insulin, triglycerides, and glucose; the greatest magnitude was observed for insulin (reduction of 2–4%), WC (reduction of 0.5–1%), and triglycerides (1–2%). In addition, replacing 10 min of sedentary time with an equal amount of LPA showed beneficial associations with WC, although only in adolescents.

Conclusions

Replacing sedentary time and/or LPA with MVPA in children and adolescents is favourably associated with most markers of cardiometabolic risk. Efforts aimed at replacing sedentary time with active behaviours, particularly those of at least moderate intensity, appear to be an effective strategy to reduce cardiometabolic risk in young people.



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Different ventilation techniques and hemodynamic optimization to maintain regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO 2 ) during laparoscopic bariatric surgery: a prospective randomized interventional study

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) in response to different ventilation strategies: inspired oxygen concentration (FiO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2), and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) in addition to optimizing mean arterial pressure (MAP) in obese patients subjected to laparoscopic bariatric surgery in the reverse trendelenburg position.

Methods

50 obese patients were randomly assigned into one of two groups. Each group is 25 patients. Control patients subjected to a ventilation strategy aimed to maintain FiO2 0.4 and EtCO2 30 mmHg without PEEP. Study patients were assigned to specific protocol; T0, baseline rScO2; T1, 5 min following induction; T2, PP/RTP (10 min after pneumoperitoneum and reverse trendelenburg position); T3, PEEP 10 cmH2O; T4, FiO2 1.0; T5, EtCO2 40 mmHg and T6, MAP/BL; MAP back to baseline in both groups.

Main results

10 min after PP/RTP, there was a significant decrease in rScO2 in both groups. At T4, with FiO2 1.0, there was significant improvement in rScO2 when compared to T2. At T5, with EtCO2 40 mmHg, rScO2 significantly enhanced when compared to EtCO2 30 mmHg. At T4 and T5, we observed highly significance difference between both groups. At the end of the procedure and when MAP increased back to baseline (T6) in both groups, rScO2 statistically increased in both groups when compared to T2.

Conclusion

In obese patients, subjected to laparoscopic bariatric surgery in reverse trendelenburg position, adjustment of ventilation strategies and hemodynamic optimization succeeded to improve rScO2.



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Pliocene bats (Chiroptera) from Kanapoi, Turkana Basin, Kenya

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Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution
Author(s): Gregg F. Gunnell, Fredrick K. Manthi
Fossil bats from the Pliocene of Africa are extremely rare, especially in East Africa where meager records have been reported only from two localities in the Omo River Basin Shungura Formation and from a scattering of localities in the Afar Depression, both in Ethiopia. Here we report on a diverse assemblage of bats from Kanapoi in the Turkana Basin that date to approximately 4.19 million years ago. The Kanapoi bat community consists of four different species of fruit bats including a new genus and two new species as well as five species of echolocating bats, the most common of which are two new species of the molossid genus Mops. Additionally, among the echolocating bats, a new species of the emballonurid Saccolaimus is documented at Kanapoi along with an additional Saccolaimus species and a potentially new species of the nycterid Nycteris. Compared to other East African Pliocene bat assemblages, the Kanapoi bat community is unique in preserving molossids and curiously lacks any evidence of cave dwelling bats like rhinolophids or hipposiderids, which are both common at other East African sites. The bats making up the Kanapoi community all typically roost in trees, with some preferring deeper forests and larger trees (molossids), while the others (pteropodids, nycterids and emballonurids) roost in trees near open areas. Living fruit bats that are related to Kanapoi species typically forage for fruits along the margins of forests and in open savannah. The echolocating forms from Kanapoi consist of groups that aerially hawk for insects in open areas between patches of forest and along water courses. The habitats preferred by living relatives of the Kanapoi bats are in agreement with those constructed for Kanapoi based on other lines of evidence.



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Motor facilitation during observation of implied motion: Evidence for a role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Ludovico Mineo, Alexander Fetterman, Carmen Concerto, Michael Warren, Carmenrita Infortuna, David Freedberg, Eileen Chusid, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
The phenomenon of motor resonance (the increase in motor cortex excitability during observation of actions) has been previously described. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have demonstrated a similar effect during perception of implied motion (IM). The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seems to be activated during action observation. Furthermore, the role of this brain area in motor resonance to IM is yet to be investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled into the study. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to stimulate DLPFC aiming to investigate whether stimulation with different polarities would affect the amplitude of motor evoked potential collected during observation of images with and without IM. The results of our experiment indicated that Cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC prevented motor resonance during observation of IM. On the contrary, anodal and sham tDCS did not significantly modulate motor resonance to IM. The current study expands the understanding of the neural circuits engaged during observation of IM. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that action understanding requires the interaction of large networks and that the left DLPFC plays a crucial role in generating motor resonance to IM.



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Social aggravation: Understanding the complex role of social relationships on stress and health-relevant physiology

Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Wendy C. Birmingham, Julianne Holt-Lunstad
There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect. Drawing upon existing conceptual models, we expand these to delineate how social relationships may influence stress processes and ultimately health. This review summarizes the existing literature that points to the potential deleterious physiological effects of our relationships when they are sources of stress or exacerbate stress.



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Cardiovascular correlates of emotional state, cognitive workload and time-on-task effect during a realistic flight simulation

Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Antonio R. Hidalgo-Muñoz, Damien Mouratille, Nadine Matton, Mickaël Causse, Yves Rouillard, Radouane El-Yagoubi
In aviation, emotion and cognitive workload can considerably increase the probability of human error. An accurate online physiological monitoring of pilot's mental state could prevent accidents. The heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) of 21 private pilots were analysed during two realistic flight simulator scenarios. Emotion was manipulated by a social stressor and cognitive workload with the difficulty of a secondary task. Our results confirmed the sensitivity of the HR to cognitive demand and training effects, with increased HR when the task was more difficult and decreased HR with training (time-on-task). Training was also associated with an increased HRV, with increased values along the flight scenario time course. Finally, the social stressor seemed to provoke an emotional reaction that enhanced motivation and performance on the secondary task. However, this was not reflected by the cardiovascular activity.



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Hispanic ethnicity, stress psychophysiology and paradoxical health outcomes: A review with conceptual considerations and a call for research

Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): John M. Ruiz, David Sbarra, Patrick R. Steffen
It is not wise to generalize psychophysiological findings from WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic) samples to all people and yet this occurs frequently in research. Case-in-point is our understanding of psychophysiological responses to stress which suggest universality despite our knowledge that these pathways are moderated by factors such as ethnicity and culture. Here we discuss the epidemiological phenomenon commonly referred to as the Hispanic health paradox to illustrate the importance of culture in understanding stress. We posit that despite high stress exposure, Hispanics may experience relatively low levels of stress contributing to their paradoxical health advantages. Building on our prior work, we present a new, culturally-tailored stress theory model to illustrate how sociocultural factors may moderate the experience of stress (through appraisals) with downstream effects on psychophysiological mechanisms. We support the model with available data and end this paper with a call for research that more carefully considers cultural and ethnic factors in psychophysiological research.



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High-throughput mouse phenomics for characterizing mammalian gene function



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Implementation of a Stress Intervention with Latino Immigrants in a Non-traditional Migration City

Abstract

Stress negatively impacts health outcomes across all racial and ethnic groups, but the health disparities experienced by Latino immigrants in nontraditional migration cities are exacerbated by undeveloped infrastructure and weak social support networks. Immigrants in new migration cities can be difficult to engage in health interventions and are therefore underrepresented in the very research where their inclusion is most crucial. To effectively engage Latino immigrants, a team of academic and community researchers collaborated on a community-based participatory research project to design and implement a stress and coping intervention. Top stressors reported were family, children, and work, but health was most commonly identified as the primary stressor. Participants overwhelmingly chose physical activity goals for stress reduction. Pre- to post- intervention results revealed significant improvements in social support and stress management. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a peer-led, community-partnered approach to implementing a stress intervention with Latino immigrants in a nontraditional migration city.



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Preserved somatosensory discrimination predicts consciousness recovery in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome

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Publication date: June 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 6
Author(s): Rossella Spataro, Alexander Heilinger, Brendan Allison, Domenico De Cicco, Santino Marchese, Cesare Gregoretti, Vincenzo La Bella, Christoph Guger
ObjectiveTo assess somatosensory discrimination and command following using a vibrotactile P300-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS), and investigate the predictive role of this cognitive process on the clinical outcomes.MethodsThirteen UWS patients and six healthy controls each participated in two experimental runs in which they were instructed to count vibrotactile stimuli delivered to the left or right wrist. A BCI determined each subject's task performance based on EEG measures. All of the patients were followed up six months after the BCI assessment, and correlations analysis between accuracy rates and clinical outcome were investigated.ResultsFour UWS patients demonstrated clear EEG-based indices of task following in one or both paradigms, which did not correlate with clinical factors. The efficacy of somatosensory discrimination strongly correlated (VT2: R = 0.89, p = 0.0000002, VT3: R = 0.81, p = 0.002) with the clinical outcome at 6-months. The BCI system also yielded the expected results with healthy controls.ConclusionsNeurophysiological correlates of somatosensory discrimination can be detected in clinically unresponsive patients and are associated with recovery of behavioural responsiveness at six months.SignificanceQuantitative measurements of somatosensory discrimination may increase the diagnostic accuracy of persons with DOCs and provide useful prognostic information.



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Radiocaesium derived from the TEPCO Fukushima accident in the North Pacific Ocean: Surface transport processes until 2017

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Publication date: September 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 189
Author(s): Michio Aoyama, Yasunori Hamajima, Yayoi Inomata, Yuichiro Kumamoto, Eitarou Oka, Takaki Tsubono, Daisuke Tsumune
We report temporal variations of 137Cs activity concentrations in surface waters of six regions of the western and central North Pacific Ocean during 2011–2017 using a combination of 1264 previously published data and 42 new data. In the western and central North Pacific Ocean at latitudes of 30–42°N and longitudes of 140°E to 160°W, eastward transport of radiocaesium was clearly apparent. 137Cs activity concentrations in surface water decreased rapidly to ∼2–3 Bq m−3 in 2015/2016, still a bit higher than 137Cs activity concentrations before the FNPP1 accident (1.5–2 Bq m−3). 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios decay-corrected to 11 March 2011 were ∼0.5–0.8. To the south of 30°N and between 130°E and 160°W in the western and central Pacific Ocean, 137Cs activity concentrations were around 1–7 Bq m−3 in 2011/2012 but then stabilized at a few Bq m−3 up to 2017.134Cs activity concentrations were detected at levels of 0.1–0.9 Bq m−3, and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios decay-corrected to 11 March 2011 were ∼0.3–0.5. Temporal variations of model-simulated 137Cs activity concentrations in surface water in the region of interest showed good agreement with observations, except in the southwestern North Pacific Ocean.



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Expression patterns of Yes-associated protein 1 in the developing mouse liver

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Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
Source:Gene Expression Patterns
Author(s): Wei Wei, Jeremy Lotto, Pamela A. Hoodless
The Hippo signalling pathway regulates many cellular processes, but has been specifically associated with control organ size and tumor growth. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a transcriptional cofactor, in the Hippo pathway, that regulates gene expression when localized in the nucleus. Elevated expression of YAP1 in adult mouse liver leads to hepatomegaly and can cause hepatocellular carcinoma; while the loss of function studies reveal its importance in regulating cholangiocyte development. Here, we report the expression of YAP1 in mouse embryonic and postnatal hepatic cells, using AFP-GFP transgenic mice to identify the hepatocyte lineage. At embryonic day (E) 8.5, YAP1 is highly expressed in the endoderm, but is not present in the nucleus. Between E9.5–12.5, hepatic cells display low levels of nuclear and non-nuclear YAP1. The nuclear expression of YAP1 is first detected in a small subset of hepatic cells starting at E13.5 when the hepatoblasts begin to differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. At E18.5, nuclear YAP1 is nearly undetectable in hepatoblasts and hepatocytes, but enriched within the nuclei of cholangiocytes. These levels remain similar postnatally, consistent with the role of YAP1 in cholangiocyte specification and maintenance.



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