Παρασκευή, 19 Μαΐου 2017

Effects of calcium chloride coadministered with neostigmine on neuromuscular blockade recovery: A double-blind randomised study.

BACKGROUND: Ionised calcium plays an important role in neuromuscular transmission, but its effects on the reversal of nondepolarising neuromuscular blockade have not been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether calcium chloride coadministered with neostigmine could enhance the rate of neuromuscular recovery. DESIGN: Prospective randomised double-blind trial. SETTING: A tertiary teaching hospital. PATIENTS: In total, 53 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia with neuromuscular monitoring by acceleromyography using a TOF-Watch SX monitor. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly allocated to receive either 5 mg kg-1 of calcium chloride (calcium group, n = 26) or the same volume of normal saline (control group, n = 27) coadministered with 25 [mu]g kg-1 of neostigmine and 15 [mu]g kg-1 of atropine at the end of surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary end point was the neuromuscular recovery time [time from neostigmine administration to recovery of the TOF ratio (TOFr) to 0.9]. Secondary end points included the TOFr at 5, 10 and 20 min after neostigmine administration and the incidence of postoperative residual curarisation (PORC), defined as a TOFr less than 0.9 at each time point. RESULTS: The neuromuscular recovery time was significantly faster in the calcium group than in the control group (median [Q1 to Q3]; 5.0 [3.0 to 7.0] vs. 6.7 [5.7 to 10.0] min, respectively; P = 0.007). At 5 min after neostigmine administration, the TOFr was higher [87 (74 to 100) vs. 68 (51 to 81)%, respectively; P = 0.002] and the incidence of PORC was lower (50.0 vs. 81.5%, respectively; P = 0.016) in the calcium group than in the control group. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to the TOFr or incidence of PORC at 10 and 20 min after neostigmine administration. CONCLUSION: Calcium chloride coadministered with neostigmine enhanced neuromuscular recovery in the early period of nondepolarising neuromuscular blockade reversal. (C) 2017 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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Intraoperative magnesium sulphate decreases agitation and pain in patients undergoing functional endoscopic surgery: A randomised double-blind study.

BACKGROUND: Postoperative agitation is harmful for the patient as it may be associated with removal of catheters, nasal packs, oxygen masks and self-injury, and pose a danger to operating theatre staff. OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the potential role of magnesium sulphate in treatment of postoperative agitation following functional endoscopic sinus surgery. DESIGN: A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: ENT operating room, Menofia University Hospitals, Egypt. PATIENTS: A total of 312 adult patients (171 men and 141 women) were enrolled in the study. Eighteen patients (10 men and eight women) were excluded; data from 294 patients were analysed. Inclusion criteria were age between 20 and 60 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status 1 or 2 scheduled for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Exclusion criteria were hypertension, cardiac ischaemia, cerebrovascular insufficiency, neuromuscular diseases, pregnancy, prolonged treatment with calcium-channel blockers, diabetic neuropathy or a known allergy to magnesium compounds. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were allocated randomly to either the magnesium group (a magnesium infusion of 30 mg kg-1 in the first hour followed by 9 mg kg-1 h-1 until the end of the surgical procedure) or the control group (0.9% saline at the same volume and rate). Hypotensive anaesthesia was induced by nitroglycerine 5 to 20 [mu]g kg-1 min-1. In the postanaesthetic care unit (PACU), patients were assessed for agitation and pain using the Richmond agitation-sedation scale and numerical rating scale, respectively. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The incidence and severity of agitation measured 5 min after admission to the PACU. RESULTS: Magnesium reduced postoperative agitation at time 0 (P = 0.009) and 5, 10, 15 and 30 min after PACU admission (P

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Comparison of laryngeal mask airway insertion methods, including the external larynx lift with pre-inflated cuff, on postoperative pharyngolaryngeal complications: A randomised clinical trial.

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal complications are commonly reported following laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion. After induction of anaesthesia, the airway structures fall backwards under the influence of gravity, and this may contribute to difficulty in placement of a LMA. External airway alignment by lifting the larynx during insertion of an airway may avoid collision of the airway with laryngeal structures. OBJECTIVE(S): To compare pharyngolaryngeal complications after either conventional airway insertion with or without cuff semi-inflation and a method, including an external larynx lift. DESIGN: Randomised controlled double blind clinical trial. SETTING: Ambulatory surgical operating rooms of a university hospital. PATIENTS: American Society of Anaesthesiologists class 1 to 3 patients undergoing ambulatory surgery scheduled to receive general anaesthesia for which a LMA was not contraindicated. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised into three groups for LMA placement: G1, deflated airway; G2, pre-inflated cuff; G3, pre-inflated cuff with external lifting of the larynx. Assessment of pharyngolaryngeal complications (blinded assessor) was made at the time of LMA removal and again at 1, 2 and 24 h. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A pharyngolaryngeal complication, defined as a composite of one or more of sore throat, dysphonia or dysphagia at any time point, or blood on the airway at removal. RESULTS: Of the 450 consecutive patients, 441 were studied. There were no differences in insertion times or number of insertion attempts among the groups. There was no difference in pharyngolaryngeal complications among the groups: G1, 57%; G2, 55%; G3, 52%, (P = 0.77). Blood on the airway was observed less frequently in G3 (9%) compared with G1 and G2 combined (17%): difference -8% (95% confidence interval of the difference -0.8 to -16%, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The external larynx lift technique was associated with a lower incidence of blood on the airway at removal, suggesting that the method may decrease trauma to the tissues of the upper airway during insertion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01749033. (C) 2017 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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Perioperative factors related to the severity of vocal cord paralysis after thoracic cardiovascular surgery: A retrospective review.

BACKGROUND: Vocal cord paralysis (VCP) is a rare complication of thoracic cardiovascular surgery. In severe cases, life-threatening airway obstruction may occur. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and severity of VCP among patients who underwent thoracic cardiovascular surgery and to identify possible risk factors. DESIGN: Single-centre retrospective review of adult patients. SETTING: Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Japan, from January 2013 to August 2015. PATIENTS: We included 688 patients in the final analysis. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data were collected from medical records. Patients with preoperative VCP or tracheostomy prior to extubation were excluded. The VCP severity in relation to functional recovery was graded using the following categories: absent; mild, remission at 6 months; moderate, partial or persistent VCP at 6 months; or severe, airway obstruction after extubation requiring reintubation. An otolaryngologist diagnosed all VCP cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence and severity of VCP after extubation. RESULTS: The incidence (number) of VCP was 4.7% (32), with those of mild, moderate and severe VCP being 1.7% (12), 1.5% (10) and 1.5% (10), respectively. The ICU stay was significantly longer in patients with severe VCP than in patients without VCP [12.5 days (interquartile range 5.5 to 25.5) vs. 3 days (interquartile range 2 to 5), P = 0.0002]. In our multivariable analysis, type 2 diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR) 1.853, P = 0.009], intubation period (OR per 24 h 1.136, P = 0.014), ascending aortic arch surgery with brachiocephalic artery reconstruction (OR 8.708, P

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Effects of dexamethasone on early cognitive decline after cardiac surgery: A randomised controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive decline (POCD), a very common complication after cardiac surgery, is characterised by impairment of both memory function and intellectual ability as well as being associated with increased use of healthcare resources. The investigators focused on the role of the inflammatory response to a surgical procedure as a potential factor involved in the pathogenesis of POCD. OBJECTIVE: The use of prophylactic dexamethasone to attenuate the inflammatory response was hypothesised to reduce the risk of POCD. DESIGN: Randomised controlled study. SETTING: Single university teaching hospital, from March 2015 to January 2016. PATIENTS: A total of 169 patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were enrolled, and 161 patients were included in the analyses. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomised to receive a single intravenous bolus of 0.1 mg kg-1 dexamethasone (n = 85) or placebo (n = 84) 10 h before the surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure in both groups was the incidence of POCD on the 6th day after surgery. The investigators also evaluated the effect of dexamethasone on the incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, postoperative C-reactive protein levels and postoperative serum S100[beta] protein levels. RESULTS: Compared to the placebo group, the dexamethasone group showed statistically significant reductions in the incidence of POCD (relative risk, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.21 to 0.89; P = 0.02), the incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (30.0 versus 58.0%, P

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Anaesthesiology research in the European Union and the European Free Trade Association: An overview from 2001 to 2015.

BACKGROUND: Publication performance in anaesthesiology hints at research activity and attractiveness for a particular centre or country for anaesthetists. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective bibliographic study is to compare the publication performance of anaesthesiology departments within the countries of the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) combined. Outcome measures were the number of publications, the number of original articles, the average impact factor and the number of publications and average impact factor per million inhabitants. METHODS: Articles from anaesthesiology departments within the EU and EFTA countries published between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2015 were included. Articles were electronically imported from Medline into a database and linked to anaesthesiology departments according to the authors' affiliations. Publication performance was assessed for 2001 to 2005, 2006 to 2010, 2011 to 2015 and 2001 to 2015. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2015, the absolute number of articles increased from 10 513 to 19 037 (+81%), whereas the number of original research articles decreased from 3786 to 1563 (-58%). Germany had the most publications (8948) with 1967 of these being original articles. Denmark achieved not only the highest average impact factor per million inhabitants (319.9) but also the most articles per anaesthesiologist (1.46), and per million habitants (105.7). Countries which moved up the income scale to a higher income class also increased the number of publications. DISCUSSION: In the EU and EFTA countries, the total number of publications increased from 2001 to 2015, but the number of original research articles fell by more than 50%. CONCLUSION: Between 2001 and 2015, in the EU and EFTA countries, the number of publications increased, whereas the number of original articles decreased. Germany published most, but Denmark had most publications per anaesthesiologist and per capita, and also achieved the highest impact factor per article. (C) 2017 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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Zika Virus: Obstetric and Pediatric Anesthesia Considerations

imageAs of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million. Similar to Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, ZIKV is spread to humans by infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, through travel-associated local transmission, via sexual contact, and through blood transfusions. South Florida is an epicenter for ZIKV infection in the United States and the year-round warm climate along with an abundance of mosquito vectors that can harbor the flavivirus raise health care concerns. ZIKV infection is generally mild with clinical manifestations of fever, rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Of greatest concern, however, is growing evidence for the relationship between ZIKV infection of pregnant women and increased incidence of abnormal pregnancies and congenital abnormalities in the newborn, now medically termed ZIKA Congenital Syndrome. Federal health officials are observing 899 confirmed Zika-positive pregnancies and the FDH is currently monitoring 110 pregnant women with evidence of Zika infection. The University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital is uniquely positioned just north of downtown Miami and within the vicinity of Liberty City, Little Haiti, and Miami Beach, which are currently "hot spots" for Zika virus exposure and transmissions. As the FDH works fervently to prevent a Zika epidemic in the region, health care providers at the University of Miami and Jackson Memorial Hospital prepare for the clinical spectrum of ZIKV effects as well as the safe perioperative care of the parturients and their affected newborns. In an effort to meet anesthetic preparedness for the care of potential Zika-positive patients and perinatal management of babies born with ZIKA Congenital Syndrome, this review highlights the interim guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and also suggest anesthetic implications and recommendations. In addition, this article reviews guidance for the evaluation and anesthetic management of infants with congenital ZIKV infection. To better manage the perioperative care of affected newborns, this article also reviews the comparative anesthetic implications of babies born with related congenital malformations.

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Coming to a Patient Near You: The Zika Virus and Anesthetic Implications

imageNo abstract available

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Subcellular Hypoxia: A Survival Guide

imageNo abstract available

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Subcellular Energetics and Metabolism: Potential Therapeutic Applications

imagePart I of this review discussed the similarities between embryogenesis, mammalian adaptions to hypoxia (primarily driven by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 [HIF-1]), ischemia-reperfusion injury (and its relationship with reactive oxygen species), hibernation, diving animals, cancer, and sepsis, and it focused on the common characteristics that allow cells and organisms to survive in these states. Part II of this review describes techniques by which researchers gain insight into subcellular energetics and identify potential future tools for clinicians. In particular, P31 nuclear magnetic resonance to measure high-energy phosphates, serum lactate measurements, the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to measure the oxidation state of cytochrome aa3, and the ability of the protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique to measure mitochondrial oxygen tension are discussed. In addition, this review discusses novel treatment strategies such as hyperbaric oxygen, preconditioning, exercise training, therapeutic gases, as well as inhibitors of HIF-1, HIF prolyl hydroxylase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

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Subcellular Energetics and Metabolism: A Cross-Species Framework

imageAlthough it is generally believed that oxidative phosphorylation and adequate oxygenation are essential for life, human development occurs in a profoundly hypoxic environment and "normal" levels of oxygen during embryogenesis are even harmful. The ability of embryos not only to survive but also to thrive in such an environment is made possible by adaptations related to metabolic pathways. Similarly, cancerous cells are able not only to survive but also to grow and spread in environments that would typically be fatal for healthy adult cells. Many biological states, both normal and pathological, share underlying similarities related to metabolism, the electron transport chain, and reactive species. The purpose of Part I of this review is to review the similarities among embryogenesis, mammalian adaptions to hypoxia (primarily driven by hypoxia-inducible factor-1), ischemia-reperfusion injury (and its relationship with reactive oxygen species), hibernation, diving animals, cancer, and sepsis, with a particular focus on the common characteristics that allow cells and organisms to survive in these states.

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Preserved Analgesia With Reduction in Opioids Through the Use of an Acute Pain Protocol in Enhanced Recovery After Surgery for Open Hepatectomy.

Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways are designed to restore baseline physiology, mitigate surgical stressors, and hasten recovery. Paramount to this approach is optimal pain control through multimodal analgesia and limiting reliance on opioid-based medications. Recent studies have fostered growing controversy surrounding the use of epidural analgesia in the ERAS setting, especially for higher-risk procedures. We examine the analgesic end points associated with the use of epidural within the ERAS framework for open hepatectomy. Methods: From November 2013 through March 2016, postoperative analgesic end points including daily morphine equivalent administration and self-reported pain scores were prospectively collected and analyzed for 180 consecutive patients scheduled for open hepatectomy. Patients whose surgeries performed prior to July 2014 were managed using traditional strategy (pre-ERAS, n = 60), and those after July 1 underwent a comprehensive perioperative ERAS pathway (ERAS, n = 120). Results: Patients managed using the ERAS pathway had a significant reduction in morphine equivalent requirements at 24 hours (median, 10.0 vs 116.0 mg; P

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Occurrence of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium in Various Clinical Infections: Detection of Their Drug Resistance and Virulence Determinants

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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A Targeted Capture Linkage Map Anchors the Genome of the Schistosomiasis Vector Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata

The aquatic planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrate is one of the most intensively-studied mollusks due to its role in the transmission of schistosomiasis. Its 916 Mb genome has recently been sequenced and annotated, but it remains poorly assembled. Here we used targeted capture markers to map over 10,000 B. glabrate scaffolds in a linkage cross of 94 F1 offspring, generating 24 linkage groups. We added additional scaffolds to these linkage groups based on linkage disequilibrium analysis of targeted capture and whole-genome sequences of 96 unrelated snails. Our final linkage map consists of 18,613 scaffolds comprising 515 Mb, representing 56% of the genome and 75% of genic and nonrepetitive regions. There are 18 large (>10 Mb) linkage groups, likely representing the expected 18 haploid chromosomes, and more than 50% of the genome has been assigned to linkage groups of at least 17 Mb. Comparisons with other gastropod genomes reveal patterns of synteny and chromosomal rearrangements. Linkage relationships of key immune-relevant genes may help clarify snail-schistosome interactions. By focusing on linkage among genic and nonrepetitive regions, we have generated a useful resource for associating snail phenotypes with causal genes, even in the absence of a complete genome assembly. A similar approach could potentially improve numerous poorly-assembled genomes in other taxa. This map will facilitate future work on this host of a serious human parasite.



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Phased Genotyping-by-Sequencing Enhances Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Reveals Divergent Copy Number Variants in Maize

High-throughput sequencing of reduced representation genomic libraries has ushered in an era of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), where genome-wide genotype data can be obtained for nearly any species. However, there remains a need for imputation-free GBS methods for genotyping large samples taken from heterogeneous populations of heterozygous individuals. This requires a number of issues encountered with GBS be considered, including the sequencing of non-overlapping sets of loci across multiple GBS libraries, a common missing data problem that results in low call rates for markers per individual, and a tendency for applicability only in inbred line samples with sufficient linkage disequilibrium for accurate imputation. We addressed these issues while developing and validating a new, comprehensive platform for GBS. This study supports the notion that GBS can be tailored to particular aims, and using Zea mays our results indicate that large samples of unknown pedigree can be genotyped to obtain complete and accurate GBS data. Optimizing size selection to sequence a high proportion of shared loci among individuals in different libraries and using simple in silico filters, a GBS procedure was established that produces high call rates per marker (>85%) with accuracy exceeding 99.4%. Furthermore, by capitalizing on the sequence-read structure of GBS data (stacks of reads), a new tool for resolving local haplotypes and scoring phased genotypes was developed, a feature that is not available in many GBS pipelines. Using local haplotypes reduces the marker dimensionality of the genotype matrix while increasing the informativeness of the data. Phased GBS in maize also revealed the existence of reproducibly inaccurate (apparent accuracy) genotypes that were due to divergent copy number variants unobservable in the underlying single nucleotide polymorphism data.



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Genetic Subtraction Profiling Identifies Candidate miRNAs Involved in Rice Female Gametophyte Abortion

Female gametophyte is an important participant in sexual reproduction of plants. The molecular mechanism of its development has received much attention in recent years. As important regulators of gene expression, miRNAs have been certified to play a significant role in many biological processes of plants including sexual reproduction. In this study, to investigate the potential regulatory effects of miRNAs on rice female gametophytes abortion, we used the high-throughput sequencing method to compare the miRNA transcriptome in ovules of a high frequency female-sterile line (fsv1) and a rice wild-type line (Gui 99) during ovule development. As a result, 522 known miRNAs and 295 novel miRNAs were identified to be expressed in the developing ovule of rice, while 100 known miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed during ovule development between these two rice lines. Combining with the gene expression information, a total of 627 coherent target genes of these differential expressed known miRNAs between fsv1 and Gui 99 were identified. The functional analyses of these coherent target genes revealed that the coherent target genes of differential expressed known miRNAs between two rice lines involved in many biological pathways, such as protein degradation, auxin signal transduction and transcription factor regulation. These results provide us important clues to investigate the regulatory roles of miRNAs in rice female gametophyte abortion.



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Validated Bayesian Differentiation of Causative and Passenger Mutations

In many contexts, the problem arises of determining which of many candidate mutations is the most likely to be causative for some phenotype. It is desirable to have a way to evaluate this probability that relies as little as possible on previous knowledge, to avoid bias against discovering new genes or functions. We are isolating mutants with blocked cell cycle progression in Chlamydomonas, and determining mutant genome sequences. Due to the intensity of UV mutagenesis required for efficient mutant collection, the mutants contain multiple mutations altering coding sequence. To provide a quantitative estimate of probability that each individual mutation in a given mutant is the causative one, we develop a Bayesian approach. The approach employs four independent indicators: sequence conservation of the mutated coding sequence with Arabidopsis; severity of the mutation relative to Chlamydomonas wild type based on Blosum62 scores; meiotic mapping information for location of the causative mutation relative to known molecular markers; and, for a subset of mutants, transcriptional profile of the candidate wild type genes through the mitotic cell cycle. These indicators are statistically independent, and so can be combined quantitatively into a single probability calculation. We validate this calculation: recently isolated mutations that were not in the training set for developing the indicators, with high calculated probability of causality, are confirmed in every case by additional genetic data to indeed be causative. Analysis of best reciprocal blast relationships among Chlamydomonas and other eukaryotes indicate that the Ts-lethal mutants that our procedure recovers are highly enriched for fundamental cell-essential functions conserved broadly across plants and other eukaryotes, accounting for the high information content of sequence alignment to Arabidopsis.



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EMS Director - City of Tucumcari

EMS DIRECTOR- The EMS director oversees the Tucumcari Ambulance Service and is responsible for ensuring 24 hour emergency medical coverage for the City of Tucumcari. The position supervises up to 7 full time EMT positions and 7 part time positions. The position ensures the service is run as efficiently as possible while maximizing revenue. All applicants must also have taken the ACT work keys assessment ...

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Focused high-resolution sonography of the suprascapular nerve: A simple surrogate marker for neuralgic amyotrophy?



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Erratum to: Endoscopic management of post-laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy stenosis



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Prediction of surgical outcomes of laparoscopic liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma by defining surgical difficulty

Abstract

Background

Several classification systems for assessing the surgical difficulty of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) have been proposed. We evaluated three current classification systems, including traditional Major/Minor Classification, Complexity Classification, and the Difficulty Scoring System for predicting the surgical outcomes after LLR.

Methods

We reviewed the clinical data of 301 patients who underwent LLR for hepatocellular carcinoma between March 1, 2004 and June 30, 2015. We compared the intraoperative, pathologic, and postoperative outcomes according to the three classifications. We also compared the prognostic value of the three classifications using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

Results

The Major/Minor Classification, Complexity Classification, and the Difficulty Scoring System efficiently differentiated surgical difficulty in terms of blood loss (P = 0.001, P = 0.009, and P < 0.001, respectively) and operation time (all P < 0.001). Regarding intraoperative outcomes, the Difficulty Scoring System and Complexity Classification successfully differentiated the transfusion rate (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). However, only the Complexity Classification adequately predicted severe postoperative complications (P = 0.032), the severity of complications (P < 0.001), and the length of hospital stay (P = 0.005). In ROC curve analysis, the Complexity Classification (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.611) outperformed the Major/Minor Classification (AUC = 0.544) and the Difficulty Scoring System (AUC = 0.530) for predicting severe postoperative complications. None of the classification systems predicted recurrence or patient survival.

Conclusion

The Complexity Classification was superior to the other methods for assessing surgical difficulty and predicting complications after LLR for hepatocellular carcinoma.



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Simultaneous conversion of gastric band to sleeve gastrectomy is associated with increased postoperative complications: an analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program

Abstract

Background

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has gained popularity for the treatment of morbid obesity as gastric banding (BAND) has fallen out of favor. As a result, simultaneous conversion (CONV) of BAND to LSG is commonly performed. We hypothesized that CONV is associated with higher 30-day risk-adjusted serious morbidity.

Methods

Preoperative characteristics and 30-day outcomes from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Files 2010–2014 were selected for patients who underwent LSG. Patients undergoing CONV were identified. Descriptive comparisons were performed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the association between CONV and a composite measure of 30-day serious morbidity and mortality.

Results

Overall, 35,307 patients met criteria for inclusion, of which 943 (2.7%) underwent CONV. The median age of patients undergoing CONV was higher (46 vs 44 years, p < 0.001) and a greater percentage of CONV patients was female (84.8 vs 77.9%, p < 0.001) than LSG patients. CONV patients had lower rates of common comorbidities, including diabetes (14.9 vs 23.1%, p < 0.001), hypertension (41.9 vs 48.6%, p < 0.001), and tobacco use (7.2 vs 9.8%, p < 0.001), as well as lower median BMI (41 vs 44, p < 0.001). Individual unadjusted outcomes of serious 30-day complications were similar between both groups, as was a composite measure of serious morbidity (CONV 4.3% vs LSG 3.6%, p = 0.1). However, after controlling for demographics, comorbidities, and concurrent band removal, CONV was associated with increased odds of serious 30-day morbidity (1.44, 95% CI 1.03–1.97) (c-statistic: 0.60).

Conclusions

Serious morbidity following LSG is uncommon; however, CONV is associated with a modest increase in risk-adjusted adverse 30-day outcomes. Patients being evaluated for CONV should be counseled about the added risks versus LSG alone. Further research is warranted to identify whether the incremental risks of CONV may be modifiable.



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Usability of a home-based test for the measurement of fecal calprotectin in asymptomatic IBD patients

The aim of our work was to test the usability of fecal calprotectin (FC) home-based test in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.

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Dieulafoy of cecum; A rare cause of a refractory gastrointestinal bleeding in an uncommon location



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Usability of a home-based test for the measurement of fecal calprotectin in asymptomatic IBD patients

The aim of our work was to test the usability of fecal calprotectin (FC) home-based test in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients.

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Dieulafoy of cecum; A rare cause of a refractory gastrointestinal bleeding in an uncommon location



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Interplay Between SIRT-3, Metabolism and Its Tumor Suppressor Role in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Abstract

Sirtuins (SIRT), first described as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent type III histone deacetylases, are produced by cells to support in the defense against chronic stress conditions such as metabolic syndromes, neurodegeneration, and cancer. SIRT-3 is one of the most studied members of the mitochondrial sirtuins family. In particular, its involvement in metabolic diseases and its dual role in cancer have been described. In the present review, based on the evidence of SIRT-3 involvement in metabolic dysfunctions, we aimed to provide an insight into the multifaceted role of SIRT-3 in many solid and hematological tumors with a particular focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SIRT-3 regulatory effect and involvement in metabolism dysfunctions may have strong implications in HCC development and treatment. Research literature widely reports the relationship between metabolic disorders and HCC development. This evidence suggests a putative bridge role of SIRT-3 between metabolic diseases and HCC. However, further studies are necessary to demonstrate such interconnection.



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Editorial board members

Publication date: April–June 2017
Source:Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, Volume 772





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An innovative strategy to clone positive modifier genes of defects caused by mtDNA mutations: MRPS18C as suppressor gene of m.3946G>A mutation in MT - ND1 gene

Abstract

We have developed a new functional complementation approach to clone modifier genes which overexpression is able to suppress the biochemical defects caused by mtDNA mutations (suppressor genes). This strategy consists in transferring human genes into respiratory chain-deficient fibroblasts, followed by a metabolic selection in a highly selective medium. We used a normalized expression cDNA library in an episomal vector (pREP4) to transfect the fibroblasts, and a medium with glutamine and devoid of any carbohydrate source to select metabolically. Growing the patient's fibroblasts in this selective medium, the deficient cells rapidly disappear unless they are rescued by the cDNA of a suppressor gene. The use of an episomal vector allows us to carry out several rounds of transfection/selection (cyclical phenotypic rescue) to enrich the rescue with true clones of suppressor genes. Using fibroblasts from a patient with epileptic encephalopathy with the m.3946G>A (p.E214K) mutation in the MT-ND1 gene, several candidate genes were identified and one of them was characterized functionally. Thus, overexpression of MRPS18C gene (that encode for bS18m protein) suppressed the molecular defects produced by this mtDNA mutation, recovering the complex I activity and reducing the ROS produced by this complex to normal levels. We suggest that modulation of bS18m expression may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the patients with this mutation.



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Understanding the interrelationship between the synthesis of urea and gluconeogenesis by formulating an overall balanced equation

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It is well known that a strong metabolic interrelationship exists between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. In this paper, we present a detailed, overall equation, describing a possible metabolic link between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. We adopted a guided approach in which we strongly suggest that students, when faced with the problem of obtaining the overall equation of a metabolic pathway, carefully account for all atoms and charges of the single reactions, as well as the cellular localizations of the substrates, and the related transport systems. If this suggestion is always taken into account, a balanced, overall equation of a metabolic pathway will be obtained, which strongly facilitates the discussion of its physiological role. Unfortunately, textbooks often report unbalanced overall equations of metabolic pathways, including ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. Most likely the reason is that metabolism and enzymology have been neglected for about three decades, owing to the remarkable advances of molecular biology and molecular genetics. In this paper, we strongly suggest that students, when faced with the problem of obtaining the overall reaction of a metabolic pathway, carefully control if the single reactions are properly balanced for atoms and charges. Following this suggestion, we were able to obtain an overall equation describing the metabolic interrelationship between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis, in which urea and glucose are the final products. The aim is to better rationalize this topic and to convince students and teachers that metabolism is an important and rewarding chapter of human physiology.



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Measuring osmosis and hemolysis of red blood cells

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Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane. By placing red blood cells in solutions of differing osmolarities and tonicities, this experiment demonstrates the effects of osmosis and the resultant changes in cell volume. Using hemoglobin standard solutions, where known concentrations of hemoglobin are produced, the proportion of hemolysis and the effect of this on resultant hematocrit can be estimated. No change in cell volume occurs in isotonic NaCl, and, by placing blood cells in hypotonic NaCl, incomplete hemolysis occurs. By changing the bathing solution to either distilled water or isosmotic urea, complete hemolysis occurs due to their hypotonic effects. With the use of animal blood in this practical, students gain useful experience in handling tissue fluids and calculating dilutions and can appreciate the science behind clinical scenarios.



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Seeing is believing: a demonstration of critical fusion frequency and its multidimensional nature

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"Thinking ethics": a novel, pilot, proof-of-concept program of integrating ethics into the Physiology curriculum in South India

Integrating medical ethics into the physiology teaching-learning program has been largely unexplored in India. The objective of this exercise was to introduce an interactive and integrated ethics program into the Physiology course of first-year medical students and to evaluate their perceptions. Sixty medical students (30 men, 30 women) underwent 11 sessions over a 7-mo period. Two of the Physiology faculty conducted these sessions (20–30 min each) during the routine physiology (theory/practicals) classes that were of shorter duration and could, therefore, accommodate the discussion of related ethical issues. This exercise was in addition to the separate ethics classes conducted by the Medical Ethics department. The sessions were open ended, student centered, and designed to stimulate critical thinking. The students' perceptions were obtained through a semistructured questionnaire and focused group discussions. The students found the program unique, thought provoking, fully integrated, and relevant. It seldom interfered with the physiology teaching. They felt that the program sensitized them about ethical issues and prepared them for their clinical years, to be "ethical doctors." Neutral observers who evaluated each session felt that the integrated program was relevant to the preclinical year and that the program was appropriate in its content, delivery, and student involvement. An ethics course taught in integration with Physiology curriculum was found to be beneficial, feasible, and compatible with Physiology by students as well as neutral observers.



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Visualizing fundamental neuronal computation for life science students

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A simple laboratory exercise with rat isolated esophagus and stomach fundus to reveal functional differences between striated and smooth muscle cells

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This study describes an undergraduate student laboratory activity using isolated preparations from rat gastrointestinal tissues that possess contractile profiles typically exhibited by striated and smooth muscle cells. While students are introduced to an ex vivo methodology, they can compare differences in trace experiments, twitch aspects, phasic and tonic properties, force-frequency relationships, and pharmacological responsiveness of esophageal (striated) and fundic (smooth muscle) segments. Muscle strips were subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) applied by platinum electrodes immersed in the physiological solution. The contractile profile of EFS responses varied between these two types of gut preparations. Atropine and tubocurarine revealed differential inhibitory influences in esophagus or fundus tissues; caffeine and procaine produced similar effects, i.e., potentiation and blockade of the EFS-induced contractile response in these tissues, respectively. Experimental results obtained during the activity helped the improvement of student learning about basic concepts previously discussed in theoretical lectures. To measure student learning with this laboratory exercise, a questionnaire was applied before and after the activity, and the number of expected correct answers, concerning the mechanisms of contraction in striated and smooth muscle, could be clearly evidenced.



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Reality Training: Shots fired during forced entry for patient welfare check

Discuss your guidelines and protocols for checking on the well-being of a patient

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A Homozygous Potentially Pathogenic Variant in the PAXBP1 Gene in a Large Family with Global Developmental Delay and Myopathic Hypotonia

ABSTRACT

PAX binding protein 1 (PAXBP1) is an adaptor protein linking the transcription factor PAX3 and PAX7 to the histone methylation machinery. PAXBP1 is a nuclear protein and its high expression is known in brain cerebellar hemisphere and cerebellum. Moreover, it is also found in abundance in muscle precursor cells that are involved in myogenesis and skeletal muscles formation. Whole genome SNP genotyping and exome sequencing in a family with distinct syndrome of global developmental delay and hypotonia mapped the disease locus to the chromosome 21q22.11 and identified a homozygous missense variant (c.1612C>T) in the PAXBP1 gene, respectively. This variant is predicted to change the highly conserved strongly basic arginine at position 538 in the PAX7 binding domain of PAXBP1 to a neutral cysteine (p.Arg538Cys) residue.

Arg538 is highly conserved and the variant is predicted to be deleterious by variety of in silico tools. Furthermore, protein modeling studies showed that in the mutant protein (Cys538), the shorter cysteine is incapable of forming hydrogen bond with the side chain of nearby Asp517 due to its reduced size and lower polarizability. As a consequence, a slight local perturbation of the loop conformation in the PAX7 binding domain of the PAXBP1 protein was observed. Our findings suggest that the pathogenic variant in PAX binding protein underlies distinct syndrome of global developmental delay and myopathic hypotonia. This clinical report should prompt a search for mutations in PAXBP1 in patients presenting with developmental delay and hypotonia. Moreover, these results imply that establishment of PAXBP1 targets and its spatiotemporal interaction will help in understanding of development of cerebellar and will provide basis for developing therapeutic approaches.

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Graphical Abstract



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New Castle County paramedics EMS Week

Are you ready for EMS Week 2017?

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New Castle County paramedics EMS Week

Are you ready for EMS Week 2017?

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Paramedics using virtual reality to train for real-life emergencies

Trainees are able to treat the patient the same way they'd treat a real patient and hone decision-making skills in life-and-death situations

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Emergency Reporting users protected against “WannaCry” ransomware attack

In the wake of the destructive "WannaCry" Internet worm that struck hundreds of thousands of Internet users and has been called the biggest cyberattack in history, Emergency Reporting reminds Fire & EMS agencies that data security is critical.

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Introducing the New Toughbook 33, a 12" Fully Rugged 2-in-1 Detachable Tablet

WALLINGFORD, Conn. — Telrepco is pleased to announce that today Panasonic has officially announced the release of the Toughbook 33, the first fully rugged 2-in-1 detachable tablet. Featuring a 12" 3:2 aspect ratio display, detachable backlit keyboard, and more! Toughbook 33 Features: Intel Core i5 Processor 3:2 Aspect Ratio 12" Display Anti-reflective high brightness outdoor viewable ...

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New Castle County paramedics EMS Week

Are you ready for EMS Week 2017?

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New Castle County paramedics EMS Week

Are you ready for EMS Week 2017?

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Campaign for partner of slain FDNY EMT spreads worldwide

BY EMS1 Staff AUSTIN, Texas — A paramedic and podcast host's movement to support the partner of fallen FDNY EMT Yadira Arroyo has gone global. After Ginger Locke, associate professor at Austin Community College, saw the video of Arroyo being run over by a man who had taken control of her ambulance, she created #PartnerProject. She hoped paramedics everywhere would send in photos with their ...

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From neuro-pigments to neural efficiency: The relationship between retinal carotenoids and behavioral and neuroelectric indices of cognitive control in childhood

Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Anne M. Walk, Naiman A. Khan, Sasha M. Barnett, Lauren B. Raine, Arthur F. Kramer, Neal J. Cohen, Christopher J. Moulton, Lisa M. Renzi-Hammond, Billy R. Hammond, Charles H. Hillman
Lutein and zeaxanthin are plant pigments known to preferentially accumulate in neural tissue. Macular Pigment Optical Density (MPOD), a non-invasive measure of retinal carotenoids and surrogate measure of brain carotenoid concentration, has been associated with disease prevention and cognitive health. Superior MPOD status in later adulthood has been shown to provide neuroprotective effects on cognition. Given that childhood signifies a critical period for carotenoid accumulation in brain, it is likely that the beneficial impact would be evident during development, though this relationship has not been directly investigated. The present study investigated the relationship between MPOD and the behavioral and neuroelectric indices elicited during a cognitive control task in preadolescent children. 49 participants completed a modified flanker task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess the P3 component of the ERP waveform. MPOD was associated with both behavioral performance and P3 amplitude such that children with higher MPOD had more accurate performance and lower P3 amplitudes. These relationships were more pronounced for trials requiring greater amounts of cognitive control. These results indicate that children with higher MPOD may respond to cognitive tasks more efficiently, maintaining high performance while displaying neural indices indicative of lower cognitive load. These findings provide novel support for the neuroprotective influence of retinal carotenoids during preadolescence.



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Presence of ethanol sensitive glycine receptors in medium spiny neurons in the mouse nucleus accumbens

Abstract

Alcohol abuse causes major social, economic and health-related problems worldwide. Alcohol, like other drugs of abuse, increases levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, facilitating behavioural reinforcement and substance abuse. Previous studies suggested that glycine receptors (GlyRs) are involved in the regulation of accumbal dopamine levels. Here, we investigated the presence of GlyRs in accumbal dopamine receptor medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of C57BL/6J mice, analyzing mRNA expression-levels and immunoreactivity of GlyR subunits, as well as ethanol sensitivity. We found that GlyR α1 subunits are expressed at higher levels than α2, α3 and β in the mouse nucleus accumbens and were located preferentially in Dopamine receptor 1 (DRD1) positive MSNs. Interestingly, the glycine-evoked currents in dissociated DRD1 positive MSNs were potentiated by ethanol. Also, the potentiation of the GlyR-mediated tonic current by ethanol suggests that they modulate the excitability of DRD1-positive MSNs in nAc. This study should contribute to understanding the role of GlyR α1 in the reward system and might help to develop novel pharmacological therapies to treat alcoholism and other addiction-related and compulsive behaviours.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Exercise-induced quadriceps muscle fatigue in men and women: effects of arterial oxygen content and respiratory muscle work

Abstract

Reducing the work of breathing or eliminating exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) during exercise decreases the severity of quadriceps fatigue in men. Women have a greater work of breathing during exercise, dedicate a greater fraction of whole-body V̇O2 towards their respiratory muscles, and demonstrate EIAH, suggesting women may be especially susceptible to quadriceps fatigue. Healthy subjects (8M, 8F) completed three constant load exercise tests over four days. During the first (control) test, subjects exercised at ∼85% of maximum while arterial blood gases and work of breathing were assessed. Subsequent constant load exercise tests were iso-time and iso-work rate, but with EIAH prevented by inspiring hyperoxic gas or work of breathing reduced via a proportional assist ventilator (PAV). Quadriceps fatigue was assessed by measuring force in response to femoral nerve stimulation. For both sexes quadriceps force was equally reduced after the control trial (−27 ± 2% baseline) and was attenuated with hyperoxia and PAV (−18 ± 1 and −17 ± 2% baseline, P < 0.01, respectively), with no sex-difference. EIAH was similar between the sexes, and regardless of sex, subjects with the lowest oxyhaemoglobin saturation during the control test had the greatest quadriceps fatigue attenuation with hyperoxia (r2 = 0.79, P < 0.0001). For the PAV trial, despite reducing the work of breathing to a greater degree in men (men: 60 ± 5, women: 75 ± 6% control, P < 0.05), the attenuation of quadriceps fatigue was similar between the sexes (36 ± 4 vs. 37 ± 7%). Owing to a greater relative V̇O2 of the respiratory muscles in women, less of a change in work of breathing is needed to reduce quadriceps fatigue.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Sialic acids regulate microvessel permeability, revealed by novel in vivo studies of endothelial glycocalyx structure and function

Abstract

The endothelial glycocalyx forms a continuous coat over the luminal surface of all vessels, and regulates multiple vascular functions. The contribution of individual components of the endothelial glycocalyx to one critical vascular function, microvascular permeability, remains unclear. We developed novel, real-time, paired methodologies to study the contribution of sialic acids within the endothelial glycocalyx to the structural and functional permeability properties of the same microvessel in vivo. Single perfused rat mesenteric microvessels were perfused with fluorescent endothelial cell membrane and glycocalyx labels, and imaged with confocal microscopy. A broad range of glycocalyx depth measurements (0.17–3.02 μm) were obtained with different labels, imaging techniques and analysis methods. The distance between peak cell membrane and peak glycocalyx label provided the most reliable measure of endothelial glycocalyx anatomy, correlating with paired, numerically smaller values of endothelial glycocalyx depth (0.078 ± 0.016 μm) from electron micrographs of the same portion of the same vessel. Disruption of sialic acid residues within the endothelial glycocalyx using neuraminidase perfusion decreased endothelial glycocalyx depth and increased apparent solute permeability to albumin in the same vessels in a time-dependent manner, with changes in all three true vessel wall permeability coefficients (hydraulic conductivity, reflection coefficient, and diffusive solute permeability). These novel technologies expand the range of techniques that permit direct studies of the structure of the endothelial glycocalyx and dependent microvascular functions in vivo, and demonstrate that sialic acid residues within the endothelial glycocalyx are critical regulators of microvascular permeability to both water and albumin.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Gamma irradiation of resting eggs of Moina macrocopa affects individual and population performance of hatchlings

Publication date: September 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volumes 175–176
Author(s): Egor Zadereev, Tatiana Lopatina, Natalia Oskina, Tatiana Zotina, Mikhail Petrichenkov, Dmitry Dementyev
We investigated the effects of γ-radiation on the survival of resting eggs of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa, on the parameters of the life cycle of neonates hatched from the irradiated eggs and on the performance of the population initiated from irradiated eggs. The study showed that γ-radiation in a range of doses from the background level to 100 Gy had no effect on survival of irradiated eggs. The absorbed dose of 200 Gy was lethal to resting eggs of M. macrocopa. The number of clutches and net reproductive rate (R0) of hatchlings from eggs exposed to radiation were the strongly affected parameters in experiments with individual females. The number of clutches per female was drastically reduced for females hatched from egg exposed to 80–100 Gy. The most sensitive parameter was the R0. The estimated ED50 for the R0 (effective dose that induces 50% R0 reduction) was 50 Gy. Population performance was also affected by the irradiation of the resting stage of animals that initiated population. Populations that was initiated from hatchlings from resting eggs exposed to 100 Gy was of smaller size and with fewer juvenile and parthenogenetic females in comparison with control populations. Thus, we determined the dose-response relationship for the effect of gamma radiation on survival of resting eggs and individual and population responses of hatchlings from irradiated resting eggs. We conclude that for highly polluted areas contamination of bottom sediments with radioactive materials could affect zooplankton communities through adverse chronic effects on resting eggs, which will be transmitted to hatchlings at individual or population levels.

Graphical abstract

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A hepatitis C treatment program based in a safety-net hospital patient-centered medical home

Annals of Family Medicine

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Canada tests lower age for pot legalization

AP

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Use of guideline-recommended adjuvant therapies and survival outcomes for people with colorectal cancer at tertiary referral hospitals in South Australia

Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice

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G20 health ministers seek to avert return to "pre-penicillin era"

Reuters Health News

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Serum C-peptide, total and high molecular weight adiponectin, and pancreatic cancer: Do associations differ by smoking?

Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

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Low-FODMAP diet reduces irritable bowel symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

World Journal of Gastroenterology

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Statin use after diagnosis of colon cancer and patient survival

Gastroenterology

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Efficacy and safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in persons with sickle cell disease

Clinical Infectious Diseases

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Monitoring with sensitive tumor markers contributes to decision-making and better prognosis in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal recurrence

International Journal of Clinical Oncology

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Hepatic steatosis progresses faster in HIV mono-infected than HIV/HCV co-infected patients and is associated with liver fibrosis

Journal of Hepatology

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Targeted sequencing-based analyses of candidate gene variants in ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia

British Journal of Cancer

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Migraine prevalence in inflammatory bowel disease patients: A tertiary-care centre cross-sectional study

European Journal of Pain

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Brooks, Reiner, Lear, Van Dyke discuss living well after 90

AP

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Five-weekly S-1 plus cisplatin therapy combined with trastuzumab therapy in HER2-positive gastric cancer: A phase II trial and biomarker study (WJOG7212G)

Gastric Cancer

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Prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in persons living with HIV enrolled in care in Rwanda

BMC Infectious Diseases

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Hepatitis C virus drives increased type I interferon-associated impairments associated with fibrosis severity in antiretroviral treatment-treated HIV-1hepatitis C virus-coinfected individuals

AIDS

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Treatment of primary biliary cholangitis non-responders: A systematic review

Liver International

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Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B and C viruses in patients with leprosy

Acta Tropica

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Clofibrate as an adjunct to phototherapy for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in term neonates

The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

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Effects of exercise on liver fat and metabolism in alcohol drinkers

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Ultrasonographic Technique for Imaging and Injecting the Superior Cluneal Nerve

imageNo abstract available

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Strengthening Health Systems to Provide Rehabilitation Services

No abstract available

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Reciprocal Causation Between Functional Independence and Mental Health 1 and 2 Years After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cross-Lagged Panel Structural Equation Model

imageObjective: The research attempting to disentangle the directionality of relationships between mental health and functional outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is growing but has yielded equivocal findings or focused on isolated predictors or isolated outcomes. The purpose of the current study was to use cross-lagged panel and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to examine causality between comprehensive indices of mental health (depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction) and functional independence in a national sample of individuals with TBI over the first 2 years after injury. Design: Participants were 4,674 individuals with TBI from the TBI Model Systems Database. Results: The SEM, which yielded good fit indices, suggested that individuals with TBI with greater mental health problems at 1 and 2 years after injury had lower functional independence at those same time points. The standardized path loadings for mental health problems and for functional independence over time were large, suggesting a high degree of consistency in mental health and functional independence across 1 and 2 years. In terms of cross-lag, mental health at Time 1 did not exert a unique effect on functional independence at Time 2, but functional independence at Time 1 exerted a statistically significant but quite small unique effect on mental health at Time 2. Conclusions: This combination of results suggests that functional independence is only slightly more causal than mental health in the relationship between mental health and functional independence over the first 2 years post-TBI, and that instead, reciprocal causality is a more likely scenario. To Claim CME Credits: Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://ift.tt/1l80W45 CME Objectives: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) understand the nature of the relationship between mental health problems and functional independence after traumatic brain injury; (2) learn about a novel methodological technique for examining the connections between variables over time; and (3) understand when ongoing support for individuals with traumatic brain injury is necessary. Level: Advanced Accreditation: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this activity for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

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Reloading Promotes Recovery of Disuse Muscle Loss by Inhibiting TGFβ Pathway Activation in Rats After Hind Limb Suspension

imageObjective: The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway on reloading-mediated restoration of disuse muscle loss induced by hind limb suspension in rats. Design: Rats were divided into 4 groups: control group (CON), HLS group (hind limb suspension for 2 weeks), HLS + R group (hind limb suspension for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks of natural reloading), and HRS + E group (hind limb suspension for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks of treadmill exercise). Body weight, and weight and protein concentration of gastrocnemius were determined. The expression of members of canonical and noncanonical TGFβ signaling pathways, including TGFβ1, myostatin (MSTN), phospho-smad2/3, phospho–mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38, JNK1/2, and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1 [ERK1]/ERK2), as well as the corresponding downstream effectors of muscle mass—p21, Pax7, MyoD, and MyoG—was determined at protein or messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Results: Reloading increased MyoD mRNA and restored the decreased gastrocnemius weight/body weight ratio, protein concentration of gastrocnemius, phospho-ERK2, Pax7 and the increased TGFβ1, MSTN, phospho-smad2/3, phospho-p38, phospho-JNK1/2, and p21 induced by hind limb suspension. Moreover, the effects of exercise reloading on the restoration of gastrocnemius weight/body weight ratio, TGFβ1, MSTN, phospho-smad2, phospho-p38, phospho-JNK2, Pax7, as well as the induction of MyoD mRNA were stronger than those of natural reloading. Conclusions: Disuse muscle loss can be recovered by reloading in an intensity-dependent manner through canonical and noncanonical TGFβ signaling pathways. Pax7 and MyoD might be the effectors of TGFβ pathway in mediating the recovery effect of reloading.

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Is the Cardiovascular Response Equivalent Between a Supervised Center-Based Setting and a Self-care Home-Based Setting When Rating of Perceived Exertion Is Used to Guide Aerobic Exercise Intensity During a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program?

imageObjectives: The aim of this study was to investigate if exercise intensity guided by rating of perceived exertion (RPE) results in an equivalent cardiovascular response when applied in either a center-based or a home-based setting. Design: Data from patients with heart disease (post–valve surgery and atrial fibrillation post–radiofrequency ablation) participating in exercise-based rehabilitation were included. Patients performed a 12-week program in either a center- or a home-based setting. Using RPE, patients recorded their exercise intensity 3 times during an aerobic training phase. Exercise intensity was objectively measured using heart rate (HR) monitors. Results: A total of 2622 RPE values with corresponding HR data were available. There was no difference in the level of association (interaction P = 0.51) between HR and RPE seen in the center-based setting (mean of 6.1 beats/min per 1.0 difference in RPE; 95% confidence interval, 4.8–7.5 beats/min) compared with the home-based setting (mean of 5.3 beats/min per 1.0 difference in RPE; 95% confidence interval, 4.0–6.5 beats/min). The level of patient familiarization, exercise intensity, and patient characteristics did not affect the level of association between RPE and HR. Conclusions: Independent of exercise setting, RPE appears to be equally effective in guiding exercise intensity of patients participating in cardiac rehabilitation.

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Spinal Cord Injury During Ultrasound-Guided C7 Cervical Medial Branch Block

imageAbstract: Ultrasound-guided cervical medial branch block (CMBB) is commonly performed to diagnose and treat head, neck, and shoulder pain. However, its use at the C7 level has been shown to be less accurate than at other levels, which may increase the chance of injury owing to the imprecision of needle site provided by the ultrasound guide. We report the first case of iatrogenic spinal cord injury from an ultrasound-guided C7 CMBB. The patient, upon receiving this procedure, had fainted shortly after experiencing an electrical sensation that ran from the neck to the toe. The patient complained of weakness and tingling sensation in the left upper extremity. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hematoma in the cervical spinal cord, and an electrophysiological study, which was performed at 3 weeks after the incident, revealed an injury at the left C3-T2 anterior horn. After 2 months of rehabilitation, the patient showed moderate improvement in the strength of the left proximal upper extremity; however, there was no improvement in the strength of the left distal upper extremity. Therefore, we recommend caution when performing ultrasound-guided CMBB at the C7 level, as the guide particularly at this level is relatively inaccurate, posing a risk of spinal cord injury.

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Kilohertz and Low-Frequency Electrical Stimulation With the Same Pulse Duration Have Similar Efficiency for Inducing Isometric Knee Extension Torque and Discomfort

imageObjective: To test the hypotheses that, as compared with pulsed current with the same pulse duration, kilohertz frequency alternating current would not differ in terms of evoked-torque production and perceived discomfort, and as a result, it would show the same current efficiency. Design: A repeated-measures design with 4 stimuli presented in random order was used to test 25 women: (1) 500-microsecond pulse duration, (2) 250-microsecond pulse duration, (3) 500-microsecond pulse duration and low carrier frequency (1 kHz), (4) 250-microsecond pulse duration and high carrier frequency (4 kHz). Isometric peak torque of quadriceps muscle was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Discomfort was measured using a visual analog scale. Results: Currents with long pulse durations induced approximately 21% higher evoked torque than short pulse durations. In addition, currents with 500 microseconds delivered greater amounts of charge than stimulation patterns using 250-microsecond pulse durations (P

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Venous Thromboembolism as Predictor of Acute Care Hospital Transfer and Inpatient Rehabilitation Length of Stay

imageObjective: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of venous thromboembolism (VTE) on rate of acute care hospital transfer, inpatient rehabilitation (IPR) length of stay (LOS), and functional outcomes. Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of 2312 consecutive patient discharges from a single IPR facility over an 18-month period. Results: When age, sex, reason for admission, and admission Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores were controlled for, those with VTE had nearly 2 times greater odds for transfer to acute care hospital than did those without a diagnosis of VTE. Inpatient rehabilitation LOS was 4.700 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.956–6.445 days) longer for those with a diagnosis of VTE prior to IPR admission and 2.287 days (95% CI, 1.026–3.547 days) longer for those with a diagnosis of VTE during IPR admission compared with those without a diagnosis of VTE. There was no difference in FIM change based on VTE diagnosis. Venous thromboembolism diagnosis during IPR was associated with a significant decrease in FIM efficiency (−0.358; 95% CI, −0.654 to −0.062) if diagnosed during IPR admission, but there was no difference in FIM efficiency if VTE was diagnosed prior to IPR. Conclusions: Patients with a diagnosis of VTE were more likely to be transferred to the acute care hospital and have longer IPR LOS independent of admission FIM scores. It is important to prevent development of VTE. To Claim CME Credits: Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://ift.tt/1l80W45 CME Objectives: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) understand the association of venous thromboembolism (VTE) diagnosis with acute hospital transfer and inpatient rehabilitation length of stay; (2) identify reasons for acute hospital transfer in patients diagnosed with VTE; and (3) understand the relationship between VTE diagnosis and functional outcomes during inpatient rehabilitation. Level: Advanced Accreditation: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this activity for a maximum of 1.5 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

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Task-Oriented Performance Evaluation for Assistive Robotic Manipulators: A Pilot Study

imageObjective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of commercially available assistive robotic manipulators (ARMs) user interfaces and to investigate the concurrent validity and sensitivity to change with task-oriented performance evaluation tools (TO-PETs) for ARMs. Design: This was a nonblinded randomized controlled study with power-wheelchair users with upper-extremity impairments (N = 10). Participants were trained to use 2 ARMs with their respective original user interfaces (keypad and joystick) and evaluated the performance using TO-PET and the adapted Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT-ARM). Task completion time, ISO 9241-9 throughput, trajectory parameters, NASA-TLX, and questionnaires were the main outcome measurements. Concurrent validity and sensitivity were evaluated. Results: Statistical differences were found in ISO 9241-9 throughput between the 2 user interfaces for the single motion tasks and WMFT-ARM. However, there was no statistical difference found on the self-reported perceived workload and ease of use. Moderate to high correlation was found between the TO-PET and WMFT-ARM (P

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Efficacy of Stellate Ganglion Blockade Applied with Light Irradiation: A Systemic Review and Meta-analysis

imageObjective: Stellate ganglion block has mostly been used to relieve symptoms of neuropathic pain; several potential complications have been reported. Noninvasive stellate ganglion block application using light irradiation (SG-LI) can be used as an alternative to conventional injection blockades. Based on the variety of application protocols among previous studies, it was needed to further identify the clinical efficacy of SG-LI in managing neuropathic pain or other disorders associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. Design: A comprehensive search of online databases was performed to identify experimental or observational studies reporting the efficacy of SG-LI in treating patients with disorders requiring sympatholytic management. The included studies were subjected to a meta-analysis and risk-of-bias assessment. Results: Twenty-one experimental studies with a Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6/10 and 5 observational studies with a Newcastle-Ottawa scale score of 7/9 were included in the analysis. A significant effect on pain relief favoring SG-LI was identified at a standard mean difference (SMD) of −2.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), −2.49 to −1.61; P

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Disability Stages and Trouble Getting Needed Health Care Among Medicare Beneficiaries

imageObjective: The aim of this study was to examine whether activity limitation stages were associated with patient-reported trouble getting needed health care among Medicare beneficiaries. Design: This was a population-based study (n = 35,912) of Medicare beneficiaries who participated in the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey for years 2001–2010. Beneficiaries were classified into an activity limitation stage from 0 (no limitation) to IV (complete) derived from self-reported or proxy-reported difficulty performing activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living. Beneficiaries reported whether they had trouble getting health care in the subsequent year. A multivariable logistic regression model examined the association between activity limitation stages and trouble getting needed care. Results: Compared with beneficiaries with no limitations (activities of daily living stage 0), the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for stage I (mild) to stage IV (complete) for trouble getting needed health care ranged from OR = 1.53 (95% CI, 1.32–1.76) to OR = 2.86 (95% CI, 1.97–4.14). High costs (31.7%), not having enough money (31.2%), and supplies/services not covered (24.2%) were the most common reasons for reporting trouble getting needed health care. Conclusion: Medicare beneficiaries at higher stages of activity limitations reported trouble getting needed health care, which was commonly attributed to financial barriers.

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Home-Based Compared with Hospital-Based Rehabilitation Program for Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

imageObjective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of home-based with those of hospital-based rehabilitation on patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Design: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials; the studies were assessed with the modified Jadad scale. Ten trials involving 1240 patients were eligible for meta-analysis. Results: The results revealed that home-based rehabilitation is not inferior to hospital-based rehabilitation according to the total Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index score, physical function, stiffness, walk test, and Oxford Knee Score at 12 or 52 weeks after TKA (P > 0.05). Neither pain nor knee flexion range of motion differed between the groups in the first 12 weeks. Unexpectedly, the pain score in the hospital-based group was better than that in the home-based group (P 0.05). Conclusion: Home-based rehabilitation after primary TKA was comparable to hospital-based rehabilitation and thus is a significant alternative for patients.

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Effects of High- and Low-Velocity Resistance Training on Gait Kinematics and Kinetics in Individuals with Hip Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

imageObjective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-velocity (HV) and low-velocity (LV) resistance training on gait kinematics and kinetics in patients with hip osteoarthritis. Design: This was a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Forty-six women with hip osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to the HV (n = 23) or LV (n = 23) training group. The participants underwent an 8-week home-based the HV or LV resistance-training program, involving the hip and knee muscles. Outcome measures included gait kinematics and kinetics using 3-dimensional analyses, muscle strength and power, the Harris Hip Score, and hip pain using the visual analog scale. Results: There was no significant difference in changes for any of the outcome measures between groups. After the training session, muscle power, walking speed, and cadence significantly increased only in the HV group, whereas stride length and the peak hip extension angle during gait significantly increased, and pain on the visual analog scale and the peak ankle dorsiflexion moment during gait significantly decreased only in the LV group. Muscle strength and Harris Hip Score significantly increased in both groups. Conclusions: The results of this study may indicate that the potential effect of resistance training on abnormal gait pattern depends on movement velocities during training.

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Ultrasound-Guided Injection to the Fifth Cervical Spinal Nerve Root Level

imageNo abstract available

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Dance Improves Functionality and Psychosocial Adjustment in Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

imageObjective: This randomized controlled clinical trial aimed to investigate the effect of dance in the functionality and psychosocial adjustment of young subjects with cerebral palsy (CP). Design and Methods: Twenty-six young subjects with CP, GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System) levels from II to V, were randomized into two intervention groups: kinesiotherapy and dance (n = 13 each). Twenty-four sessions (1 hour, twice a week) were performed in both groups. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) by International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) were used before and after each intervention. Results: Dance increased the classification of functioning (P = 0.001), independence function (P = 0.004), self-care (P = 0.01), mobility (P = 0.008), locomotion (P = 0.01), communication (P = 0.02), psychosocial adjustments (P = 0.04), and cognitive function (P = 0.03). Intergroup analysis evidenced significantly greater improvements in classification of functioning (P = 0.0002), independence function (P = 0.0006), self-care (P = 0.01), mobility (P = 0.001), locomotion (P = 0.002), communication (P = 0.0001), psychosocial adjustments (P = 0.002), and cognitive function (P = 0.0001) in dance group. Conclusions: It was shown that this approach could have an influence on basic common points in the body and motion, including emotional and social aspects, supporting the concept of complex multimodal psychomotor adjustments. Dance promoted enhancement on functionality and social activities regarding psychosocial adjustments in cerebral palsy young subjects.

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Second-Order Peer Reviews of Clinically Relevant Articles for the Physiatrist: Naproxen with Cyclobenzaprine, Oxycodone/Acetaminophen, or Placebo to Treating Acute Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial

imageNo abstract available

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