Δευτέρα, 12 Ιουνίου 2017

The concurrent validity and intrarater reliability of the Microsoft Kinect to measure thoracic kyphosis.

This study aims to investigate the concurrent validity and intrarater reliability of the Microsoft Kinect to measure thoracic kyphosis against the Flexicurve. Thirty-three healthy individuals (age: 31+/-11.0 years, men: 17, height: 170.2+/-8.2 cm, weight: 64.2+/-12.0 kg) participated, with 29 re-examined for intrarater reliability 1-7 days later. Thoracic kyphosis was measured using the Flexicurve and the Microsoft Kinect consecutively in both standing and sitting positions. Both the kyphosis index and angle were calculated. The Microsoft Kinect showed excellent concurrent validity (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.76-0.82) and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.81-0.98) for measuring thoracic kyphosis (angle and index) in both standing and sitting postures. This study is the first to show that the Microsoft Kinect has excellent validity and intrarater reliability to measure thoracic kyphosis, which is promising for its use in the clinical setting. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Safety and Efficacy of the Push Endoscopic Technique in the Management of Esophageal Food Bolus Impactions in Children.

Objectives: Adult-based guidelines support the use of the pull (extraction) endoscopic technique in managing esophageal food bolus impactions (FBIs) but allow the consideration of the push (advancement) technique with caution based on available published literature. The North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines mention the use of gentle endoscopic pushing for disimpaction but elaborate that this technique has not been studied in children. Our study aimed at assessing the safety and efficacy of the push technique in managing pediatric esophageal FBIs. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients presenting with esophageal FBIs to a pediatric tertiary care center from 2003 to 2016. Results: Two hundred and forty two procedures for esophageal foreign body removal were reviewed. Thirty nine procedures for managing esophageal FBIs were included in a total of 23 patients (1-4 procedures per patient). The most common underlying diagnoses were eosinophilic esophagitis and repaired tracheoesophageal fistula. The cohort had a median age of 8 years and median weight of 34.4 kg. Initial endoscopic disimpaction methods included 20 push and 19 pull technique attempts with success rates of 65% and 68% respectively (p = 1.0). Unsuccessful attempts using one technique were successfully accomplished using the other technique. Patients initially managed by either of the two disimpaction techniques did not differ in age, weight, gender or underlying diagnoses. No procedure related complications were reported at our center. Conclusion: This study shows that the push technique is as safe and effective as the pull technique in managing esophageal FBIs in pediatric patients. (C) 2017 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,

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Incidence and Risk Factors for Perianal Disease in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Patients Followed in CEDATA-GPGE Registry.

Background and Aims: Perianal disease (PD) with fistula and/or abscess formation is a severe complication in Crohn's disease (CD). We examined prevalence, incidence and risk factors for PD development in a pediatric CD cohort. Methods: CD patients from the prospective, multi-center registry for inflammatory bowel disease from Germany and Austria (CEDATA-GPGE) were included if diagnosed

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Changes in Hepcidin and Hemoglobin After anti-TNF-alpha Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Crohn's Disease.

Background: Anemia is the most common systemic complication of inflammatory bowel disease, is more common in affected children than adults, and is mediated in large part by chronic inflammation. Inflammation increases levels of the iron-regulatory protein hepcidin, which have been elevated in adults with Crohn's disease. Methods: We measured serum hepcidin-25 and hemoglobin (Hgb) in 40 children and adolescents with Crohn's disease at baseline and 10 weeks after initiation of anti-TNF-[alpha] therapy. Measures of disease activity, inflammatory markers, and cytokines were obtained in all subjects. Anemia was defined by World Health Organization criteria. Results: At baseline hepcidin and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were correlated, and 95% of subjects were anemic. After anti-TNF- [alpha] therapy, median (IQR) hepcidin concentrations decreased significantly and the distribution narrowed (27.9 [16.2, 52.9] vs. 23.2 [11.1, 37.7] ng/mL, p = 0.01). Mean (SD) Hgb also increased significantly (10.6 +/- 1.2 to 10.9 +/- 1.1 g/dL, p = 0.02), and the increase was sustained at 12 months, although 90% of participants continued to meet anemia criteria at 10 weeks. Disease activity and markers of inflammation also decreased and albumin levels increased. In generalized estimating equation analyses, higher TNF-[alpha], IL-6, ESR and CRP were associated with higher hepcidin concentrations (p = 0.04, p = 0.03, p = 0.003, and p

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Severe Sarcopenia and Increased Fat Stores in Pediatric Patients With Liver, Kidney, or Intestine Failure.

Objectives: Malnutrition and wasting predict clinical outcomes in children with severe chronic illness. Objectively calculated malnutrition in children with end-stage organ failure has not been well studied. This analysis compares children with kidney, liver or intestine failure to healthy controls to quantitate the disparity in muscle and fat stores. Methods: Children younger than age 19 with end stage liver, kidney or intestine failure and with pre-transplant computed tomography (CT) imaging were selected from the transplant database. Age and gender-matched healthy controls were selected from the trauma database. Measures of nutrition status included a scaled scoring of core muscle mass, and visceral and subcutaneous fat stores. Analysis was conducted using the pooled and individually matched subject-control differences. Results: There were 81 subjects included in the final analysis (liver (n = 35), kidney (n = 20) and intestine (n = 26)). Children with end-stage liver disease had a 23% reduction in muscle mass, a 69% increase in visceral fat and a 29% increase in subcutaneous fat. End-stage renal disease patients had a 19% reduction in muscle mass and a 258% increase in subcutaneous fat. Intestine failure patients had a 24% reduction in muscle mass, a 30% increase in visceral fat and a 46% increase in subcutaneous fat. Conclusions: These results demonstrate significant sarcopenia and increased fat stores in end-stage organ failure patients which supports the idea of an active physiologic mechanism to store fat while losing muscle mass. Sarcopenia may be related to total protein loss from a catabolic state, or from decreased synthesis (liver), wasting (kidney) or malabsorption (intestine). (C) 2017 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,

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Early Antibiotic Exposure in Low-Resource Settings is Associated with Increased Weight in The First Two Years of Life.

Objectives: The potential growth-promoting effects of antibiotics are not well understood among undernourished children in environments with high pathogen exposure. We aimed to assess whether early antibiotic exposure duration and class were associated with growth to two years of age across 8 low-resource sites in the MAL-ED birth cohort study. Methods: We followed 1,954 children twice per week from birth to two years to record maternally-reported antibiotic exposures and measure anthropometry monthly. We estimated the associations between antibiotic exposure before 6 months of age and weight-for-age (WAZ) and length-for-age (LAZ) z-scores to two years. We assessed the impact of class-specific exposures and duration, and compared these results to effects of antibiotic exposures after 6 months of age. Results: Antibiotic use before 6 months of age was associated with increased weight from 6 months to 2 years, while associations with length were less consistent across sites and antibiotic classes. Compared to unexposed children, two or more courses of metronidazole, macrolides, and cephalosporins were associated with adjusted increases in WAZ of 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04, 0.43), 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.42), and 0.19 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.35) from 6 months to 2 years, respectively. Conclusions: Antibiotic use in low-resource settings was most associated with the ponderal growth of children who had multiple exposures to antibiotics with broad spectrum and anaerobic activity in early infancy. Opportunities for rational and targeted antibiotic therapy in low resource settings may also promote short-term weight gain in children, though longer-term physical growth and metabolic impacts are unknown. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://ift.tt/1eRPUFd (C) 2017 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,

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Novel Pressure-impedance Parameters for Evaluating Esophageal Function in Pediatric Achalasia.

Objective: In achalasia, absent peristalsis and reduced esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation and compliance underlie dysphagia symptoms. Novel high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) variables, i.e. bolus presence time (BPT) and trans-EGJ-bolus flow time (BFT) have been developed to estimate the duration of EGJ opening and trans-EGJ bolus flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate esophageal motor function and bolus flow in children diagnosed with achalasia using these variables. Methods: HRIM recordings from 20 children who fulfilled the Chicago Classification (V3) criteria for achalasia were compared with recordings of 15 children with normal esophageal HRM findings and no other evidence suggestive of achalasia. Matlab-based analysis software was used to calculate BPT and BFT. Results: Both BPT and BFT were significantly reduced in achalasia patients compared to children with normal esophageal motility (BPT 3.3 s vs 5.1 s p

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Mineral Intake and Status of Cow's Milk Allergic Infants Consuming an Amino Acid-based Formula.

Data on the mineral status of infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) consuming an amino acid-based formula (AAF) have not been published. The present study aims to assess mineral status of term infants aged 0-8 months diagnosed with CMA receiving an AAF for 16 weeks. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium and ferritin were determined in 82 subjects at baseline and in 66 subjects after 16 weeks on AAF using standard methods and evaluated against age-specific reference ranges. Additionally, individual estimated energy and mineral intakes were compared to Adequate Intakes defined by the European Food Safety Authority and the US Institute of Medicine. The results of this study show that the AAF was effective in providing an adequate mineral status in infants with CMA. The vast majority of infants aged 0-6 months (formula only) and aged 6-12 months (formula and complementary foods) had adequate mineral intakes. (C) 2017 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,

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ESPGHAN- Guidelines for the Evaluation and Treatment of Gastrointestinal and Nutritional Complications in Children with Neurological Impairment.

Objectives: Feeding difficulties are frequent in children with neurological impairments and can be associated with undernutrition, growth failure, micronutrients deficiencies, osteopenia and nutritional comorbidites. Gastrointestinal problems including gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation and dysphagia are also very frequent in this population and impact quality of life and nutritional status. There is currently a lack of a systematic approach to the care of these patients. With this report, ESPGHAN aims to develop uniform guidelines for the management of the gastroenterological and nutritional problems in neurologically impaired chidren. Methods: Thirty-one clinical questions addressing the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of common gastrointestinal and nutritional problems in neurological impaired children were formulated. Questions aimed to assess: 1) the nutritional management including nutritional status, identifying undernutrition, monitoring nutritional status, and defining nutritional requirements; 2) to classify gastrointestinal issues including oropharyngeal dysfunctions, motor and sensory function, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and constipation; 3) to evaluate the indications for nutritional rehabilitation including enteral feeding and percutaneous gastrostomy/jejunostomy; 4) to define indications for surgical interventions (e.g. Nissen Fundoplication, oesophago-gastric disconnection) and finally 5) to consider ethical issues related to digestive and nutritional problems in the severely neurologically impaired children. A systematic literature search was performed from 1980 to October 2015 using MEDLINE. The approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation was applied to evaluate the outcomes. During two consensus meetings, all recommendations were discussed and finalized. The group members voted on each recommendation using the nominal voting technique. Expert opinion was applied to support the recommendations where no randomized controlled trials were available. (C) 2017 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,

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Development of Nerve Fibre Diameter in Young Infants With Hirschsprung Disease.

Objectives: Finding thickened nerve fibres is one of the key elements in the diagnosis of Hirschsprung Disease (HD); however, its value at different ages remains uncertain. Nerve fibre diameters =40 [mu]m at T1 and T2. 6 subjects (30%) had nerve trunk diameters =40 [mu]m by T2. Thus, at T2, 19 subjects (95%) had diameter recordings >=40 [mu]m. Nerve fibre diameter in the remaining case (5%) stayed consistent at

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Reduced Susceptibility to Antiseptics Is Conferred by Heterologous Housekeeping Genes

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Routine Prophylactic Antimicrobial Use Is Associated with Increased Phenotypic and Genotypic Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli Isolates Recovered from Healthy Fattening Pigs on Farms in Thailand

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Estimation of respiratory volume from thoracoabdominal breathing distances: comparison of two models of machine learning

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this study were to both improve the accuracy of respiratory volume (V) estimates using the respiratory magnetometer plethysmography (RMP) technique and facilitate the use of this technique.

Method

We compared two models of machine learning (ML) for estimating \(\widehat{V}_\mathrm{RMP}\) : a linear model (multiple linear regression—MLR) and a nonlinear model (artificial neural network—ANN), and we used cross-validation to validate these models. Fourteen healthy adults, aged \(24.1 \pm 3.4\) years participated in the present study. The protocol was conducted in a laboratory test room. The anteroposterior displacements of the rib cage and abdomen, and the axial displacements of the chest wall and spine were measured using two pairs of magnetometers. \(\widehat{V}_\mathrm{RMP}\) was estimated from these four signals, and the respiratory volume was simultaneously measured using a spirometer ( \(V_\mathrm{SP}\) ) under lying, sitting and standing conditions as well as various exercise conditions (working on computer, treadmill walking at 4 and 6 km \(\mathrm{ \ h}^{-1}\) , treadmill running at 9 and 12  km \(\mathrm{ \ h}^{-1}\) and ergometer cycling at 90 and 110 W).

Results

The results from the ANN model fitted the spirometer volume significantly better than those obtained through MLR. Considering all activities, the difference between \(\widehat{V}_\mathrm{RMP}\) and \(V_\mathrm{SP}\) (bias) was higher for the MLR model ( \(0.00191 \pm 0.141\) L) than for the ANN model ( \(0.00158 \pm 0.150\) L).

Conclusion

Our results demonstrate that this new processing approach for RMP seems to be a valid tool for estimating V with sufficient accuracy during lying, sitting and standing and under various exercise conditions.



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Generating ActiGraph Counts from Raw Acceleration Recorded by an Alternative Monitor.

Purpose: To implement an aggregation method in Matlab for generating ActiGraph counts from raw acceleration recorded with an alternative accelerometer device and to investigate the validity of the method. Methods: The aggregation method including the frequency band-pass filter was implemented and optimized based on standardized sinusoidal acceleration signals generated in Matlab and processed in the ActiLife software. Evaluating the validity of the aggregation method was approached using a mechanical setup and with a 24-hour free-living recording using a convenient sample of nine subjects. Counts generated with the aggregation method applied to Axivity AX3 raw acceleration data were compared to counts generated with ActiLife from ActiGraph GT3X+ data. Results: An optimal band-pass filter was fitted resulting in a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 25.7 counts per 10 second and mean absolute error (MAE) of 15.0 counts per second across the full frequency range. The mechanical evaluation of the proposed aggregation method resulted in an absolute mean (sd) difference of -0.11 (0.97) counts per 10 second across all rotational frequencies compared to the original ActiGraph method. Applying the aggregation method to the 24-hour free-living recordings resulted in an epoch level bias ranging from -16.2 to 0.9 counts per 10 second, a relative difference in the averaged physical activity (counts per minute) ranging from -0.5% to 4.7% with a group mean (sd) of 2.2% (1.7%) and a Cohen's Kappa of 0.945 indicating almost a perfect agreement in the intensity classification. Conclusion: The proposed band-pass filter and aggregation method is highly valid for generating ActiGraph counts from raw acceleration data recorded with alternative devices. It would facilitate comparability between studies using different devices collecting raw acceleration data. (C) 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

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Analysis of the use of the IAEA rapid method of 89Sr and 90Sr in milk for environmental monitoring

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Publication date: October 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 177
Author(s): M. Herranz, R. Idoeta, S. Rozas, F. Legarda
Rapid methods that are used during nuclear accidents or incident situations must first be implemented and validated in radioactivity measurement laboratories, so they can be ready to provide quick answers to governments, regulatory organizations and people in such situations. As these accident situations are rare and the methods are thus not frequently used, the best way to achieve this is to use the same methods for both routine environmental monitoring and rapid or emergency situations. Before this can be done, however, an analysis of the conditions under which a rapid method could be effectively used in routine situations should be carried out.This work analyses the performance of the rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 89Sr and 90Sr in milk, published by the IAEA, and compares it with another, more conventional method used for routine environmental purposes.Through numerical calculations and considering different 89Sr and 90Sr activities, we also conducted a study to obtain the optimum values for determination parameters – such as sample mass, counting times, time lapse between measurements and background counting times – that will allow the use of the IAEA rapid method as a routine environmental one.



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Radiocesium decontamination of a riverside in Fukushima, Japan

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Publication date: October 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 177
Author(s): Tatsuhiro Nishikiori, Satoshi Suzuki
Extensive decontamination measures have been implemented in the area affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster. Typical decontamination measures, such as removing topsoil of several centimeters in depth, are not suitable for rivers where contaminated sediments have been deposited. A decontamination measure was tested that considered the spatial distribution of radiocesium at the lower part of a tributary of the Abukuma River in Fukushima. The radiocesium distribution in the flood channel was vertically and horizontally highly heterogeneous. In some parts, the activity concentration was high (>10 kBq/kg for 137Cs) even at depths of 25 cm in the sediment. This may be due to plant growth in the flood channel favoring the deposition of sediment with high activity concentration. On the basis of the radiocesium distribution, the flood channel sediment was removed to a depth of 15–35 cm, which accumulated the most radiocesium (>3.0 kBq/kg for the sum of 134Cs and 137Cs). The upper 5 cm of soil was removed from the dike slopes. The river bed was not decontaminated because the activity concentration was low (<1 kBq/kg) in the river bed sediment and because the water shields gamma rays emitted from the sediment. The test decontamination measure reduced the air dose rate by a factor of approximately two, demonstrating the effectiveness of our measures. Annual external doses were calculated for when this part of the dike and the flood channel is used for commuting to school and outdoor education. The doses during the activities at the test site accounted for only 1–2% of the value during daily life in the surrounding area, indicating that radiation exposure during riverside activities is limited.



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Prove It: Prehospital ultrasound improves diagnosis, treatment and transport decisions

Including ultrasound during assessment may help rule out or find injuries missed with traditional exam techniques, but more research is needed

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State EMS Data Manager - Vermont Department of Health

The State of Vermont is seeking a full time emergency medical services data manager. This position is responsible for the ongoing development, maintenance and administration of an EMS database. The data manager oversees statewide EMS data collection (SIREN), licensing and certification databases (GLSuites) as well as other EMS and public health data related projects of statewide significance. Other ...

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Firefighter/Paramedic or paramedic - Baytown fire

Firefighter paramedic or paramedics. Paramedics will be sent to fire school. Civil services. Starting pay 58,000 plus 4,800 for being a paramedic.

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Femoral nerve block with propofol sedation versus general anesthesia in patients with severe cardiac dysfunction undergoing autologous myoblast sheet transplantation

Abstract

Purpose

Regional anesthesia is more favorable than general anesthesia in patients with severe comorbidity; however, data on the superiority of peripheral nerve blocks over general anesthesia in patients with severe cardiac dysfunction are lacking. We aimed to demonstrate that peripheral nerve blocks reduce perioperative analgesic requirements and promote faster recovery compared to general anesthesia.

Methods

We retrospectively evaluated intraoperative blood pressure, perioperative medications, and postoperative recovery in patients who underwent skeletal muscle harvesting for autologous myoblast sheet transplantation. We compared patients who received general anesthesia (group G, n = 27) to those who received femoral nerve block with propofol sedation (group B, n = 22).

Results

Left ventricular ejection fraction was 24% on average, with no significant difference between groups. Compared with group G, a lower dose of propofol was used intraoperatively (1.25 versus 2.0 µg/mL, respectively; P < 0.001) and fewer patients required opioids (13.6 versus 100%, P < 0.01) in group B. Additionally, the lowest intraoperative mean blood pressure was higher (54 versus 48 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.02) in group B. More patients received postoperative analgesic drugs (51.9 versus 13.6%, P = 0.01) and they received them more frequently (1 [0–3] versus 0 [0–1], P = 0.02) in group G. The length of heart care unit stay was shorter in group B than group G (0 [0–18.5] versus 17 [0–47] h, respectively; P < 0.0001).

Conclusions

Femoral nerve block with sedation was more beneficial than general anesthesia in patients with severe cardiac dysfunction who underwent skeletal muscle harvesting for autologous myoblast sheet transplantation.



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Electrodermal responses during appetitive conditioning are sensitive to contingency instruction ambiguity

Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Karolien van den Akker, Chantal Nederkoorn, Anita Jansen
Studies on human appetitive conditioning using food rewards can benefit from including psychophysiological outcome measures. The present study tested whether the skin conductance response can function as a measure of differential responding in an appetitive conditioning paradigm including an acquisition and extinction phase, and examined which time window during a trial is most sensitive to conditioning effects. As a secondary aim, the effects of ambiguous vs. non-ambiguous contingency instructions on conditioned responses (skin conductance responses, US expectancies, chocolate desires, and CS evaluations) were assessed. Results indicated differential skin conductance responses in an anticipatory time window and during unexpected omission of the US in early extinction. Interestingly however, anticipatory responses were only found for participants who received ambiguous contingency instructions – possibly indicating a call for additional processing resources in response to the ambiguous CS+. Further, ambiguous instructions slowed the extinction of US expectancies but did not influence chocolate desires and CS evaluations. It is concluded that skin conductance can function as a sensitive measure of differential responding in appetitive conditioning, though its sensitivity might depend on the specific task context.



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RNA processing as an alternative route to attack glioblastoma

Abstract

Genomic analyses have become an important tool to identify new avenues for therapy. This is especially true for cancer types with extremely poor outcomes, since our lack of effective therapies offers no tangible clinical starting point to build upon. The highly malignant brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM) exemplifies such a refractory cancer, with only 15 month average patient survival. Analyses of several hundred GBM samples compiled by the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) have produced an extensive transcriptomic map, identified prevalent chromosomal alterations, and defined important driver mutations. Unfortunately, clinical trials based on these results have not yet delivered an improvement on outcome. It is, therefore, necessary to characterize other regulatory routes known for playing a role in tumor relapse and response to treatment. Alternative splicing affects more than 90% of the human coding genes and it is an important source for transcript variation and gene regulation. Mutations and alterations in splicing factors are highly prevalent in multiple cancers, demonstrating the potential for splicing to act as a tumor driver. As a result, numerous genes are expressed as cancer-specific splicing isoforms that are functionally distinct from the canonical isoforms found in normal tissue. These include genes that regulate cancer-critical pathways such as apoptosis, DNA repair, cell proliferation, and migration. Splicing defects can even induce genomic instability, a common characteristic of cancer, and a driver of tumor evolution. Importantly, components of the splicing machinery are targetable; multiple drugs can inhibit splicing factors or promote changes in splicing which could be exploited to begin improving clinical outcomes. Here, we review the current literature and present a case for exploring RNA processing as therapeutic route for the treatment of GBM.



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Erratum to: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy by transabdominal lateral approach: 20 years of experience



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Neural control of daily and seasonal timing of songbird migration

Abstract

Bird migration is one of most salient annual events in nature. It involves predictable seasonal movements between breeding and non-breeding habitats. Both circadian and circannual clocks are entrained by photoperiodic cues and time daily and seasonal changes in migratory physiology and behavior. This mini-review provides an update on daily and seasonal rhythms of migratory behavior, and examines the neuroendocrine and molecular pathways involved in the timing of migration in songbirds. Recent findings have identified key neural substrates, and suggest the involvement of multiple neuroendocrine regulatory systems in controlling seasonal states in migrants. We propose that four distinct neural substrates are involved in the timing of migration and include (1) pineal gland and suprachiasmatic nucleus (mSCN); (2) a cluster of hypothalamic nuclei, the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH); (3) dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH); and (4) tanycytes along ependymal layer of the 3rd ventricle (3V). Cluster N, a nucleus in the telencephalon involved in the integration of geomagnetic cues, likely maintains functional connectivity with brain regions involved in timing songbird migration. These nuclei form an interconnected network that coordinates daily timing (pineal gland/mSCN), annual photoperiodic response (MBH, 3V), energetic state (MBH, DMH, 3V), and magnetic compass information (i.e., cluster N) for migration in songbirds.



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How many phosphoproteins does it take to make muscle grow?

Abstract

Understanding how exercise causes muscles to adapt is fundamental to improving our health, quality-of-life and longevity.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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The baroreflex effectiveness index as an early marker of autonomic dysfunction in heart failure

Abstract

Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem worldwide, associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare expenditure.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Muscle carnitine availability plays a central role in regulating fuel metabolism in the rodent

Abstract

The body carnitine pool is primarily confined to skeletal muscle, where it regulates carbohydrate (CHO) and fat usage. Mildronate (3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)-propionate) inhibits carnitine synthesis and tissue uptake, but the impact of carnitine depletion on whole-body fuel selection, muscle fuel metabolism and its molecular regulation is under-investigated. Male lean Zucker rats received water (control, n = 8) or mildronate-supplemented water (mildronate, n = 8) for 10 days (1.6 g kg−1 body mass (bm).day−1 day 1–2, 0.8 g kg−1 bm day−1 thereafter). From day 7–10, animals were housed in indirect calorimetry chambers after which soleus muscle and liver were harvested. Food and fluid intake, weight gain and physical activity levels were similar between groups from day 7–10. Compared to control, mildronate depleted muscle total carnitine (< 0.001) and all carnitine esters. Furthermore, whole-body fat oxidation was less (< 0.001) and CHO oxidation was greater (< 0.05) compared to control, whilst soleus and liver glycogen content were less (< 0.01 and < 0.01, respectively). In a second study, male Wistar rats received water (n = 8) or mildronate-supplemented water (n = 8) as above, and kidney, heart, and EDL and soleus muscles were collected. Compared to control, mildronate depleted total carnitine content (all < 0.001), reduced carnitine transporter protein and glycogen content, and increased PDK4 mRNA abundance in heart, EDL, and soleus. 189 mRNAs regulating fuel selection were differentially expressed in soleus in mildronate vs. control, and a number of cellular functions and pathways strongly associated with carnitine depletion were identified. Collectively, these data firmly support the premise that muscle carnitine availability is a primary regulator of fuel selection in vivo.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Healthful, Cultural Foods and Safety Net Use Among Cambodian and Brazilian Immigrant Communities in Massachusetts

Abstract

Declining health and food security status among low-income immigrants in the U.S. may result from limited access to healthful, cultural foods and safety net programs. We held focus group discussions with low-income Cambodian and Brazilian immigrants (11 groups, n = 84) living in Massachusetts. Cambodians and Brazilians valued healthful, cultural foods, emphasizing their beliefs that cultural foods are healthier and beneficial for weight management and aging. Although both groups could access these foods, some individuals had difficulty affording them. Cambodians reported that food quality decreased over the month due to inadequate resources. Cambodians relied on SNAP, WIC, families, and food pantries; however, Brazilians generally did not participate in safety net programs. Barriers to accessing and using safety nets appear to limit diet quality for some immigrant families. Targeted nutrition interventions should build on current knowledge of and desire for healthful, cultural foods in the context of available safety nets.



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Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension

Abstract

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle specialized in the synthesis, folding, assembly, and modification of proteins. In situations of increased protein demand, complex signaling pathways, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), influence a series of cellular feedback loops to strictly control ER function. While initially a compensatory attempt to maintain cellular homeostasis, chronic activation of the UPR, known as ER stress, leads to sustained changes in cellular function. A growing body of literature points to ER stress in diverse cardioregulatory systems, including the brain, kidney and vasculature, as central to the development of hypertension. Here, these recent findings from essential and obesity-related forms of hypertension are highlighted in an integrative manner with discussion into potential upstream causes and downstream consequences of ER stress. Given that hypertension is a leading medical and socioeconomic global challenge, emerging findings suggest that targeting ER stress may represent a viable strategy for the treatment of hypertensive disease.

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In reply: MEP monitoring during aortic surgery



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Modified Maturity Offset Prediction Equations: Validation in Independent Longitudinal Samples of Boys and Girls

Abstract

Background

Predicted maturity offset and age at peak height velocity are increasingly used with youth athletes, although validation studies of the equations indicated major limitations. The equations have since been modified and simplified.

Objective

The objective of this study was to validate the new maturity offset prediction equations in independent longitudinal samples of boys and girls.

Methods

Two new equations for boys with chronological age and sitting height and chronological age and stature as predictors, and one equation for girls with chronological age and stature as predictors were evaluated in serial data from the Wrocław Growth Study, 193 boys (aged 8–18 years) and 198 girls (aged 8–16 years). Observed age at peak height velocity for each youth was estimated with the Preece–Baines Model 1. The original prediction equations were included for comparison. Predicted age at peak height velocity was the difference between chronological age at prediction and maturity offset.

Results

Predicted ages at peak height velocity with the new equations approximated observed ages at peak height velocity in average maturing boys near the time of peak height velocity; a corresponding window for average maturing girls was not apparent. Compared with observed age at peak height velocity, predicted ages at peak height velocity with the new and original equations were consistently later in early maturing youth and earlier in late maturing youth of both sexes. Predicted ages at peak height velocity with the new equations had reduced variation compared with the original equations and especially observed ages at peak height velocity. Intra-individual variation in predicted ages at peak height velocity with all equations was considerable.

Conclusion

The new equations are useful for average maturing boys close to the time of peak height velocity; there does not appear to be a clear window for average maturing girls. The new and original equations have major limitations with early and late maturing boys and girls.



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PPAR{delta} reprograms glutamine metabolism in sorafenib-resistant HCC

Molecular Cancer Research

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Tanning bed use declining among US adults

Reuters Health News

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Short- and long-term outcomes of the Frey procedure for chronic pancreatitis: A single-center experience and summary of outcomes in Japan

Surgery Today

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Medical costs of bike crashes on the rise

Reuters Health News

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Risk of acute kidney injury after transarterial chemoembolisation in hepatocellular carcinoma patients: A nationwide population-based cohort study

European Radiology

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Comparison of Remicade to curcumin for the treatment of Crohn's disease: A systematic review

Complementary Therapies in Medicine

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Prevalence of histological features of idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension in general population: A retrospective study of incidental liver biopsies

Hepatology International

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One-year effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab therapy for inflammatory bowel disease: A prospective multicentre cohort study

Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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Tanshinone IIAinhibits β-catenin/VEGF-mediated angiogenesis by targeting TGF-β1 in normoxic and HIF-1-inhypoxicmicroenvironments in human colorectal cancer

Cancer Letters

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Add-on therapy with traditional Chinese medicine improves outcomes and reduces adverse events in hepatocellular carcinoma: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

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Wide versus narrow margins after partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Balancing recurrence risk and liver function

The American Journal of Surgery

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Efficacy and safety of lamivudine versus entecavir for treating chronic hepatitis B virus-related acute exacerbation and acute-on-chronic liver failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology

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Zika affects 5% of babies with confirmed infections -US CDC

Reuters Health News

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Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence and awareness of Hepatitis B virus infection and immunity in the United States

Journal of Viral Hepatitis

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Prenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal factors are associated with pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis

The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

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Incidence of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue following GI infection: A population-level study using routinely collected claims data

Gut

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Enrichment of IL-17A (+) IFN- (+) and IL-22 (+) IFN- (+)T cell Subsets Is Associated with Reduction of NKp44 (+) ILC3s in the Terminal Ileum of Crohn's Disease Patients

Clinical and Experimental Immunology

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Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with Parkinson's diseases: A meta-analysis

Helicobacter

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The impact of antiangiogenic therapy combined with Transarterial Chemoembolization on enhancement based quantitative tumor response assessment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

Clinical Imaging

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Epidemiology of hepatitis B and the role of vaccination

Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology

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Technique: Sizing up tumours with Tuba-seq

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.50

Author: Michelle Trenkmann



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Network propagation: a universal amplifier of genetic associations

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.38

Authors: Lenore Cowen, Trey Ideker, Benjamin J. Raphael & Roded Sharan



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Six-Food Elimination Diet and Topical Steroids are Effective for Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Meta-Regression

Abstract

Background

Topical corticosteroids or six-food elimination diet is recommended as initial therapy for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).

Aims

We aimed to summarize published manuscripts that report outcomes of these therapies for EoE.

Methods

We performed a systematic review in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase of published manuscripts describing topical fluticasone, topical budesonide, and six-food elimination diet as therapies for EoE. We conducted meta-analysis of symptom improvement and the change in peak mucosal eosinophil count, with heterogeneity between studies examined with meta-regression analysis.

Results

Systematic review yielded 51 articles that met inclusion criteria. Summary histologic response rates were 68.3% [95% prediction limits (PL) 16.2–96.0%] for fluticasone, 76.8% (95% PL 36.1–95.1%) for budesonide, and 69.0% (95% PL 31.9–91.4%) for six-food elimination diet. Corresponding decreases in eosinophil counts were 37.8 (95% PL 19.0–56.7), 62.5 (95% PL 125.6 to −0.67, and 44.6 (95% PL 26.5–62.7), respectively. Symptom response rates were 82.3% (95% PL 68.1–91.1%), 87.9% (95% PL 42.7–98.6%), and 87.3% (95% PL 64.5–96.3%), respectively. Meta-regression analyses decreased the initially large estimate of residual heterogeneity and suggested differences in histologic response rate associated with study populations' baseline eosinophil count and age.

Conclusions

The literature describing topical corticosteroids and six-food elimination diet consists of small studies with diverse methods and population characteristics. Meta-analysis with meta-regression shows initial histologic and symptomatic response rates on the same order of magnitude for topical corticosteroids and six-food elimination diet, but heterogeneity of study designs prevents direct comparison of modalities.



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TSP-1-Mediated Induction of T Regulatory Cell by Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Mechanism of Immunosuppression



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