Σάββατο, 16 Σεπτεμβρίου 2017

Adapting an Evidence-Based Pediatric Acute Asthma Exacerbation Severity Assessment Tool for Pediatric Primary Care

The purposes of this project were (a) to examine criteria derived from evidence-based pediatric acute asthma exacerbation assessment tools, asthma scores, and the acute asthma prediction rule validated and used in the emergency department and (b) to adapt these criteria for pediatric primary care.

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Phalangeal morphology of Shanghuang fossil primates

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Publication date: December 2017
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 113
Author(s): Daniel L. Gebo, Marian Dagosto, Xijun Ni, K. Christopher Beard
Here, we describe hundreds of isolated phalanges attributed to middle Eocene fossil primates from the Shanghuang fissure-fillings from southern Jiangsu Province, China. Extending knowledge based on previous descriptions of postcranial material from Shanghuang, this sample of primate finger and toe bones includes proximal phalanges, middle phalanges, and over three hundred nail-bearing distal phalanges. Most of the isolated proximal and middle phalanges fall within the range of small-bodied individuals, suggesting an allocation to the smaller haplorhine primates identified at Shanghuang, including eosimiids. In contrast to the proximal and middle phalanges from Shanghuang, there are a variety of shapes, sizes, and possible taxonomic allocations for the distal phalanges. Two distal phalangeal morphologies are numerically predominant at Shanghuang. The sample of larger bodied specimens is best allocated to the medium-sized adapiform Adapoides while the smaller ones are allocated to eosimiids on the basis of the commonality of dental and tarsal remains of these taxa at Shanghuang. The digit morphology of Adapoides is similar morphologically to that of notharctines and cercamoniines, while eosimiid digit morphology is unlike living anthropoids. Other primate distal phalangeal morphologies at Shanghuang include grooming "claws" as well as specimens attributable to tarsiids, tarsiiforms, the genus Macrotarsius, and a variety of adapiforms. One group of distal phalanges at Shanghuang is morphologically indistinguishable from those of living anthropoids. All of the phalanges suggest long fingers and toes for the fossil primates of Shanghaung, and their digit morphology implies arboreality with well-developed digital flexion and strong, grasping hands and feet.



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Skeletal muscle mechanics: questions, problems and possible solutions

Skeletal muscle mechanics have been studied ever since people have shown an interest in human movement. However, our understanding of muscle contraction and muscle mechanical properties has changed fundamental...

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The REFINEMENT Glossary of Terms: An International Terminology for Mental Health Systems Assessment

Abstract

Comparing mental health systems across countries is difficult because of the lack of an agreed upon terminology covering services and related financing issues. Within the European Union project REFINEMENT, international mental health care experts applied an innovative mixed "top-down" and "bottom-up" approach following a multistep design thinking strategy to compile a glossary on mental health systems, using local services as pilots. The final REFINEMENT glossary consisted of 432 terms related to service provision, service utilisation, quality of care and financing. The aim of this study was to describe the iterative process and methodology of developing this glossary.



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Understanding the Science of Resistance Training: An Evolutionary Perspective

Abstract

The history of resistance training research began with anecdotal ideas and a slow growth of research from the late 1890s through the 1970s. The mid-1970s were a nexus point when resistance training studies evolved from just strength assessments to importance in physiological systems, physical health, and physical performance capabilities for individuals interested in physical fitness through to those seeking elite athletic performances. The pursuit of understanding program design and what mediated successful programs continues today as new findings, replication of old concepts, and new visions with the latest technologies fuel both our understanding and interest in this modality. This brief review highlights some of the important scientific contributions to the evolution of our scientific study of resistance training and provides a literature base analysis for greater quantification of the origins and expanse of such investigations.



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What’s Next in Complex Networks? Capturing the Concept of Attacking Play in Invasive Team Sports

Abstract

The evolution of performance analysis within sports sciences is tied to technology development and practitioner demands. However, how individual and collective patterns self-organize and interact in invasive team sports remains elusive. Social network analysis has been recently proposed to resolve some aspects of this problem, and has proven successful in capturing collective features resulting from the interactions between team members as well as a powerful communication tool. Despite these advances, some fundamental team sports concepts such as an attacking play have not been properly captured by the more common applications of social network analysis to team sports performance. In this article, we propose a novel approach to team sports performance centered on sport concepts, namely that of an attacking play. Network theory and tools including temporal and bipartite or multilayered networks were used to capture this concept. We put forward eight questions directly related to team performance to discuss how common pitfalls in the use of network tools for capturing sports concepts can be avoided. Some answers are advanced in an attempt to be more precise in the description of team dynamics and to uncover other metrics directly applied to sport concepts, such as the structure and dynamics of attacking plays. Finally, we propose that, at this stage of knowledge, it may be advantageous to build up from fundamental sport concepts toward complex network theory and tools, and not the other way around.



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Clinical update regarding general anesthesia-associated neurotoxicity in infants and children.

Purpose of review: The U.S. Federal Drug Administration (FDA) recently released a warning stating that 'repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 years or in pregnant women during their third trimester may affect the development of children's brains' ( http://ift.tt/2x7Abo0). The goal of this article is to review the most recent clinical studies which provide evidence that these concerns may be overstated for the majority of healthy young children who require surgery and anesthesia. Recent findings: Three large retrospective matched cohort studies published within the past year provide data on a total of 59 814 children exposed to general anesthesia before age 4 (including 30 021

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Complications and unplanned admissions in nonoperating room procedures.

Purpose of review: The purpose of this article is to review complications and unplanned hospital admissions in patients presenting for ambulatory procedures requiring anesthesia care in the gastrointestinal endoscopy, bronchoscopy, and radiology suites. Recent findings: The range of ambulatory diagnostic and therapeutic procedures being undertaken in the gastrointestinal endoscopy, bronchoscopy, and radiology suites is expanding rapidly. Recent observational studies in gastrointestinal endoscopy confirm low incidences of complications and unplanned admissions. Deep propofol-based sedation is associated with more complications than lighter sedation. Older patients suffer more complications but obstructive sleep apnea does not appear to increase risk. Sedation improves patient comfort during bronchoscopy. Propofol-based sedation is associated with fewer complications than benzodiazepine-based sedation, but all combinations are associated with high patient satisfaction. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea are not associated with worse outcomes in bronchoscopy patients. Sedation is increasingly required for interventions in the radiology suite. When patients are involved in choosing sedation depth, there is a trend to lighter sedation and high patient satisfaction. Summary: Sedation and anesthesia are required for the increasing number of increasingly complex procedures being undertaken outside the operating suite. Large randomized trials are required to define the optimum sedation drugs, sedation depth and sedation provider. Copyright (C) 2017 YEAR Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Effects of pregabalin on postoperative pain after hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine: a randomized controlled trial

Abstract

Purpose

To determine if preoperative pregabalin could decrease 24-h postoperative morphine consumption after spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine compared with placebo.

Methods

A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was performed in the tertiary care center. Patients aged between 18 and 65 years who were American Society of Anesthesiologists class I–II and scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy with or without salpingo-oophorectomy were randomly allocated to a placebo or a pregabalin group. Patients received pregabalin 150 mg or placebo 1 h prior to anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia was achieved with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with morphine 0.2 mg. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia morphine was provided postoperatively. Postoperative morphine consumption at 6, 12, and 24 h, time to first analgesic rescue, pain scores, adverse effects, and patient satisfaction were evaluated at 24 h after the operation.

Results

One hundred twenty-five patients were recruited and 119 patients (placebo N = 58, pregabalin N = 61) were included in the analysis. Forty-seven (81.0%) patients in the placebo group and 53 (86.9%) patients in the pregabalin group required morphine in the first 24 h. Median [IQR] 24-h morphine consumption was 4.0 [1.8, 10.0] mg in the placebo group and 5.0 [2.0, 11.0] mg in the prebagalin group, p = 0.60. There were no differences in cumulative morphine consumption at 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. The two groups also did not differ in time to first analgesic rescue, pain scores at rest and on movement, and side effects.

Conclusion

A single preoperative dose of pregabalin 150 mg did not reduce 24-h postoperative morphine consumption or pain scores or prolong the time to first analgesic rescue in spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine.



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Modeling the Decision of Mental Health Providers to Implement Evidence-Based Children’s Mental Health Services: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

Abstract

Using an online, cross sectional discrete choice experiment, we modeled the influence of 14 implementation attributes on the intention of 563 providers to adopt hypothetical evidence-based children's mental health practices (EBPs). Latent class analysis identified two segments. Segment 1 (12%) would complete 100% of initial training online, devote more time to training, make greater changes to their practices, and introduce only minor modifications to EBPs. Segment 2 (88%) preferred fewer changes, more modifications, less training, but more follow-up. Simulations suggest that enhanced supervisor support would increase the percentage of participants choosing the intensive training required to implement EBPs. The dissemination of EBPs needs to consider the views of segments of service providers with differing preferences regarding EBPs and implementation process design.



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Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Falls in Well-Functioning Older Adults: Findings From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Objective: Previous work demonstrates the consequences of falling in older adults and the potential of physical activity (PA) to reduce falls, but few studies have used accelerometer-measured PA to compare overall and time-of-day activity patterns of nonfallers, fallers, or subgroups of fallers. Methods: In 840 participants (mean age, 66.7; s = 13.2; range, 26-97) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging between 2007 and 2014, PA was measured objectively with Actiheart accelerometers and falling status (faller/nonfaller) was assessed during an in-person interview. Differences in daily PA and PA by time-of-day were assessed using multiple linear regression. Differences in PA (multiple linear regression), and functional status ([chi]2) were further examined in subgroups of "risky" or "normal" fallers. Results: Overall, fallers and nonfallers exhibited similar daily ([beta] = 22.6, P = 0.48) and time-specific PA; however, those who fell doing risky activities were more active overall ([beta] = 243.8, P = 0.002), during the morning ([beta] = 77.3, P = 0.004), afternoon ([beta] = 78.4, P = 0.001), and late afternoon/evening ([beta] = 56.3, P = 0.006) than those who fell doing normal activities. Risky fallers were significantly higher functioning than normal fallers. Conclusions: Persons who fell while engaging in normal activities exhibited lower PA overall and throughout most of the day, and were of lower functional status than persons who fell while engaging in risky or unusual activities, suggesting that engagement in risky or unusual PA is associated with higher functional ability and lower falls risk in older persons. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Letter to the Editor on "Effects of Antigravity Treadmill Training on Gait, Balance, and Fall Risk in Children With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy".

No abstract available

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Octopaminergic innervation and a neurohaemal release site in the antennal heart of the locust Schistocerca gregaria

Abstract

A detailed account is given by the octopaminergic innervation of the antennal heart in Schistocerca gregaria using various immunohistochemical methods. Anterograde axonal filling illustrates the unilateral innervation on the medial ventral surface of the pumping muscle of the antennal heart via the paired corpora cardiaca nerve III. In addition, antibody staining revealed that ascending axons of this nerve terminate at the ampullae of the antennal heart forming synaptoid structures and extensive neurohaemal release sites. Due to the innervation by two dorsal unpaired median neurons, the presence of the biogenic amines octopamine and tyramine could be visualized by immunocytochemistry in an insect antennal heart for the first time. The data suggest that tyramine acts as a precursor and not purely as an independent transmitter. While the octopaminergic fibers innervating the pumping muscle of the antennal heart indicate a cardioregulatory role, we conclude that octopamine released from the neurohaemal area is pumped into the antennae and an involvement in the modulation of the antennal sensory sensitivity is discussed.



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