Πέμπτη, 29 Μαρτίου 2018
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Proton Pump Inhibitors and Infant Pneumonia/Other Lower Respiratory Tract Infections: National Nested Case-control Study
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The Membrane-bound O-Acyltransferase7 rs641738 Variant in Pediatric Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
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Yield and Examiner Dependence of Digital Rectal Examination in Detecting Impaction in Pediatric Functional Constipation
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Thiopurine Optimization Through Combination With Allopurinol in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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Microanatomical Nerve Architecture of 6 Mammalian Species: Is Trans-Species Translational Anatomic Extrapolation Valid?
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has widely been accepted as a useful method of non-invasive brain stimulation in neuroscience. Compared with neuroimaging and intraoperative mapping, the number of speech experiments using TMS has, however, still been small. Here, an introduction to recent TMS studies that explored speech perception and imitation is presented. Single-pulse TMS of the primary motor cortex (M1) showed a speech specific and topographically specific increase of excitability in the M1 lip area during speech perception.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mental state and brain activity in response to odors in the environment. The mental state of 20 healthy adults was estimated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale. The subjects were placed in a room, which was individually filled with vanillin, Mainichi-Koh (Japanese incense), skatol, and distilled water (control) odors, and their electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded while performing an auditory oddball task in the room.
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O-3-21. Electrophysiological evaluation of peripheral neuropathy in hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia
Peripheral neuropathy often occurs in hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (hSCA), but the features of nerve involvement have not been fully investigated. We evaluated the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in hSCAs and classified the underlying pathologies into length-dependent axonopathy and neuronopathy based on sural/radial amplitude ratio (SRAR). SRAR has been reported as a sensitive indicator to differentiate the pathology of peripheral neuropathy. In this study, we defined SRAR less than 0.3 as length-dependent axonopathy, and SRAR more than 0.3 as neuronopathy.
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P3-3-1. Features of the correlation between the sites of EEG based on the difference in duration of epileptiform discharges
To investigate differences in the duration of epileptiform discharges, wavelet-crosscorrelation analysis was performed to identify correlations and time-lags between sites of the brain. Electroencephalography recordings were categorized into two time spans according to the duration of the epileptiform discharge: short run, 2–3 s; and long run, ⩾3 s. Both runs were subcategorized into before, during, and after epileptiform discharge groups. The EEG was divided into 2-s segments. In all patients, wavelet-crosscorrelation coefficients (WCC) and time-lag (LAG) at 6 Hz were calculated between all electrodes, and between all electrodes and the temporal region electrodes for each segment.
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Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is crucial membrane protein in the development and function of neuromuscular junctions and motor neurons. And, it is currently known myasthenia gravis (MG) is caused by antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), and LRP4. MuSK and LRP4 are coreceptors for agrin in the signaling pathway that causes clustering of AChR. We demonstrated anti-LRP4 antibodies played a key role in MG. LRP4 is essential for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the neuromuscular junction and that loss of muscle LRP4 in adulthood alone is sufficient to cause myasthenic symptoms.
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique to stimulate the nervous system non-invasively through the intact scalp and skin. The TMS machine delivers a short pulse of electric current into a TMS coil to generate a quick changing magnetic field surrounding the coil as an example of Ampere's law. TMS stimulates the neuronal circuits with the eddy current induced by the changing magnetic field, not the magnetic field its self, based on Faraday's law. To generate enough power for stimulating human's brain, a TMS machine is generally built to generate a current of around 8000 A for a 2.5–4 Tesla output, although it may vary between machine types and manufacturers.
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Saccadic eye movements (SEM) are used as a biomarker for psychiatric disorders. However, the relationship between SEM and higher brain function has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we examined SEM during the Trail Making Test part A (TMT-A), a neuropsychological test of visual attention and processing speed, and assessed the correlation between the frequency of SEM during TMT-A and neuropsychological test results. The eye movements of 43 elderly subjects (>65 y/o, mean 72.4 y/o), with no history of neuropsychiatric disorders, were measured using eye tracking glasses (SensoMotoric Instruments, Germany).
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CMCT, CTX-BST CT, BST-Cv CT, CCCT, CECT: Using brainstem and conus medullaris stimulation in combination with the motor cortical and spinal nerve stimulation, we estimated conduction delays at several segments in CSTs.Cerebellar inhibition of the motor cortex (CBI): Purkinje cell activation by TMS induced a transient motor cortical inhibition. Mechanisms underlying ataxia was studied with this method.Shor interval intracortical inhibition (SICI): We showed the dependency of SICI on the motor cortical TMS pulse directions, which gave us a hint about the mechanisms of SICI.
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P3-6-03. Visualization of nerve impulse traveling along the brachial plexus after ulnar nerve stimulation using 132ch SQUID magnetoneurography system
Using 132ch superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoneurography sensor system, we succeeded in visualizing nerve impulse traveling along the brachial plexus (BP) after median nerve stimulation and propagating into the C5–C8 intervertebral foramen with participant's X-ray imaging. Here we analyzed the nerve impulse traveling along BP following ulnar nerve stimulation at the wrist.Magnetoneurogram following wrist stimulation were measured over BP from 5 healthy volunteers. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) was simultaneously measured at Erb's point for making sure to deliver supramaximal stimulation.
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P2-3-8. Change of cross frequency coupling by symptom provocation in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) based on sLORETA
We investigated the changes in directional cross frequency interactions between theta and alpha oscillations, across six cortical regions, induced by a symptom provocation procedure, in patients with OCD, and in normal controls. Nine OCD outpatients and nine controls participated in this study. Eyes closed EEG was recorded before and under the instruction to imagine that the towel placed on their hands is contaminated (symptom provocation, SP). Cortical electric neuronal activity were calculated with sLORETA at medial-prefrontal, precuneus, inferior-parietal, and dorsolateral-prefrontal cortices.
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Visual information is processed simultaneously via multiple parallel channels and each channel constitutes a set of sequential processes. The visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are the evoked electrophysiological potential that can be extracted, using signal averaging, from the electroencephalographic activity recorded at the scalp. VEPs can provide important diagnostic information regarding the functional integrity of the visual pathways and the visual cortex. Commonly used visual stimuli are flashing lights or pattern reversal (checkerboards or gratings) on the TV monitor or video screen.
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Event-related potentials (ERP) are a part of the electroencephalogram (EEG) that is time-locked to a certain event, such as stimulus presentation or movement onset. As recent advances in electronics bring inexpensive and easy-to-use EEG amplifiers to the market, more and more people are interested in also recording ERPs. However, easy-to-use does not mean easy-to-succeed. In this talk, I will make three practical recommendations for conducting ERP research. First, make sure that the timings of events are precisely registered with the EEG data.
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In addition to conventional surgical and pharmacological methods, electromagnetic interventions to the human brain have been developed for testing and treating neuropsychiatric disorders. Considering that the central principle of brain coding is based on neural firings and cell membrane potentials, that is electrical phenomena, electromagnetic intervention to the brain can be useful and effective for modulating brain functions.Among various electromagnetic methods, the most advanced one is the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which was put into practical use in 1985.
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S14-2. F wave and spinal excitability; masseteric contraction or motor imagery enhances ulnar nerve F wave
We tested the validity of instructing patients to clench the teeth to facilitate F-waves recorded from a limb muscle in clinical practice. We explored to study effect of motor imagery and voluntary contraction of the masseter muscles on F waves recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle in healthy subjects. F waves were recorded at rest, during motor imagery and during voluntary contraction monitored by a force transducer to maintain the level at 10% of maximal effort. F-wave persistence increased from at rest to during motor imagery, and during voluntary contraction.
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Experience on ictal video electroencephalography (EEG) recording enriches knowledge on EEG and seizures. Following five fundamentals are important for correct interpretation of EEG during focal epileptic seizures.Epileptic seizures never happen without EEG changes.Epileptic seizure propagates.EEG changes are not necessarily visible.EEG changes occur as a remote effect.EEG seizure explains clinical symptoms.Focal epileptic seizure starts with several patterns such as low voltage fast activity or repetitive spikes, followed by ictal rhythm that evolves spatially from focal to diffuse area, and temporally from low amplitude fast to high amplitude slow waves.
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Respiratory dysfunction in myopathy such as muscular dystrophy is extremely important because it is directly related to life prognosis, and appropriate evaluation and management is necessary. For objective assessment of respiratory muscle strength in myopathy, we study the usefulness of diaphragm ultrasonography and phrenic nerve study. Nineteen myopathy patients who were confirmed by genetic testing or muscle biopsy during our hospital visit were included. In both cases, respiratory function test, phrenic nerve conduction test, diaphragm ultrasonic examination were performed.
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Studies on EEG slowing in the progression of sleep since the discovery of electroencephalogram (EEG) in the 1920s, and identification of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the 1950s lead to the current principle that human sleep consists of REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep cycles. In this lecture, I will review sleep-wake homeostasis. Quantitative analysis of sleep EEG has revealed that delta EEG activity is enhanced according to the length of prior wakefulness, and achieved the recovery of the brain.
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Cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) has been widely used to probe brain network.Typically CCEP waveform consists of two negative potentials, N1 (peak: 10–50 ms) and N2 (peak: 100–500 ms). We, however, occasionally encounter atypical responses, such as those with prolonged N1 peak latency. We attempt to classify these atypical patterns and clarify their anatomical distribution. We retrospectively reviewed CCEP responses in two patients with intractable focal epilepsy, in whom CCEPs were obtained bystimulating all the implanted subdural electrodes (IRB#443).
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The diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) requires (1) evidence for extensive upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction, (2) progressive course, and (3) exclusion of other causes of motor neuronal loss. So far, a number of diagnostic criteria for ALS have been proposed, such as El Escorial (1990), revised El Escorial (1998), Awaji (2008), and updated Awaji (2015). According to the frequent revision/proposal criteria, electrodiagnostic criteria for ALS are somewhat confusing. In these criteria, the body motor system are divided into 4 regions; cranial, cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral, and evidence for upper and lower motor neuron signs in the two or more regions are required for the diagnosis of "probable" ALS.
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P1-5-02. Evaluation of facial muscle elasticity with real-time tissue elastography – Examination in cases with synkinesis following peripheral facial nerve paresis
The study was performed to clarify the relationship between facial muscle elasticity measured by real-time tissue elastography (RTE) and the clinical phenotypes of peripheral facial nerve paresis (PFP). We examined the orbicularis oculi muscles of nine PFP patients with synkinesis by RTE. The strain ratio (SR) of the muscle to an acoustic coupler was calculated as an index of muscle elasticity. We also recorded and integrated electromyograms of left and right orbicularis oculi muscles, respectively.
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Teleost Fish-Specific Preferential Retention of Pigmentation Gene-Containing Families After Whole Genome Duplications in Vertebrates
Vertebrate pigmentation is a highly diverse trait mainly determined by neural crest cell derivatives. It has been suggested that two rounds (1R/2R) of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) at the basis of vertebrates allowed changes in gene regulation associated with neural crest evolution. Subsequently, the teleost fish lineage experienced other WGDs, including the teleost-specific Ts3R before teleost radiation and the more recent Ss4R at the basis of salmonids. As the teleost lineage harbors the highest number of pigment cell types and pigmentation diversity in vertebrates, WGDs might have contributed to the evolution and diversification of the pigmentation gene repertoire in teleosts. We have compared the impact of the basal vertebrate 1R/2R duplications with that of the teleost-specific Ts3R and salmonid-specific Ss4R WGDs on 181 gene families containing genes involved in pigmentation. We show that pigmentation genes (PGs) have been globally more frequently retained as duplicates than other genes after Ts3R and Ss4R but not after the early 1R/2R. This is also true for non-pigmentary paralogs of PGs, suggesting that the function in pigmentation is not the sole key driver of gene retention after WGDs. On the long-term, specific categories of PGs have been repeatedly preferentially retained after ancient 1R/2R and Ts3R WGDs, possibly linked to the molecular nature of their proteins (e.g. DNA binding transcriptional regulators) and their central position in protein-protein interaction networks. Taken together, our results support a major role of WGDs in the diversification of the pigmentation gene repertoire in the teleost lineage, with a possible link with the diversity of pigment cell lineages observed in these animals compared to other vertebrates.
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Set1 and Jhd2 regulate the methylation state of histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4me) through their opposing methyltransferase and demethylase activities in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. H3K4me associates with actively transcribed genes and, like both SET1 and JHD2 themselves, is known to regulate gene expression diversely. It remains unclear, however, if Set1 and Jhd2 act solely through H3K4me. Relevantly, Set1 methylates lysine residues in the kinetochore protein Dam1 while genetic studies of the S. pombe SET1 ortholog suggest the existence of non-H3K4 Set1 targets relevant to gene regulation. We interrogated genetic interactions of JHD2 and SET1 with essential genes involved in varied aspects of the transcription cycle. Our findings implicate JHD2 in genetic inhibition of the histone chaperone complexes Spt16-Pob3 (FACT) and Spt6-Spn1. This targeted screen also revealed that JHD2 inhibits the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) transcription termination complex. We find that while Jhd2's impact on these transcription regulatory complexes likely acts via H3K4me, Set1 governs the roles of FACT and NNS through opposing H3K4-dependent and -independent functions. We also identify diametrically opposing consequences for mutation of H3K4 to alanine or arginine, illuminating that caution must be taken in interpreting histone mutation studies. Unlike FACT and NNS, detailed genetic studies suggest an H3K4me-centric mode of Spt6-Spn1 regulation by JHD2 and SET1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript quantification experiments show that Jhd2 opposes the positioning of a Spt6-deposited nucleosome near the transcription start site of SER3, a Spt6-Spn1 regulated gene, leading to hyper-induction of SER3. In addition to confirming and extending an emerging role for Jhd2 in the control of nucleosome occupancy near transcription start sites, our findings suggest some of the chromatin regulatory functions of Set1 are independent of H3K4 methylation.
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Influence of fascicle length on twitch potentiation of the medial gastrocnemius across three ankle angles
Length dependence of post-activation potentiation (PAP) is a well-established phenomenon in animal models but less certain in intact whole human muscles. Recent advances in B-mode ultrasonography provide real-time imaging and evaluation of human muscle fascicles in vivo, thus removing the assumption that joint positioning alters fascicle length and influences the extent of PAP. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a conditioning maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) would influence the return of medial gastrocnemius (MG) fascicles to baseline length and alter the extent of twitch potentiation between three ankle positions.
Ultrasonography was used to measure MG fascicle length for baseline and potentiated twitches at angles of 10° dorsiflexion (DF), 0° neutral (NEU—tibia perpendicular to the sole of the foot), and 20° plantar flexion (PF). A MVC was used as a conditioning contraction and PAP determined for each ankle angle.
PAP of the plantar flexors was greater in PF (28.8 ± 2.6%) compared to NEU (19.8 ± 1.8%; p < 0.05) and DF (9.3 ± 2.8%; p < 0.0001). In PF, fascicle lengths (4.64 ± 0.17 cm) were shorter than both NEU (5.78 ± 0.15 cm; p < 0.0001) and DF (6.09 ± 0.15 cm; p < 0.0001). Fascicle lengths for the baseline twitches were longer (5.92 ± 0.11 cm) than the potentiated twitches (5.83 ± 0.10 cm; p < 0.01) at all joint angles.
Although PAP is greatest in PF compared to NEU and DF, the higher PAP in the PF joint angle cannot be attributed to fascicles remaining shortened following the MVC because across all joint positions, fascicles are similarly shortened following the MVC.
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Occurrence and Characterization of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in a Tunisian Hospital
Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.
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Oscillatory local field potentials of the nucleus accumbens and the anterior limb of the internal capsule in heroin addicts
The nucleus accumbens (NAc), a crucial structure of the cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) loop, is an important region in brain networks responsible for the motivational control of behavior (Robbins et al., 1996; Salamone et al., 2007; Nicola, 2010). Similar to the dorsal striatum, the NAc is characterized by the predominant expression of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and acts as the main structure of the ventral striatum (Mancall et al., 2014). Centrally situated in the CSTC loop, the NAc also receives numerous inputs from limbic regions, including the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampal formation, and the amygdala as well as the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which contains rich dopaminergic neurons (Everitt et al., 1999; Groenewegen et al., 1999; Yager et al., 2015).
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Advanced dynamic statistical parametric mapping with MEG in localizing epileptogenicity of the bottom of sulcus dysplasia
Focal cortical dysplasia at bottom of sulcus (FCDB) is defined as a focal cortical dyplasia (FCD) type II located at the bottom of a sulcus. FCDB is intrinsically epileptogenic and provokes early onset focal seizures, with a high frequency of seizures during active periods, and occasionally with hospitalization for severe exacerbation (Harvey et al., 2015). Complete resection of FCDB, however, results in seizure freedom in up to 90% of selected cases (Chassoux et al., 2010).
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The role of EEG localized activation and central nervous system arousal in executive function performance in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Resting-state electroencephalogram (RS-EEG) provides a window to understand spontaneous brain activity in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) (Barry et al., 2003). Its measures (e.g. the theta to beta ratio) have been considered as candidate biomarkers to diagnose AD/HD (Thome et al., 2012; Faraone et al., 2014); however, the diagnostic reliability of RS-EEG measures is controversial (Arns et al., 2013; Faraone et al., 2014). Instead, it has also been proposed that RS-EEG measures have prognostic value in AD/HD (Arns et al., 2013; Arns and Gordon, 2014; Olbrich et al., 2015), based on evidence that RS-EEG profiles are heterogeneous (Clarke et al., 2001, 2011) and different RS-EEG profiles are associated with different responses to medication-based treatment (Clarke et al., 2002; Arns et al., 2008, 2013; Arns, 2012).
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Database Quality and Access Issues Relevant to Research Using Anesthesia Information Management System Data
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The Impact of Postreperfusion Syndrome on Acute Kidney Injury in Living Donor Liver Transplantation: A Propensity Score Analysis
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Dexamethasone as an Adjuvant for Caudal Blockade in Pediatric Surgical Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
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A Dedicated Acute Pain Service Is Associated With Reduced Postoperative Opioid Requirements in Patients Undergoing Cytoreductive Surgery With Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy
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Evidence Basis for Regional Anesthesia in Ambulatory Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Part I—Femoral Nerve Block
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Determination of Geolocations for Anesthesia Specialty Coverage and Standby Call Allowing Return to the Hospital Within a Specified Amount of Time
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Intravenous Acetaminophen Does Not Reduce Inpatient Opioid Prescription or Opioid-Related Adverse Events Among Patients Undergoing Spine Surgery
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Clonidine Effect on Pain After Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Different Routes of Administration
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Changes in International Normalized Ratios After Plasma Transfusion of Varying Doses in Unique Clinical Environments
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Both episodic migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) are characterized by attacks of strong headache. There is growing evidence that the brain functions are abnormal even within between-attack periods. We tried to evaluate interictal brain functions in children with primary headache using quantitative EEG. Sixty patients were recruited, 25 children with migraine and 35 with TTH. Patients were classified according to the ICHD. Migraine patients had significantly higher relative spectral powers of slow-wave bands (theta and delta) and decreased alpha relative powers in most of the regions examined than those in TTH patients. Apart from the above-mentioned specificities and negative correlation of age with the powers of delta and theta bands in both groups, we could not find other clinical variables that appeared to significantly affect EEG indices. Our results support that interictal brain dysfunction is, in general, more typical of migraine patients. These results shall help to contribute to better management and brain protection in children with headache.
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Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Zhe Liang, Guoliang Yu, Jingrong Liu, Yuke Geng, Jinghui Mao, Depeng Wang, Jiapeng Zhou, Xiaofeng Gu
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With more safety data available, ambulance remounts may be the next to receive significant upgrades to minimum quality standards
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Piercing the dark matter: bioinformatics of long-range sequencing and mapping
Piercing the dark matter: bioinformatics of long-range sequencing and mapping, Published online: 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0003-4Various genomics-related fields are increasingly taking advantage of long-read sequencing and long-range mapping technologies, but making sense of the data requires new analysis strategies. This Review discusses bioinformatics tools that have been devised to handle the numerous characteristic features of these long-range data types, with applications in genome assembly, genetic variant detection, haplotype phasing, transcriptomics and epigenomics.
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Prepare mentally and physically to avoid injury when lifting patients from awkward positions
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Reply to the letter to the editor: H . pylori test-and-treat should not be put off for gastric cancer prevention in East Asia any longer
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Isoflurane anesthesia does not affect spinal cord neurovascular coupling: evidence from decerebrated rats
Neurological examination remains the primary clinical investigation in patients with spinal cord injury. However, neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are promising tools for following functional changes in the course of injury, disease and rehabilitation. However, the relationship between neuronal activity and blood flow in the spinal cord on which fMRI relies has been largely overlooked. The objective of this study was to examine neurovascular coupling in the spinal cord of decerebrated rats during electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve with and without isoflurane anesthesia (1.2%). Local field potentials (LFP) and spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) were recorded simultaneously in the lumbosacral enlargement. Isoflurane did not significantly alter LFP (p = 0.53) and SCBF (p = 0.57) amplitude. Accordingly, neurovascular coupling remained comparable with or without isoflurane anesthesia (p = 0.39). These results support the use of isoflurane in rodents to investigate nociceptive functions of the spinal cord using fMRI.
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Nasotracheal intubation in ICU: an unfairly forgotten procedure.
Minerva Anestesiol. 2018 Mar 27;:
Authors: Hariri G, Baudel JL, Dubée V, Dumas G, Joffre J, Bourcier S, Bigé N, Ait Oufella H, Maury E
PMID: 29589421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Publication date: September 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 189
Author(s): Jungjin Kim, HyunJu Kim, Won-Seok Kim, Wooyong Um
This study determined the dissolution rate of studtite, (UO2)O2(H2O)4, which can be formed by reaction between H2O2 and UO22+ that leaks from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in deep geological repositories. The batch dissolution experiments were conducted using synthesized studtite under different solution conditions with varying pHs and concentrations of HCO3− and [H2O2] in synthetic groundwater. The experimental results suggested that carbonate ligand and H2O2 in groundwater accelerated the dissolution of studtite and uranium (U) release. Above 10−5 M of H2O2 initial concentration, the released uranium concentration in solution decreased, possibly as a result of reprecipitation of studtite due to reaction between uranium and H2O2. The results will be useful to assess the comprehensive transport of uranium from both nuclear waste and SNF stored in deep geological repositories.
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