Σάββατο, 3 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

The tuberculin skin test still matters for the screening of latent Tuberculosis infections among Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients

There is a high risk of Tuberculosis among patients medicated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) that can be mitigated by treating latent Tuberculosis infections (LTI). This study aimed to evaluate the performance of Tuberculin Skin test (TST) and Quantiferon-TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT) in a population of patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

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Diagnostic accuracy of APRI and FIB-4 for predicting hepatitis B virus-related liver fibrosis accompanied with hepatocellular carcinoma

Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and the fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4) are the two most focused non-invasive models to assess liver fibrosis.

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The tuberculin skin test still matters for the screening of latent Tuberculosis infections among Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients

There is a high risk of Tuberculosis among patients medicated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) that can be mitigated by treating latent Tuberculosis infections (LTI). This study aimed to evaluate the performance of Tuberculin Skin test (TST) and Quantiferon-TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT) in a population of patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

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Diagnostic accuracy of APRI and FIB-4 for predicting hepatitis B virus-related liver fibrosis accompanied with hepatocellular carcinoma

Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and the fibrosis index based on four factors (FIB-4) are the two most focused non-invasive models to assess liver fibrosis.

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Flight nurse's kind gesture after man's death inspires daughter's career

By Vikki Ortiz Healy
The Chicago Tribune

CHICAGO — On the hot Saturday night of Labor Day weekend in 2002, Jon Hagen was working his regular evening shift as a flight nurse on a medical helicopter in Wisconsin when a call came through about a rollover accident on a rural highway. Hagen and his partner rushed to the scene and airlifted a critically injured man to the nearest trauma center.

The patient, who looked about the same age as Hagen, died minutes after arriving at the emergency room. But something about the case haunted Hagen, a married father of two.

"For some reason, this one stuck," Hagen said. "Here's a guy that's I don't know how far from home, traveling alone ... You think about that and you wonder if they had family, kids, what they were doing."

Hagen Googled the patient's name a few days later. When he found an online obituary for Tom Procek, a 42-year-old married father of three from Woodridge, he took a few minutes to send the Proceks an online message to let them know their loved one didn't die alone.

Hagen didn't know it at the time, but that small gesture offered Procek's family comfort for years to come. And more than a decade later, Procek's only daughter, Kelly, returned the favor last spring when she Googled Hagen's name and sent him a touching message on Facebook.

"I wanted you to know that you and the work that you do inspired me to go back to school for nursing ...Throughout my school when we are asked why we wanted to go into nursing, I go back to the letter that you wrote our family about being by my Dad's side in his final moments. It meant the world to me that he wasn't alone. My Dad and I were very close and it still upsets me that we never were given the chance to say goodbye but thankful that he was with the people that were trying their hardest to save him. It inspired me to be that person for someone else."

Since Procek, 32, sent the message in March, she and Hagen, 57, have gone on to forge an unlikely friendship. The man who cared for her father in his final moments now serves as her nursing mentor. Hagen, who still works full time as a flight nurse in Wisconsin, and his wife drove to Downers Grove in May for Procek's graduation ceremony from the nursing program at College of DuPage, when he pinned her uniform — a long-standing tradition for nursing graduates. He cheered her on from a distance as Procek studied for her nursing certification exam, offering her tips and encouragement.

And when Procek begins work as a full-time pediatric nurse at MacNeal Hospital in Berwyn this month, Hagen will be anxiously awaiting stories from her budding career.

It's a bond that nurses seldom get to experience, despite the number of people they affect on a daily basis, said Mary Jo Assi, director of nursing practice at the American Nurses Association. Nurses may come in contact with hundreds of patients and their families each year, but they are trained to not expect much back in return.

"Typically, I think that nurses understand that when they are caring for people who are ill, people are not at their best," said Assi, who added that Hagen and Procek's story was an important reminder: "Those interactions have ripples ... it just absolutely warms my heart."

Lifetime of service
As a high schooler growing up in Wisconsin, Jon Hagen was inspired to become a paramedic by the 1970s show "Emergency!" Hagen received his emergency medical technician certification in 1976 at the age of 17. He took a job as a paramedic in an ambulance, fulfilling 24-hour shifts — one day on, two days off — treating people in dire need. Hagen loved the exhilaration of helping people while under pressure.

But after 14 years on the job, Hagen sought better pay and more job opportunities. He went back to school at Fox Valley Technical College in Appleton, Wis., for an associate's degree in nursing, followed by a bachelor's in nursing from the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay. He worked for four years as a registered nurse at a hospital intensive care unit, then took a job as a flight nurse in 1994.

"Every call is different," Hagen said of medical helicopter work he still does today. "In a half an hour, you don't know where you're going to be, what you're going to be confronted with."

Such was the case on Aug. 31, 2002, when Hagen and his work partner, Pam Witt-Hillen, then flight nurses for ThedaStar Air Medical in northern Wisconsin, were dispatched to an accident on Interstate 39 in the town of Dewey, a rural community in central Wisconsin. By the time Hagen and Witt-Hillen arrived, the victim was being treated by local paramedics, who were administering CPR. The emergency response team got back a pulse and loaded the man onto the helicopter stretcher to be rushed to a hospital in Marshfield, Wis., 50 miles away.

Through years of experience, Hagen knew the downside of his job: being unable to save patients.

"The way I look at it is you do the best you can and let the chips fall where they may," he said. "You rely on your training to do the right interventions and give them a chance."

On the helicopter flight to the hospital, Procek was unconscious. His heart stopped beating, but Hagen and his partner were able to get a pulse back doing CPR. They were still performing CPR when the flight landed and turned him over to emergency room staff. Minutes later, Procek was pronounced dead at the hospital, Hagen said.

Days later, Hagen couldn't stop thinking about the case. He Googled Procek's name from a work computer, something he did from time to time after losing patients on the job. When he saw the description of Procek as a father and husband, Hagen then did something he had never done before: He signed the online guest book at the funeral home.

"I think it was just real brief ... just something acknowledging their pain, and that we were with him," Hagen recalled of the message he posted. "I think people want to know, no matter how bad it is, that he mattered to somebody, he didn't die alone. That we tried."

Unexpected loss
Kelly Procek, the spirited, rebellious eldest child of Tom Procek, had always enjoyed a close relationship with her father.

Her dad, a machinist, gave her nicknames like "Smelly Kelly" and purposely swerved when he drove his daughter to dance team practice, trying to mess up the makeup she applied in the car. When he grounded her, he took the tires off her car and left it on cinder blocks in the driveway to ensure she didn't sneak away, she recalled with a laugh.

The weekend before the accident, Tom Procek moved Kelly into her new apartment in Bloomington, Ill., where she was enrolled in classes at Heartland Community College. Kelly returned home for Labor Day seven days later, and was out with friends on the night of Aug. 31 when a police officer called her cellphone to tell her that her father had been in a serious accident. They tracked down her mother, who was spending the long weekend elsewhere in Wisconsin with Kelly's youngest brother.

After several confused phone calls, the family learned that Tom Procek had died.

It was devastating news for the family, who were left with many unanswered questions: Where was he heading? What caused the single-car accident? Did he suffer or feel alone?

As the family scrambled to plan funeral services, the message from Hagen was so appreciated.

"We couldn't be there, but to hear from somebody who was there, somebody who cared, provided me with a tiny bit of closure," Kelly Procek said.

Inspired to help others
In the years after her father died, Kelly Procek struggled to find direction in her life. She graduated with her associate's degree, then moved to California with her boyfriend, Josh, for a fresh start. The couple had two children, and Procek worked for a cousin's event-planning business. But after three years on the West Coast, Procek wanted her children to be around family. She also decided it was time to get onto a career track.

When considering what she wanted to do, Procek remembered Hagen and the solace he offered her family when they needed it most. She also recalled the positive experiences she had with the hospital nurses who helped deliver her children.

Before moving back to the Midwest, she contacted the College of DuPage and inquired about what it would take to earn a degree in nursing. She moved back in 2012 and, for the next four years, spent hours at a time at the Glen Ellyn campus attending classes, or at local coffeehouses studying. Josh, a bartender, watched the children during the day. At night, after a long day of studies, she'd rush home to make dinner, give the children baths and put them to bed.

Flight nurse's kind gesture after man's death inspires daughter's career - Chicago Tribune https://t.co/hdzx21Jp62

— Airline News show (@AirlineNewsshow) September 3, 2016

Procek excelled in her classes, earning the distinction of high honors, and became co-president of the college's Student Nurse Association. As her graduation day neared, she felt it was time to give credit to the man who inspired her path. She sent the message to Hagen on Facebook.

"It touched my heart," Hagen said. "That's kind of why you do what you do."

Within the first few exchanges, Hagen agreed to pin Procek at her graduation ceremony in May. Before a crowd of hundreds, Procek, who was chosen as the ceremony's graduation speaker, told the story of her friendship with Hagen.

"No matter where we go in our careers, always remember that our job won't always go smooth or be enjoyable. It won't always be clean or stress-free. But it will always have purpose," Procek told her fellow graduates. "Be that person for someone. Go that extra step."

Since then, the new nurse and her mentor have been in regular contact. Hagen sent her texts wishing her good luck before the nursing exam, then a card in the mail when she passed. She reached out to him excitedly when she landed her first job.

Procek, who hopes someday to transition into emergency room nursing, said she wants to follow her mentor's footsteps in more ways than one.

"I think that ultimately he's an inspiration of an amazing nurse," she said. "Just going into it, I hope I can somehow pay that forward."

Copyright 2016 the Chicago Tribune

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Cebpα is essential for the embryonic myeloid progenitor and neutrophil maintenance in zebrafish


Publication date: Available online 3 September 2016
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Yimei Dai, Lu Zhu, Zhibin Huang, Minyu Zhou, Wan Jin, Wei Liu, Mengchang Xu, Tao Yu, Yiyue Zhang, Zilong Wen, Wangjun Liao, Wenqing Zhang
In vertebrates, myeloid cells arise from multiple waves of development: the first or embryonic wave of myelopoiesis initiates early from non-hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) precursors and gives rise to myeloid cells transiently during early development; whereas the second or adult wave of myelopoiesis emerges later from HSCs and produces myeloid cells continually during fetal and adult life. In the past decades, a great deal has been learnt about the development of myeloid cells from adult myelopoiesis, yet the genetic network governing embryonic myelopoiesis remains poorly defined. In this report, we present an in vivo study to delineate the role of Cebpα during zebrafish embryonic myelopoiesis. We show that embryonic myelopoiesis in cebpα-deficient zebrafish mutants initiates properly but fails to produce macrophages and neutrophils. The lack of macrophages and neutrophils in the mutants is largely attributed to the cell cycle arrest of embryonic myeloid progenitors, resulting in the impairment of their maintenance and subsequent differentiation. We further show that Cebpα, perhaps acting cooperatively with Runx1, plays a critical role in embryonic neutrophil maintenance. Our findings reveal a new role of Cebpα in embryonic myelopoiesis.

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The effectiveness of teaching on standardized neonatal resuscitation protocol in relation to knowledge and skills of nursing personnel in tertiary care hospital

Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Sciddhartha Koonwar, Rina Kumari, Sarvesh Kumar, Sanjeev Verma.
Background: Perinatal asphyxia is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Neonatal resuscitation is effective only when health professionals have sufficient knowledge and skills. We studied the change in the knowledge and skills of health professionals before and after training on standard protocol on neonatal resuscitation. Methods: A Hospital based cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in tertiary care hospital of Lucknow. All nurses from delivery room and Neonatal intensive care unit were included. The mean scores of knowledge and skills were assessed before and after teaching neonatal resuscitation protocol. Results were analysed by using paired t test and Chi-square to see the association. Results: Fifty nursing personnel participated in the study. The overall mean scores of knowledge and skills of subjects were (11±4.18, 5.98±1.68) respectively. Whereas the mean scores of knowledge and skill after post-test were (27.28±1.45, 16.28±0.99). Effectiveness of teaching programme regarding standardized Neonatal Resuscitation Protocol in relation to skill was effective as the t value 37.27 and p value

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Comparative study of chlorhexidine dressings versus simple gauze dressings in midline laparotomy wound

Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Jignesh A. Gandhi, Pravin H. Shinde, Alpana A. Awasthi, Rohan Digarse, Amit P. Kawle.
Background: Wound infections are the most common complication of surgery that adds significantly to the morbidity of the patient and the cost of the treatment. Most of the surgical site infections are preventable. Dressing is an active element of wound management, designed to control infection and promote healing. This study was done to compare clinical efficacy of normal gauze dressings versus chlorhexidine dressings in midline laparotomy wounds. Methods: Patients with midline laparotomy incision were randomized to receive either gauze or chlorhexidine dressings. Bacterial colonization, post- operative fever, frequency of infection, change of dressings, hospital stay and postoperative pain were assessed at the start of treatment and at weekly intervals until full healing occurred. Results: A total of 128 patients were enrolled in the study and divided into 2 groups viz chlorhexidine group (Group A) and Simple gauze group (Group B) with 64 patients each. Wound cultures, change of antibiotics, post-operative soakage, median hospital stay duration, postoperative pain, post- operative wound infection, and follow up visits for wound healing were compared between two groups A and B and statistical significance established. Conclusions: The analysis of wound culture, fever incidence and frequency of infection on Chlorhexidine dressings showed decreasing trends compared to traditional dressings.

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Advancing Implementation Research and Practice in Behavioral Health Systems

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Pylephlebitis: Through These Portals Pass Bad Bugs

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Gingival Zenith - A Critical Factor in Smile Design and Fixed Prosthodontics

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Dr. Hitendra Shah*, Dr. Monika Takodara**, Dr. Yashpreetsingh Bhatia**, Dr. Shruti Mehta***.
Background & objectives: Knowledge of the gingival zenith (GZ) of the maxillary anterior teeth can be clinically applied to re-establish the proper gingival contour of the maxillary anterior teeth during esthetic anterior oral rehabilitation and smile designing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gingival zenith (GZ) of each individual maxillary anterior tooth and their relative gingival zenith level. Method: A digital caliper was used to measure the gingival zenith of the maxillary anterior teeth from left canine to right canine on casts made from 30 young individuals without any dental deformity. The highest point on gingival margin of all maxillary anterior teeth was marked. Distance of this gingival zenith from the respective vertical bisector of each tooth was calculated. Also, the digital caliper was used to measure the distance of gingival zenith of the lateral incisors from a line connecting gingival zenith of maxillary central incisor and canine. Results: Significant difference exists between the gingival zenith of maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors and canines. Conclusion: Gingival zenith of maxillary incisors is distally placed whereas for canine it coincides with vertical bisector. Gingival zenith of lateral incisor is incisal to that of central incisor and canine. [Hitendra S NJIRM 2016; 7(4): 113-116]

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Reestablishing Esthetics With Extracted Teeth On A Mandibular Anterior Edentulous Area A Case Report

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Sarfaraz Memon*, Sarvesh Patel**, Radhika Makadia***, Ninad Bhatt****.
Introduction: There is always a great anxiety in many patients when aesthetic impairment is involved after the removal of teeth, and this anxiety tends to be more significant. Immediate dentures for many years were considered to be a resorption-increasing factor. Well-fitting immediate dentures act as a bandage isolating the healing tissues from thermal and chemical damage and preventing food from entering the sockets. Case Report: A female patient of age 43 years treated with immediate partial denture with extracted lower incisors as a replacement with self cure acrylic denture base. Discussion: Within the past decade, as aesthetics have received more emphasis with treatment planning, resorption of the alveolar ridge following tooth extraction, especially in the anterior region has become a significant problem. There is a huge advantage of using the extracted teeth as a replacement as one of the strong indication for immediate is aesthetics. Conclusion: Immediate removable partial denture not only increases the aesthetic value, but also therapeutic purposes. For anterior region, where aesthetics is major concern, extracted teeth itself can be much helpful, which can provide excellent aesthetics. [Hitendra S NJIRM 2016; 7(4): 165-167]

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Brown Tumour of Hyperparathyroidism, a benign latency in the jaws: A Review of Literature. Literature.

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Lalit Sagara*, Mitsu Meshram*, Jigar Dhuvad**, Sonal Anchlia**, Siddharth Vyas*, Harsh Shah*.
Background: To inculcate awareness about the importance of thorough screening of the patients presenting with giant cell lesions in the jaw bones for clinical, biochemical and radiological features of hyperparathyroidism. Material and Methods: The history, physical examination, laboratory values, imaging and pathologic findings are described in a 32-year-old woman, presenting with brown tumour lesion in mandible, due to primary hyperparathyroidism. A systematic review of published literature from PubMed is added, which highlights the importance of a thorough diagnostic workup and selection of appropriate treatment modality. Results: In the case presented, after Parathyroid adenoma excision, within thirty minutes, the serum values of Parathormone and Calcium returned to normalcy and spontaneous regression of the brown tumour was noted. Also, the review of literature emphasized the need for systemic investigations of suspected giant cell jaw lesions and established that parathyroidectomy can be considered the primary treatment modality for brown tumours of the jaw due to hyperparathyroidism. Conclusion: Radiolucent lesions of the jaws showing giant cells on histopathology should raise suspicion of hyperparathyroidism. This case emphasizes the importance of a detailed systemic investigation for all lesions in the maxillofacial region. [Lalit S NJIRM 2016; 7(4):158-164]

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Reactive Lesions Of Oral Cavity

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Dr Binita Gandhi*, Dr Jigar Dhuvad**, Dr Abraham Johnson***, Dr Disha Bhavsar****.
. Oral mucosa is subjected constantly to external and internal stimuli that can give rise to reactive lesions. These lesions are non- neoplastic in nature. They manifest a spectrum of diseases that range from developmental, inflammatory, and reactive to neoplastic changes. Reactive lesions are typically gives response to chronic inflammation caused by various forms of low grade chronic irritations to the oral mucosa such as dental plaque and calculus, sharp edges of grossly carious teeth, faulty dental restorations, chronic biting habits, ill-fitting dental/oral appliances and food impactions. These lesions have a very similar appearance to benign neoplastic proliferations. This similarity is troublesome in differential diagnosis among them. Different types of localized reactive lesions of oral cavity are focal fibrous hyperplasia (FFH), pyogenic granuloma (PG), irritational fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), fibro-epithelial hyperplasia/polyp, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, and inflammatory gingival hyperplasia. [Dr Binita G NJIRM 2016; 7(4): 154-157]

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Reverberations Of Stress On Periodontal Disease- A Review

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Dr.Anita Panchal*, Dr.Sejal Mehta**,Dr.Dinesh Panchal***, Dr.Dipti Shah****.
Periodontal diseases are common chronic inflammatory diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms which induce elevations of pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in tissue destruction. Evolution of periodontal diseases is influenced by many local or systemic risk factors.Stress a term continually being re-defined in the scientific study of disease and illness,is nevertheless a confirmed and important factor in the etiology and maintenance of many inflammatory diseases, including periodontal disease. Stress is not what happens to us, it is our response to what happens and response is something we can choose. Stress results in delayed healing of the connective tissues and bone, apical migration of thejunctional epithelium and formation of periodontal pocket.Stress may negatively influence the outcome of periodontal treatment. In this review we will discuss the role of stress that might be playing in periodontal disease is considered. [Dr.Anita P NJIRM 2016; 7(4): 147-153]

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Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (PAOO) - An Updated Literature Review and Recent Advances

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Pavankumar Addanki*, Jagadish Reddy Gooty**, Rajababu Palaparthy***.
: Malpositioned teeth are responsible for aesthetic and occlusal aberrations in many adults. Orthodontic movement is considered a periodontal phenomenon because all the periodontal tissues are involved in tooth movement. Lengthy orthodontic treatment time has been linked to an increased risk of root resorption, gingival inflammation, decalcification, and dental caries. 2 Therefore, reducing the treatment time is an appropriate goal, which requires increasing the rate of tooth movement. To meet the constant demand to shorten the treatment time and to maintain the integrity of periodontal structures an alternative clinical procedure has been popularized, known as Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (AOO) and, more recently, the Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic orthodontics. This article over review of literature of this technique and describes recent advances in this procedure. [Pavankumar A NJIRM 2016; 7(4): 140-146]

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Influence Of Porcelain Thickness And Repeated Firings On The Color Of Metal - Ceramic Restorations - An In Vitro Study

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Tulika Khanna*, Sandeep Gurav**, Rudraprasad IV#, Nandeeshwar DB#.
Background & Objectives: Color matching between ceramic restorations and natural teeth has been a major challenge in dentistry. Faults may occur during shade matching procedure in the dental clinic or in the laboratory at the time of fabrication of restoration. This study assessed the effect of porcelain thickness and repeated firing on the color of metal-ceramic restorations. Method: Thirty 12mm square samples of nickel chromium alloy were prepared and divided into three groups of 10 samples each. All samples were fired with opaque porcelain followed by dentin porcelain maintaining the dentin thickness to 1mm, 2mm and 3mm with silicon molds. The color of all the samples was measured with a spectrophotometer after 1st firing. Samples were subjected to repeated firing and color was again measured after 4th firing, 7th firing, 10th firing and 13th firing. The data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that increasing the thickness of porcelain resulted in significant increase in the Lightness (L*) and decrease in the Chroma (C*) of the samples. It also demonstrated that repeated firing did not cause significant color change (∆E) on repeated firing of 1mm and 2mm, however, repeated firing of 3mm samples showed substantial color changes (∆E) on repeated firing but this change was within acceptable limits of oral environment. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that increased thickness of the dentin porcelain increases the Lightness (L*) thereby reducing the graying effect of the opaque layer. Therefore, maximum tooth reduction should be encouraged without violating the pulp integrity to provide enough space for the bulk of porcelain for better esthetic results. The results also show that repeated firing does not affect the color stability of the porcelain samples tested although significant color changes were seen with 3mm samples which were within acceptable limits of oral conditions. So, it can be inferred that repeated firing of the porcelain can be done to achieve correct contours and shape of the restorations. [Khanna T NJIRM 2016; 7(4): 132-139]

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A Comparative Evaluation On Mandibular Movements Before And After Prosthodontic Treatment

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Dr.Sanjay Nilawar*, Dr.Amrita Pandita**, Dr.Vinod Shewale***.
Background: The range of movements of mandible in Indian individuals was not studied to set a norm. The changes happening before and after prosthodontic treatment were also not studied. Aim: To determine the range of mandibular movements viz, protrusion, working side movement measured at mandibular first molar region both on the right and left sides while performing lateral excursions, non working movement measured at mandibular first molar region both on the right and left sides while performing lateral excursions, right lateral movement measured in the incisor region, left lateral movement measured in the incisor region, passive opening and active opening in normal individuals and prosthodontically treated individuals. To determine morphometric values such as intercondylar distance, distance between intercondylar axis and axis connecting mesioincisal angles of the mandibular central incisors, distance between intercondylar axis and axis connecting mesiobuccal cusps of the mandibular molars and inter mandibular molar distance related to mandible and mandibular arch of the individuals who served as sample in the above study. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on normal individuals and then on prothodontically treated individuals .The sample consisted of 160 normal individuals and 80 treated individuals. The normal individuals were divided into four according to age viz, Group I: 21-30yrs, Group II: 31-40yrs, Group III: 41-50 yrs, Group IV: 51-60 yrs. Similarly the treated individuals were divided into four according to type of treatment viz, Group A- Complete dentures, Group B-Removable partial dentures, Group C-Fixed partial dentures, Group D-single crowns. The morphometric and mandibular movement parameters were first measured in normal individuals and then in prosthodontically treated individuals with digital Vernier caliper directly and using putty index. Result and Conclusion: Conclusions drawn from the study are as follows A norm could be formulated both for morphometrics related to mandible and mandibular arch and for mandibular movements. The values obtained are relevant to individuals belonging to Bangalore and nearby areas. Opening and lateral movements can be measured directly in the incisal region using a pair of Vernier calipers. In order to measure the excursive movements in the posterior region and the protrusion in the anterior region, putty indices can be made which is a simple procedure that can be performed in a dental clinic. Prosthodontic treatment in general has a restrictive effect on mandibular movements. This observation has a limitation that the sample size is only 80. Mandibular movements can be reproduced in a computer using the graphic capabilities of coral draw. More precise data could be obtained if the inclusion of the treated individuals were restricted for the age. [Sanjay N NJIRM 2016; 7(4): 125-131]

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Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Two Dentin Bonding Agents with Two Desensitizers (An In-Vitro Study)

Source: National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine
Dr.Vibha A. Dave*, Dr.Prachi N. Joshi**, Dr. Lalitagauri Mandke***.
Abstract: Background: The esthetic quality of a restoration may be as important to the mental health of the patient as the biological and technical qualities of the restoration are to his physical or dental health. In Conservative Dentistry; to mimic, repair and reconstruct the natural tooth structure for the long term, would be based on the use of a restorative material retained only by an adhesive system, whether in load bearing or non-load bearing environments. To achieve high strength, bonds between tooth structure and restorative materials have been a long term goal of dental profession. Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength of two different dentin bonding agents with two different desensitizers. Materials and Methods: Eighty molars were taken, which were ground to expose dentin. The teeth were divided into two major groups. Each major group was subdivided into four subgroups of 10 samples each. Groups Ia and IIa were treated as dry bonding groups, groups Ib and IIb were treated as moist bonding groups, group Ic and IIc were rewetted with Gluma desensitizer, and groups Id and IId were rewetted with Systemp® desensitizer. Major group I was treated with Gluma comfort bond and Charisma. Major group II was treated with 3M ESPE Adper Single Bond 2 and 3M ESPE Filtek Z250. The samples were thermocycled and shear bond test was performed using Instron machine. The data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukeys significant different test. Results: The results revealed that the specimens rewetted with Gluma desensitizer showed the higher shear bond strength compared to all other groups, irrespective of the bonding agent or composite resin used. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the moist or rewetting technique could preserve the micro-morphological integrity of the collagen resulting in the optimum penetration of adhesive resin into the demineralized layer, thus, giving higher bond strength. [Dr.Vibha D NJIRM 2016; 7(4): 117-124]

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