Σάββατο, 19 Ιανουαρίου 2019

Physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of K+‐Cl− cotransport in the mammalian kidney and cardiovascular system: where are we?

Abstract

In the early 80s, renal microperfusion studies led to the identification of a basolateral K+‐Cl cotransport mechanism in the proximal tubule, thick ascending limb of Henle and collecting duct. More than ten years later, this mechanism was found to be accounted for by three different K+‐Cl cotransporters (KCC1, KCC3 and KCC4) that are differentially distributed along the renal epithelium. Two of these isoforms (KCC1 and KCC3) were also found to be expressed in arterial walls, the myocardium and a variety of neurons. Subsequently, valuable insights have been gained into the molecular and physiological properties of the KCCs in both the mammalian kidney and cardiovascular system. There is now robust evidence indicating that KCC4 sustains distal renal acidification and that KCC3 regulates myogenic tone in resistance vessels. However, progress in understanding the functional significance of these transporters has been slow, probably on the account that each of the KCC isoforms are not identically distributed among species and that some of them share common subcellular localizations with other KCC isoforms or sizeable conductive Cl pathways. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the process of K+‐Cl cotransport are still ill‐defined. The present review focuses on the knowledge gained regarding the roles and properties of KCCs in renal and cardiovascular tissues.

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Safety of long-term electrical peripheral nerve stimulation: review of the state of the art

Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves is used in a variety of applications such as restoring motor function in paralyzed limbs, and more recently, as means to provide intuitive sensory feedback in limb p...

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Augmented feedback for powered wheelchair training in a virtual environment

Powered wheelchair (PW) driving is a complex activity and requires the acquisition of several skills. Given the risks involved with PW use, safe and effective training methods are needed. Virtual reality train...

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Meta-analysis of association between Arg326Gln (rs1503185) and Gln276Pro (rs1566734) polymorphisms of PTPRJ gene and cancer risk

Abstract

Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J (PTPRJ, DEP1) is a tumour suppressor gene that negatively regulates such processes as angiogenesis, cell proliferation and migration and is one of the genes important for tumour development. Similar to other phosphatase genes, PTPRJ is also described as an oncogene. Among various genetic changes characteristic for this gene, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constituting benign genetic variants that can modulate its function have been described. We focused on Gln276Pro and Arg326Gln missense polymorphisms and performed a meta-analysis using data from 2930 and 852 patients for Gln276Pro and Arg326Gln respectively in different cancers. A meta-analysis was performed based on five articles accessed via the PubMed and Research Gate databases. Our meta-analysis revealed that for Arg326Gln, the presence of the Arg (C) allele was associated with lower risk of some cancers, the strongest association was observed for colorectal cancer patients, and there was no association between Gln276Pro (G>T) polymorphism and cancer risk. The polymorphisms Arg326Gln and Gln276Pro of the PTPRJ gene are not associated with an increased risk of cancer except for the Arg326Gln polymorphism in colorectal cancer. Large-scale studies should be performed to verify the impact of this SNP on individual susceptibility to colorectal cancer for given individuals.



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Investigation of Pediatric Anemia in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

Abstract

Objective To report on the prevalence and etiology of pediatric anemia in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Method A retrospective chart review was conducted that included patients up to 19 years of age who presented for well child care and whose hemoglobin or hematocrit was checked in the CNMI from 2014 to 2015. Lab values, diagnoses and treatment plans, patient reported ethnicity, and follow-up results were collected from eligible patients. Results The records for 1483 pediatric patients who had 1584 well child visits were reviewed. The prevalence of anemia amongst all eligible patients was 8.0% (5.4–10.7). This included 292 9 to 18 months old patients, which is estimated to be 40% of the total pediatric population of CNMI in that age group. Among the 9 to 18 months old patients, the prevalence of anemia is 5.5% (2.6–8.4). Etiology of anemia was investigated and of the patients treated with iron, 55.2% had a documented response. The majority of those without documentation of improvement with iron were patients who were lost to follow-up. In addition, a total of 10 patients were found to have an alpha or beta thalassemia variant discovered initially by anemia screening or sibling tracing. Discussion In this United States Commonwealth, prevalence of anemia appears lower than prevalence reported for other independent Pacific Island nations and closer to that of the US. Thalassemia is documented within this population. Limitations to this data were use of a convenient sample that may be hampered by lack of presentation to well-child care. This study will guide future public health studies on anemia prevalence and can guide public health intervention decisions to improve pediatric care in the CNMI.



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Self-Reported Functional Status in US Service Members After Combat-Related Amputation

The objective of this study was to describe the functional status of US Service members after combat-related amputation. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from a subsample of the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project (WWRP), an ongoing, web-based, longitudinal examination of patient-reported outcomes of injured service members. The study sample included 82 WWRP participants with a combat-related lower extremity amputation who reported using a prosthetic device and completed the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey Lower Extremity Functional Status, which measures self-reported functional status in participants with a prosthetic device. Basic activities, such as walking indoors, getting on and off the toilet, and getting up from a chair, were reported by the majority of participants as "very easy/easy," whereas higher level activities, such as climbing stairs, walking long distances, or running, were more often reported as "slightly difficult/very difficult" or "cannot do this activity." Functional status varied significantly by amputation site (unilateral below knee, unilateral above knee, or bilateral; P = 0.004), with significantly better function reported in those with unilateral below knee than bilateral amputation (P

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Bicipitoradial Bursitis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

No abstract available

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Degree of Agreement between Electrodiagnostic Testing and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Evaluation of Brachial Plexopathy

Objective Electrodiagnostic study (EDX) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used in the diagnosis of brachial plexopathy, but the agreement between these two studies is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the agreement of EDX and MRI in patients with brachial plexopathy. Design The records of 69 patients with symptoms of brachial plexopathy who underwent EDX and MRI were reviewed. Based on the degree of agreement of EDX and MRI results, patients were classified as a "complete match," "partial match" and, "mismatch". Results Both studies yielded the similar results for the majority of patients (63.2%). Among the enrolled patients, 26.4% were classified as a "complete match", 36.8% were a "partial match", and 36.8% were as "mismatch". However, only one test, either EDX or MRI revealed an abnormal findings in 21.1% of patients. Conclusions The agreement between EDX and MRI was high in patients with brachial plexopathy. However, only one of these test, not both revealed abnormal findings in several cases. Although both EDX and MRI were in accord with the diagnosis of brachial plexopathy in majority of cases, these two studies remain complementary diagnostic modalities for evaluating brachial plexopathies. Corresponding author: Seung Nam Yang, MD, PhD, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 148 Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul 08308, Korea. E-mail: snamyang@korea.ac.kr. Tel: +82-2-2626-1490; Fax: +82-2-2626-1513 Disclosures and Funding sources: none Conflicts of interest none Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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2018 AJPM&R Reviewers

No abstract available

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Predictors of Work-Related Disability During Early Phases of Breast Cancer Treatment

Objective This study examined the magnitude of work-related disability in post-menopausal women with breast cancer compared to healthy controls. It also examined demographic and clinical correlates of work-related disability in post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Study Design Exploratory secondary analysis of longitudinal study. Outcome Measure The Work Limitations Questionnaire measured the percentage of at-work productivity loss. Results The analysis revealed a significant group by time interaction effect (F(1,40)=4.705, p=.036, partial η2=.105) on work-related disability. Participants with breast cancer (M=2.364, SE=.374) had significantly higher percentage of at-work productivity loss compared to the healthy control group (M=1.263, SE=.392). At baseline, cognitive-emotional symptoms were moderately to strongly associated with work-related disability. At 6 months, physical symptoms were moderately associated with work-related disability. Conclusions Newly, diagnosed women with breast cancer are likely to experience higher rates of work-related disability compared to health counterparts. Healthcare providers should provide intervention to parallel the shift in symptoms which lead to higher work-related disability and job cessation Correspondence: Rachelle Brick, 5055 Forbes Tower, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, Phone: (412) 383 – 4085, Fax: (412) 383-6613. Email: rsb50@pitt.edu Author Disclosures: This research was supported by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health (R01CA107408). There were no financial or conflicts of interest reported by the authors or by any individuals in control of the content of this article. Portions of these data will be presented at the 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine Conference on October 3, 2018 in Dallas, Texas. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Avulsion injury mimicking malignancy on imaging

No abstract available

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Conclusiveness of Cochrane Reviews in physiotherapy: a systematic search and analytical review

Numerous Cochrane Reviews (CRs) in the field of physiotherapy have been published, but their conclusiveness has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview and describe the conclusiveness of evidence from CRs regarding physiotherapy. We conducted a systematic search using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in the Cochrane Library from 2008 through 2017 in the field of physiotherapy, the Physical Rehabilitation Evidence Database, and the CRs list on the Cochrane Rehabilitation website. Reviewers extracted the following data: year of publication, editorial group, number of articles meeting the criteria, number of patients enrolled, conclusiveness, and need for additional studies. Linear regression was used to determine whether the percentage of conclusive reviews was affected by the year of publication. Reviewers found 283 CRs in the field of physiotherapy, and only 16 (5.7%) of which were conclusive. The number of trials and participants enrolled in conclusive reviews were significantly higher than those in inconclusive reviews (P

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LncRNA ZBTB40-IT1 modulated by osteoporosis GWAS risk SNPs suppresses osteogenesis

Abstract

Previous genome-wide linkage and association studies have identified an osteoporosis-associated locus at 1p36 that harbors SNPs rs34920465 and rs6426749. The 1p36 locus also comprises the WNT4 gene with known role in bone metabolism and functionally unknown ZBTB40/lncRNA ZBTB40-IT1 genes. How these might interact to contribute to osteoporosis susceptibility is not known. In this study, we show that lncRNA ZBTB40-IT1 is able to suppress osteogenesis and promote osteoclastogenesis by regulating the expression of WNT4, RUNX2, OSX, ALP, COL1A1, OPG and RANKL in U-2OS and hFOB1.19 cell lines, whereas ZBTB40 plays an opposite role in bone metabolism. Treatment with parathyroid hormone significantly downregulates the expression of ZBTB40-IT1 in U-2OS cell lines. ZBTB40 can suppress ZBTB40-IT1 expression but has no response to parathyroid hormone treatment. Dual-luciferase assay and biotin pull-down assay demonstrate that osteoporosis GWAS lead SNPs rs34920465-G and rs6426749-C alleles can respectively bind transcription factors JUN::FOS and CREB1, and upregulate ZBTB40 and ZBTB40-IT1 expression. Our study discovers the critical role of ZBTB40 and lncRNA ZBTB40-IT1 in bone metabolism, and provides a mechanistic basis for osteoporosis GWAS lead SNPs rs34920465 and rs6426749.



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