Παρασκευή, 8 Ιουνίου 2018

The caudal dorsal artery generates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells via the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition in zebrafish

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Publication date: Available online 8 June 2018
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Yandong Zhan, Youkui Huang, Jingying Chen, Zigang Cao, Jianbo He, Jingjing Zhang, Honghui Huang, Hua Ruan, Lingfei Luo, Li Li
Zebrafish hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) originate from the hemogenic endothelium of the ventral wall of the dorsal aorta (DA) through the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT) from approximately 30 to 60 h post fertilization (hpf). However, whether other artery sites can generate HSPCs de novo remains unclear. In this study, using live imaging and lineage tracing, we found that the caudal dorsal artery (CDA) in the caudal hematopoietic tissue directly gave rise to HSPCs through EHT. This process initiated from approximately 60 hpf and terminated at approximately 156 hpf. Compared with that in the DA, fewer EHT events were observed in the CDA. The EHT events in the DA and CDA were similarly regulated by Runx1 but differentially influenced by blood flow (i.e., the EHT frequency in CDA was affected to a lesser extent when circulation was compromised in the tnnt2a−/−mutant). Therefore, the whole artery, including both DA and CDA, was endowed with the ability to produce HSPCs during a much longer time period. Coincidently, the lineage tracing results indicated that adult hematopoietic cells originated from the embryonic endothelium, whereas those produced later preferentially colonized the adult thymus. Collectively, our study revealed that the CDA served as an additional source of hematopoiesis, and it showed similar but not identical properties with the DA.



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Attitudes and Knowledge Regarding Antimicrobial Use and Resistance Among Pharmacy and Medical Students at the University of Split, Croatia

Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.


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A Variable Polyglutamine Repeat Affects Subcellular Localization and Regulatory Activity of a Populus ANGUSTIFOLIA Protein

Polyglutamine (polyQ) stretches have been reported to occur in proteins across many organisms including animals, fungi and plants. Expansion of these repeats has attracted much attention due their associations with numerous human diseases including Huntington's and other neurological maladies. This suggests that the relative length of polyQ stretches is an important modulator of their function. Here, we report the identification of a Populus C-terminus binding protein (CtBP) ANGUSTIFOLIA (PtAN1) which contains a polyQ stretch whose functional relevance had not been established. Analysis of 917 resequenced Populus trichocarpa genotypes revealed three allelic variants at this locus encoding 11-, 13- and 15-glutamine residues. Transient expression assays using Populus leaf mesophyll protoplasts revealed that the 11Q variant exhibited strong nuclear localization whereas the 15Q variant was only found in the cytosol, with the 13Q variant exhibiting localization in both subcellular compartments. We assessed functional implications by evaluating expression changes of putative PtAN1 targets in response to overexpression of the three allelic variants and observed allele-specific differences in expression levels of putative targets. Our results provide evidence that variation in polyQ length modulates PtAN1 function by altering subcellular localization.



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A Dual sgRNA Approach for Functional Genomics in Arabidopsis thaliana

Reverse genetics uses loss-of-function alleles to interrogate gene function. The advent of CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing now allows the generation of knock-out alleles for any gene and entire gene families. Even in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, gene editing is welcomed as T-DNA insertion lines do not always generate null alleles. Here, we show efficient generation of heritable mutations in Arabidopsis using CRISPR/Cas9 with a workload similar to generating overexpression lines. We obtain for several different genes Cas9 null-segregants with bi-allelic mutations in the T2 generation. While somatic mutations were predominantly generated by the canonical non-homologous end joining (cNHEJ) pathway, we observed inherited mutations that were the result of synthesis-dependent microhomology-mediated end joining (SD-MMEJ), a repair pathway linked to polymerase (PolQ). We also demonstrate that our workflow is compatible with a dual sgRNA approach in which a gene is targeted by two sgRNAs simultaneously. This paired nuclease method results in more reliable loss-of-function alleles that lack a large essential part of the gene. The ease of the CRISPR/Cas9 workflow should help in the eventual generation of true null alleles of every gene in the Arabidopsis genome, which will advance both basic and applied plant research.



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Long term outcome of treatment of vertebral body hemangiomas with direct ethanol injection and short segment stabilization

Vertebral body (VH) hemangiomas with myelopathy are difficult to manage.

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Second Generation Optical Coherence Tomography: Preliminary Experience in Pancreatic and Biliary Strictures

Evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures remains a diagnostic challenge. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provides in-vivo, wide-field, cross-sectional imaging at the microstructure level. We present the first preliminary data using a second-generation OCT system using volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) in biliary and pancreatic duct strictures.

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Do scalp-recorded slow potentials during neuro-feedback training reflect the cortical activity?

Neuro-feedback (NFB) is a therapy for treating various neurological diseases such as epilepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and migraine (Wyckoff and Strehl, 2011). The regulation of slow potentials (SPs) can be applied for alleviating the symptoms of brain disorders. The SPs recorded by the scalp electrodes area are generated in the cerebral cortex and are therefore called as slow cortical potentials (SCPs).

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Incidence of epileptiform discharges in children during induction of anaesthesia using Propofol versus Sevoflurane

Since the implementation of electroencephalography (EEG) for anaesthetic procedures in children, epileptiform discharges have been frequently observed during general anaesthesia with Sevoflurane (Vakkuri et al., 2001; Schultz et al., 2012; Gibert et al., 2012; Kreuzer et al., 2014). Additionally, it has been shown that lower Sevoflurane concentrations and shorter administration time can reduce the incidence of epileptiform discharges (Kreuzer et al., 2014). Sevoflurane and Propofol are currently the most popular agents used for anaesthesia induction in children (Habre et al., 2017).

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Usefulness of EEG-EMG coherence analysis to confirm epileptic nature of spells mimicking hemifacial spasms

Focal seizures mimicking hemifacial spasm have rarely been reported (Towfigh et al., 1997; Espay et al., 2008). Differential diagnosis may be difficult, especially if ictal EEG is normal. We report the utility of EEG-EMG coherence analysis to confirm the epileptic nature of these spells in a patient with a minor pre-rolandic stroke.

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Atypical Auditory Language Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a variety of abnormalities in auditory processing, which play an important role in verbal communication. For example, individuals with ASD have shown abnormal auditory perception and processing, including phonological processing deficits (Tuchman et al., 1991; Kjelgaard et al., 2001; Rapin et al., 2009; O'Connor, 2012; Schelinski et al., 2016). Two major approaches have been used to investigate the pathophysiology underlying atypical auditory processing in ASD: structural and functional imaging.

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Prevalence of ST131 Clone Producing Both ESBL CTX-M-15 and AAC(6′)Ib-cr Among Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Yemen

Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.


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Molecular Characterization of Methicillin and Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Hospitalized Patients

Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.


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Chromosome interaction hubs around nuclear bodies

Chromosome interaction hubs around nuclear bodies

Chromosome interaction hubs around nuclear bodies, Published online: 08 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0026-x

A paper in Cell presents split–pool recognition of interactions by tag extension (SPRITE), a method that enables the identification of multiple, simultaneously occurring DNA and RNA interactions genome-wide within the nucleus.

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Coactivation index of children with congenital upper limb reduction deficiencies before and after using a wrist-driven 3D printed partial hand prosthesis

Co-contraction is the simultaneous activation of agonist and antagonist muscles that produces forces around a joint. It is unknown if the use of a wrist-driven 3D printed transitional prostheses has any influe...

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Chromosome interaction hubs around nuclear bodies



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Food Composition Tables in Southeast Asia: The Contribution of the SMILING Project

Abstract

Objectives Food composition data are key for many nutrition related activities in research, planning and policy. Combatting micronutrient malnutrition among women and young children using sustainable food based approaches, as aimed at in the SMILING project, requires high quality food composition data. Methods In order to develop capacity and to align procedures for establishing, updating and assessing the quality of key nutrient data in the food composition tables in Southeast Asia, a detailed roadmap was developed to identify and propose steps for this. This included a training workshop to build capacity in the field of food composition data, and alignment of procedures for selecting foods and nutrients to be included for quality assessment, and update of country specific food composition tables. The SEA partners in the SMILING project finalised a country specific food composition table (FCT) with updated compositional data on selected foods and nutrients considered key for designing nutrient dense and optimal diets for the target groups. Results Between 140 and 175 foods were selected for inclusion in the country specific FCTs. Key-nutrients were: energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrates, iron, zinc, (pro-)-vitamin A, folate, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and vitamin C. A detailed quality assessment on 13 key-foods per nutrient was performed using international guidelines. Nutrient data for specific local food items were often unavailable and data on folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 contents were mostly missing. For many foods, documentation was not available, thereby complicating an in-depth quality assessment. Despite these limitations, the SMILING project offered a unique opportunity to increase awareness of the importance of high quality well documented food composition data. Conclusion for Practise The self-reported data quality demonstrated that there is considerable room for improvement of the nutrient data quality in some countries. In addition, investment in sustainable capacity development and an urgent need to produce and document high quality data on the micronutrient composition of especially local foods is required.



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Threshold of Energy Deficit and Lower-Body Performance Declines in Military Personnel: A Meta-Regression

Abstract

Background

Negative energy balance (EB) is common during military operations, diminishing body mass and physical performance. However, the magnitude of negative EB where performance would still be maintained is not well defined.

Objective

Our objective was to explore relationships between EB and physical performance during military operations and define an acceptable negative EB threshold where performance may be maintained.

Methods

A systematic search was performed for studies that measured EB and physical performance during military training. A total of 632 articles and technical reports were screened. Lower-body power and strength were the most common performance tests across investigations and were used as physical performance outcomes. Data were extracted from nine eligible studies containing 15 independent subgroups. Meta-regression assessed changes in performance in relation to study duration (days), average daily EB, and total EB (daily EB × duration).

Results

Changes in physical performance were not associated with average daily EB or training duration. Total EB was associated with changes in lower-body power (r2 = 0.764, P < 0.001) and strength (r2 = 0.836, P < 0.001) independently and combined (r2 = 0.454, P = 0.002). Predictive equations generated from the meta-regression indicated that, for a zero to small (2%) decline in performance, total EB should be limited to − 5686 to − 19,109 kcal, for an entire operation, whereas total EB of − 39,243 to − 59,377 kcal will result in moderate (7%) to large (10%) declines in performance.

Conclusion

These data demonstrated that greater total negative EB is associated with declines in lower-body performance during military operations.



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Professional Burnout of Psychiatrists in a Veterans Health Administration: Exploring the Role of the Organizational Treatment

Abstract

Psychiatrists in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) are susceptible to professional burnout due to the unique needs of veterans combined with high organizational demands. The current study examined the mediating role of organizational factors in the direct relationship between providing primarily pharmacological intervention and professional burnout. Data from 125 VHA psychiatrists revealed that fair treatment by superiors and sufficient resources independently mediated the direct relationship that the percent of time devoted to pharmacological intervention had with emotional exhaustion and cynicism. Psychiatrists who feel unfairly treated and lack sufficient resources reported more professional burnout. Implications and future directions are discussed.



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Validity of a customized submaximal treadmill protocol for determining VO 2max

Abstract

Introduction

A customized submaximal exercise test for cycle ergometry was reported as a superior estimate of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in comparison to the traditional YMCA ergometry test.

Purpose

Following similar methodology, we sought to validate a customized submaximal treadmill test (CustomTM) compared with the widely used Bruce submaximal protocol.

Methods

Participants (29 women and 21 men; age = 31.37 ± 11.44 year, BMI = 24.02 ± 3.03) performed a graded exercise test (GXT) with a subsequent exhaustive, square-wave bout for the verification of "true" VO2max. In counterbalanced order, subjects then completed submaximal protocols. The CustomTM protocol consisted of two 3-min stages estimated at 35 and 70% of VO2max, where VO2max was estimated with a linear regression equation utilizing sex, BMI, age, and self-reported physical activity.

Results

VO2 values from the GXT and verification bout were 47.2 ± 7.7 and 47.0 ± 7.7 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively (ICC = 0.99, CV = 2.0%, TE = 0.83 ml kg−1 min−1), with the highest value used as "true" VO2max (47.7 ± 7.7 ml kg−1 min−1). Neither the Bruce (45.95 ± 6.97 ml kg−1 min−1) nor the CustomTM (47.3 ± 9.4 ml kg−1 min−1) protocol differed from "true" VO2max. The CustomTM had a "very large" measurement agreement with "true" VO2max (ICC = 0.78, CV of 9.1%, TE = 4.07 ml kg−1 min−1). Bruce had a "large" measurement agreement with "true" VO2max (ICC = 0.62, CV of 10.0%, TE = 4.51 ml kg−1 min−1).

Conclusion

The CustomTM was superior to the Bruce protocol, because it included a stage below and above gas exchange threshold, yielded a better measurement agreement for "true" VO2max, and was more time efficient.



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Results of the simultaneous measurements of radon around the Black Sea for seismological applications

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Publication date: December 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 192
Author(s): I. Nevinsky, T. Tsvetkova, M. Dogru, E. Aksoy, M. Inceoz, O. Baykara, F. Kulahci, G. Melikadze, I. Akkurt, F. Kulali, E. Vogiannis, E. Pitikakis, K. Katsanou, N. Lambrakis
Results of measurements of radon around of the Black Sea are shown. Radon stations in zones of active faults were placed. Simultaneous hourly measurements of soil radon in 2005 were carried out in the Sivrice Fault Zone that is a segment of East Anatolian Fault System, in the town of Tbilisi (Georgia) and in the South Russia. In 2008 simultaneously hourly measurements of soil radon were carried out in the Western Caucasus (Russia) and in the Mytilene Island (Greece). In 2013 radon in underground waters simultaneously in midday was measuring in Crete (Greece), in the Pamukkale geothermal region (Southwest Turkey) and in the Western Caucasus. Measurements of radon concentration in the points located around of the Black Sea have shown identical regularities in changes of the data. Influence of meteorological, tidal and solar factors on changes of water radon concentrations and soil radon concentrations was observed in all researches points. But this influence was insignificant. Seismological application of observed results also was considered. Various mathematical methods of definition of anomaly in the radon data during earthquakes were considered. During researches in the Black Sea region basically earthquakes with M from 2.0 up to 5.0 and in a depth about 10 km were occurred. For these earthquakes method of daily subtraction of the data of the next and previous day was used. This method has allowed solving a problem with a choice of average value. Probability up to 0.69 (number of earthquakes with radon anomalies/total number of earthquakes) of detection of radon anomalies before earthquakes was achieved applying this method. Changes of radon maps before regional earthquakes were also observed. The frequency analysis of variations of the radon data on the basis of the Wavelet analysis was carried out. Occurrence of the short periods (about 2 days) was observed during regional earthquakes.



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Does galvanic vestibular stimulation decrease spasticity in clinically complete spinal cord injury?

The aim of this study was to determine changes in clinical and biomechanical measures of spasticity after administering galvanic vestibular stimulation in patients with a complete spinal cord injury (SCI). The spasticity in the lower limbs was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the pendulum test in seven SCI patients (grade A on the ASIA Impairment Scale) before (0−), immediately after (0+), and at 5 and 30 min after the real versus sham galvanic vestibular stimulation (15 s each, anode over the right mastoid). Overall, the changes in spasticity were not significantly different between the real and sham galvanic vestibular stimulation. However, the Modified Ashworth Scale and the pendulum test indicated a reduction in spasticity in two out of seven patients. The results suggest that galvanic vestibular stimulation may modify spasticity in some patients with complete SCI, presumably through the residual vestibulospinal influences. Future studies should determine clinical and neurophysiological profiles of responders versus nonresponders and optimize parameters of galvanic vestibular stimulation. Correspondence to Radoje D. Čobeljić, MD, Clinic for Rehabilitation 'Dr Miroslav Zotovic', Bellgrade 11010, Serbia Tel: +381 642 123 280; e-mail: radoje.cobeljic@gmail.com Received March 26, 2018 Accepted May 20, 2018 Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Cancer Knowledge Among Mexican Immigrant Farmworkers in North Carolina

Abstract

Latino farmworkers are exposed to a number of carcinogens in the workplace. Cancer survival rates for Latinos are below average. This paper describes Mexican immigrant farmworkers' knowledge of colorectal, breast, and testicular cancer, and compares farmworkers' cancer knowledge to that of other Mexican immigrants. Survey interviews for this study were conducted with 100 farmworkers and 100 non-farmworkers in 2015 in North Carolina as part of an ongoing community-based participatory research project. We found low to moderate levels of knowledge about colorectal, breast, and testicular cancer among farmworkers. Compared to non-farmworkers, farmworkers had similar levels of knowledge about breast and testicular cancer, but slightly lower knowledge about colorectal cancer (p = 0.0087). Few studies have used quantitative methods to assess farmworkers' knowledge of specific types of cancer. Our results demonstrate a need for increased dissemination of existing cancer education programs and further research to develop additional educational tools.



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