Τρίτη, 29 Μαρτίου 2016

Patterns of impaired oral health-related quality of life dimensions

Summary

How dental patients are affected by oral conditions can be described with the concept of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). This concept intends to make the patient experience measurable. OHRQoL is multidimensional, and Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact were suggested as its four dimensions and consequently four scores are needed for comprehensive OHRQoL assessment. When only the presence of dimensional impact is measured, a pattern of affected OHRQoL dimensions would describe in a simple way how oral conditions influence the individual. By determining which patterns of impact on OHRQoL dimensions exist in prosthodontic patients and general population subjects, we aimed to identify in which combinations oral conditions' functional, painful, aesthetical and psychosocial impact occurs. Data came from the Dimensions of OHRQoL Project with Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP)-49 data from 6349 general population subjects and 2999 prosthodontic patients in the Learning Sample (= 5173) and the Validation Sample (= 5022). We hypothesised that all 16 patterns of OHRQoL dimensions should occur in these individuals who suffered mainly from tooth loss, its causes and consequences. A dimension was considered impaired when at least one item in the dimension was affected frequently. The 16 possible patterns of impaired OHRQoL dimensions were found in patients and general population subjects in both Learning and Validation Samples. In a four-dimensional OHRQoL model consisting Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact, oral conditions' impact can occur in any combination of the OHRQoL dimensions.



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Seasonal Influence on Meat Quality of Small and Medium Scale Broiler Farming in Bangladesh

2016-03-29T22-02-43Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Md. Younus Ali, Ashim Kumar Das,Md. Akhtarul Islam, Md.Shariful Islam and Syed Sarwar Jahan*.
The study was undertaken to determine the quality of meat through proximate analysis of broiler farming carried out with and without bio-security management intervention in Rajshai, Pabna and Kishorgonj districts of Bangladesh. A total of 36 broiler meat samples were collected from broiler farmers with considering bio-secured& non bio-secured managed farms during summer and winter seasonsbetween June, 13 to December14 and having 12 meat samples in eachlocations. Categories of farm (bio-secured & non bio-secured) were identified by using measures of bio-security standard which were based on marks. As per bio-security standard of broiler farm, the farms those got above 60 marks treated as bio-secured farms and below 60 marks treated as non-bio-secured farms (out of 100 marks).Data were analyzed using SPSS program and comparisons of results were made between farms with & without bio-secured intervention. No significant differences were found in moisture, crude protein, ash, crude fiber and either extracts among the broiler farm locations. But, between of the two management interventions had a significant effect on proximate parameters. CP, moisture, ash, EE and CF were found higher in bio-secured managed farm in comparison with non bio-secured farm. Average proximate parameters of broiler meat samples in both seasons showed the following composition: moisture 76.09%, CP 20.07%, ash 1.07%, CF 0 .033% and EE 1.05% respectively considering as fresh basis. Overall relatively better meat quality was found in bio-secured managed farms than those of non bio-secured managed farms. Moreover, between the two seasons, in terms of meat quality;CP, ash and EE were found higher in winter in comparison with summer season. It was concluded that satisfactory improve meat quality is achievable from small and medium scale broiler farming at rural household of the farmers if bio-security management intervention is practiced.


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Long-Term Exercise Improves Memory Deficits via Restoration of Myelin and Microvessel Damage, and Enhancement of Neurogenesis in the Aged Gerbil Hippocampus After Ischemic Stroke

Background. The positive correlation between therapeutic exercise and memory recovery in cases of ischemia has been extensively studied; however, long-term exercise begun after ischemic neuronal death as a chronic neurorestorative strategy has not yet been thoroughly examined. Objective. The purpose of this study is to investigate possible mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates ischemia-induced memory impairment in the aged gerbil hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia. Methods. Treadmill exercise was begun 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) and lasted for 1 or 4 weeks. The animals were sacrificed 31 days after the induction of ischemia. Changes in short-term memory, as well as the hippocampal expression of markers of cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, neurogenesis, myelin and microvessel repair, and growth factors were examined by immunohistochemistry and/or western blots. Results. Four weeks of exercise facilitated memory recovery despite neuronal damage in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region and in the polymorphic layer (PoL) of the dentate gyrus (DG) after I-R. Long-term exercise enhanced cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in a time-dependent manner, and newly generated mature cells were found in the granule cell layer of the DG, but not in the SP of the CA1 region or in the PoL of the DG. In addition, long-term exercise ameliorated ischemia-induced damage of myelin and microvessels, which was correlated with increased BDNF expression in the CA1 region and the DG. Conclusions. These results suggest that long-term treadmill exercise after I-R can restore memory function through replacement of multiple damaged structures in the ischemic aged hippocampus.



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Evaluation of a Physical Activity Intervention for Adults With Brain Impairment: A Controlled Clinical Trial

Background. Individuals with brain impairment (BI) are less active than the general population and have increased risk of chronic disease. Objective. This controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of a physical activity (PA) intervention for community-dwelling adults with BI. Methods. A total of 43 adults with BI (27 male, 16 female; age 38.1 ± 11.9 years; stage of change 1-3) who walked as their primary means of locomotion were allocated to an intervention (n = 23) or control (n = 20) condition. The intervention comprised 10 face-to-face home visits over 12 weeks, including a tailored combination of stage-matched behavior change activities, exercise prescription, community access facilitation, and relapse prevention strategies. The control group received 10 face-to-face visits over 12 weeks to promote sun safety, healthy sleep, and oral health. Primary outcomes were daily activity counts and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) measured with the ActiGraph GT1M at baseline (0 weeks), postintervention (12 weeks) and follow-up (24 weeks). Between-group differences were evaluated for statistical significance using repeated-measures ANOVA. Results. MVPA for the intervention group increased significantly from baseline to 12 weeks (20.8 ± 3.1 to 31.2 ± 3.1 min/d; P = .01), but differences between baseline and 24 weeks were nonsignificant (20.8 ± 3.1 to 25.3 ± 3.2 min/d; P = .28). MVPA changes for the control group were negligible and nonsignificant. Between-group differences for change in MVPA were significant at 12 weeks (P = .03) but not at 24 weeks (P = .49). Conclusion. The 12-week intervention effectively increased adoption of PA in a sample of community-dwelling adults with BI immediately after the intervention but not at follow-up. Future studies should explore strategies to foster maintenance of PA participation.



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Potential hepatoprotective effect of different solvent fractions of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) in a paracetamol - induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats

2016-03-29T19-42-49Z
Source: Journal of Investigational Biochemistry
ukpabi-ugo, Jacinta Chigozie, Michael okechukwu Monanu, Patrick -Iwuanyanwu kingsley .C., Simeon Ikechukwu Egbachukwu.
Objective: To conduct a potential hepatoprotective effect of different solvent fractions of Ocimum gratissimum (OG) 0n paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Methods: The animals were divided into seven groups of five animals per group. Groups I and II served as normal and negative controls respectively. Group III received 100mg/kg b.w silymarin (SIL) and served as positive control. Group IV received 400mg/kg b.w ethanol fraction; Group V received 400mg/kg b.w ethyl acetate fraction; GroupVI received 400mg/kg b.w hexane fraction; Group VII received 400mg/kg b.w aqueous fraction. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alanine phosphatase(ALP),Total Protein, Total and direct bilirubin and histopathological examination of the liver were conducted using a standard biochemical methods. Results: Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alanine phosphatase(ALP) activities were significantly (p≤ 0.05) decreased in groups treated with different fractions of ocimum gratissimum when compared with the negative control. Total bilirubin and direct bilirubin concentrations decreased significantly (p≤ 0.05) in groups treated with different fractions of OG when compared with the negative control. Total protein concentration increased significantly (p≤ 0.05) in hexane and aqueous fractions compared with negative control. Histopathological examination of the liver sections corroborated the data from biochemical studies. Conclusion: These findings showed that different fractions of Ocimum gratissimum extract may exhibit hepatoprotective properties


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EMS Agency Selects Aladtec to Resolve Issues Found by Internal Audit

Improvements to this organization are easily accomplished by implementing online employee schedule and workforce management software. Vancouver, WA - - With most businesses and organizations, there's typically room for improvement regarding how administrative tasks and processes are accomplished. With this in mind, Skamania County EMS hired a firm to come in and conduct a comprehensive audit of ...

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Water assisted colonoscopy: A promising new technique

Water assisted colonoscopy is gaining increasing popularity. The concept of using water instead of air or CO2 is appealing to reduce abdominal discomfort after colonoscopy. In addition, the colonic view might be improved with water infusion, thereby potentially increasing the adenoma detection rate (ADR).

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Firefighter/EMT - Shoreline Fire Department

SHORELINE FIRE DEPARTMENT 17525 AURORA AVENUE NORTH SHORELINE, WASHINGTON 98133 Updated: March 29, 2016 Job Classification: Firefighter/EMT Shoreline Fire Department is establishing a one year hiring list for the position of Entry Level Firefighter. This list may be extended for up to 18 months. All testing through must be completed April 29, 2016. Application Packets must be received by 4pm, April ...

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Water assisted colonoscopy: A promising new technique

Water assisted colonoscopy is gaining increasing popularity. The concept of using water instead of air or CO2 is appealing to reduce abdominal discomfort after colonoscopy. In addition, the colonic view might be improved with water infusion, thereby potentially increasing the adenoma detection rate (ADR).

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Firefighter/EMT - Cedar Hammock Fire Rescue

CEDAR HAMMOCK FIRE RESCUE 5200 26TH ST W BRADENTON, FLORIDA 34207 Updated: March 28, 2016 Classification: Firefighter/EMT Cedar Hammock Fire Rescue is building an eligibility list of applications. FireTEAM and NTN CPAT testing through National Testing Network (NTN) are both required for this listing. Salary: $38,935 Benefits: Health Insurance, FRS, Sick Leave, Vacation Leave City Information: Cedar ...

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Paramedic - Wisestaff LLC

Wisestaff is seeking multiple Paramedics at Fort Belvoir Community Hospital in Fort Belvoir, VA. All shifts are 12 hours long and run from 6 AM – 6 PM or 6 PM – 6 AM. The company does offer benefits as well. If you are interested in part time, the hourly rate is $21.00. If you are interested in full time, the hourly rate is $22.00. Technician shall be a graduate of an accredited medical ...

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Firefighter/EMT - Ocala Fire Rescue

OCALA FIRE RESCUE 410 NE 3RD ST OCALA, FLORIDA 34470 Updated: March 28, 2016 Job Classification: Firefighter/EMT Ocala Fire Rescue is currently hiring for Firefighter/EMT. All testing through National Testing Network (NTN)must be completed by April 22, 2016. General Statement of Position: This a non-supervisory position which specializes in Fire Rescue operations which include the emergency medical ...

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Growth and Slaughter Characteristics of Ethiopian Boran Breed Bull

2016-03-29T10-19-04Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Mohammed Bedhane, Hailu Dadi.
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of age on the body weight gain and carcass traits of Ethiopian Boran breed bulls kept under natural pasture grazing management at middle rift valley of Ethiopia.  A total of 32 Ethiopian Boran bulls of four age categories (2, 4, 6, 8 years) were used for the experiment. After twenty-four hours of death, various carcass yield measurement data were collected.  Average daily gain (ADG) did not vary (p>0.05) among the age groups (4, 6, 8 years), however ADG was significantly lower (p0.05) among all age groups. Pelvic fat, scrotal fat and rib eye area showed significant differences (p


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Wireless, Handheld Ultrasound for iOS and Android Debuts

New York, NY, March 18, 2106 (PR NEWSWIRE) – Clarius Mobile Health is showcasing the world's first handheld ultrasound scanner with a mobile application for iOS and Android smart devices at the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine Conference in New York March 18-21, 2016 "Physicians have been asking for a portable ultrasound system that works with their iPhone for some time," ...

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Size distribution of aerosol particles produced during mining and processing uranium ore

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Publication date: June 2016
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 157
Author(s): Helena Mala, Ladislav Tomasek, Petr Rulik, Vera Beckova, Jiri Hulka
The aerosol particle size distributions of uranium and its daughter products were studied and determined in the area of the Rožná mine, which is the last active uranium mine in the Czech Republic. A total of 13 samples were collected using cascade impactors from three sites that had the highest expected levels of dust, namely, the forefield, the end of the ore chute and an area close to workers at the crushing plant.The characteristics of most size distributions were very similar; they were moderately bimodal, with a boundary approximately 0.5 μm between the modes. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) were obtained from the distributions beyond 0.39 μm, whereas the sizes of particles below 0.39 μm were not differentiated. Most AMAD and GSD values in the samples ranged between 3.5 and 10.5 μm and between 2.8 and 5.0, respectively. The geometric means of the AMADs and GSDs from all of the underground sampling sites were 4.2 μm and 4.4, respectively, and the geometric means of the AMADs and GSDs for the crushing plant samplings were 9.8 μm and 3.3, respectively. The weighted arithmetic mean of the AMADs was 4.9 μm, with a standard error of 0.7 μm, according to the numbers of workers at the workplaces.The activity proportion of the radon progeny to 226Ra in the aerosol was 0.61.



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Influence of water management and fertilizer application on 137Cs and 133Cs uptake in paddy rice fields

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Publication date: June 2016
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 157
Author(s): Shokichi Wakabayashi, Sumio Itoh, Nobuharu Kihou, Hisaya Matsunami, Mayumi Hachinohe, Shioka Hamamatsu, Shigeru Takahashi
Cesium-137 derived from the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated large areas of agricultural land in Eastern Japan. Previous studies before the accident have indicated that flooding enhances radiocesium uptake in rice fields. We investigated the influence of water management in combination with fertilizers on 137Cs concentrations in rice plants at two fields in southern Ibaraki Prefecture. Stable Cs (133Cs) in the plants was also determined as an analogue for predicting 137Cs behavior after long-term aging of soil 137Cs. The experimental periods comprised 3 y starting from 2012 in one field, and 2 y from 2013 in another field. These fields were divided into three water management sections: a long-flooding section without midsummer drainage, and medial-flooding, and short-flooding sections with one- or two-week midsummer drainage and earlier end of flooding than the long-flooding section. Six or four types of fertilizer subsections (most differing only in potassium application) were nested in each water management section. Generally, the long-flooding treatment led to higher 137Cs and 133Cs concentrations in both straw and brown rice than medial- and short-flooding treatments, although there were some notable exceptions in the first experimental year at each site. Effects of differing potassium fertilizer treatments were cumulative; the effects on 137Cs and 133Cs concentrations in rice plants were not obvious in 2012 and 2013, but in 2014, these concentrations were highest where potassium fertilizer had been absent and lowest where basal dressings of K had been tripled. The relationship between 137Cs and 133Cs in rice plants was not correlative in the first experimental year at each site, but correlation became evident in the subsequent year(s). This study demonstrates a novel finding that omitting midsummer drainage and/or delaying drainage during the grain-filling period enhances uptake of both 137Cs and 133Cs.



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Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident: Atmospheric and oceanic impacts over the five years

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Publication date: June 2016
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 157
Author(s): Katsumi Hirose
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in huge environmental and socioeconomic impacts to Japan. To document the actual environmental and socioeconomic effects of the FDNPP accident, we describe here atmospheric and marine contamination due to radionuclides released from the FDNPP accident using papers published during past five years, in which temporal and spatial variations of FDNPP-derived radionuclides in air, deposition and seawater and their mapping are recorded by local, regional and global monitoring activities. High radioactivity-contaminated area in land were formed by the dispersion of the radioactive cloud and precipitation, depending on land topography and local meteorological conditions, whereas extremely high concentrations of 131I and radiocesium in seawater occurred due to direct release of radioactivity-contaminated stagnant water in addition to atmospheric deposition. For both of atmosphere and ocean, numerical model simulations, including local, regional and global-scale modeling, were extensively employed to evaluate source terms of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides from the monitoring data. These models also provided predictions of the dispersion and high deposition areas of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides. However, there are significant differences between the observed and simulated values. Then, the monitoring data would give a good opportunity to improve numerical modeling.



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Correlation of demographic profile with Australia antigen positivity rate in children presenting with jaundice

2016-03-29T09-55-38Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Shweta, Rajiv Ranjan Prasad.
Background: Viral hepatitis is a global health problem and causes a great chunk of morbidity in the pediatric population. The pediatric age is important because the outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection depends inversely with the age of acquiring the infection and the immune status of the host. Humans are the only source of cases and carriers of HBV, so targeting our immunization policy more toward susceptible groups can help stop hepatitis B infection transmission to nil. India falls under intermediate zone of the World Health Organization according to the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in general population so as to tackle the enormous burden of about 50 million carriers. Objective: To throw light on the relation of demographic factors such as age, gender, diet, and religion of the children who were icteric with Australia antigen positivity rate and to observe whether gender or religious/cultural practice of a particular section of the population had a positive correlation with the susceptibility of getting more often infected in the pediatric age group. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted in 100 children (up to the age of 12 years) presenting with jaundice in the pediatric OPD and emergency of Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India. They were divided into five groups (01, 24, 57, 810, and 1112 years). Fifty healthy children were taken as controls. Result: Of the total 100 children presenting with jaundice, 69 were boys and 31 were girls. Total children in the age groups 01, 24, 57, 810, and 1112 years were 8, 30, 25, 24, and 13, respectively. Boys had higher HBsAg positivity rate compared with girls from all age groups except the age group of 57 years. There were 51 subjects who were nonvegetarian and 49 subjects who were vegetarian and the HBsAg positivity in them was 12 (23.5%) and 8 (16.3%), respectively. There were 81 subjects who were Hindus and 19 who were Muslims with the positivity rate in them being 17.3% and 32%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study shows a high frequency of exposure to HBV infection in children, so this study shows the importance of universal immunization against HBV. It shows a different manner of frequency of HBV infection in our society as previous studies all reported urban/rural and general population versus tribal population differences.


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Prevalence and pattern of self-medication practices among population of three districts of South Karnataka

2016-03-29T09-06-24Z
Source: National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Nagarajaiah BH, Kishore Gowda, Shashikumar NS, Praveen Panchakshari.
Background: Self-medication is a general practice globally. People self-medicate by buying medicines at a medical shop either by asking its properties/symptoms such as pain killers/gastric drugs or by the advice of a qualified pharmacist/unqualified person in the medical store. This may lead to masking of severe/dangerous illness, which in turn can produce severe complications and heavy financial burden or loss of a life. Substandard drugs, improper dosage, dose intervals, lack of awareness of precautions or contraindications, and associated diseases can lead to drug interactions, drug poisoning/toxicity, and abuse of drugs. Aims and Objective: To assess the prevalence, pattern, and reasons for self-medication practices among population of three districts of South Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A preformed, pretested, and semistructured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The questionnaire comprised questions regarding sociodemographic profile, use of self-medication, pattern of use of drugs, factors affecting their use, knowledge of the people regarding dose, duration, side effects, and interactions of the drugs in use, source of information about the drugs, and attitude toward allopathic, ayurvedic, and homeopathic medicines. The subjects were interviewed regarding the use of self-medication drugs for a recall period of 6 months duration. Statistical analysis was done using appropriate statistical method and software. Result: Of the 5,489 respondents, 4,316 (78.63%) reported self-medication within a 6-month recall period. Of these respondents, Mandya reported high self-medication practices (81.86%) when compared with Bangaloreans (72.39%). The difference was significant. Among the different age groups, high self-medication was seen in 4160 years age group (40.48%) and low among those aged > 60 years (29.37%). The difference was significant. Self-medication was high in male (82.76%).than female subjects (72.87%). Self-medication was slightly more in rural population (79.05%) than urban respondents (78.20%). The most common conditions/symptoms for which self-medication was done was for gastric symptoms (72.10%), followed by joint pains (65.89%), headache (63.02%), fever (47.87%), and common cold (37.95%). The difference was statistically significant, with P

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Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease among patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis in Iran

Publication date: Available online 28 March 2016
Source:Arab Journal of Gastroenterology
Author(s): Mohammad Hadizadeh, Seyed H. Abedi, Habib Malekpour, Ebrahim Radinnia, Sayena Jabbehdari, Maryam Padashi, Mohammad R. Zali, Amir H. Mohammad Alizadeh
Background and study aimsIn Iran, the epidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and its association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the epidemiology and prevalence of IBD among patients with PSC.Patients and methodsA retrospective study of 154 patients with PSC was conducted. The demographic and clinical data were collected, and the variables were analysed in the following two patient groups: patients with both PSC and IBD, and patients with PSC and without IBD.ResultsA total of 154 patients with a mean age of 40.3years (range 20–81years) were included, of whom 57 (37%) were female and 97 (63%) male. Ninety-six patients (62.3%) were diagnosed with IBD, 92 (59.7%) with ulcerative colitis, and four (2.6%) with Crohn's disease. In this study, elevated alkaline phosphatase levels were found in 90.8% of patients. The intra-hepatic duct (IHD) and extrahepatic duct (EHD) were involved in 70.5% of patients, isolated intrahepatic bile duct in 24.4%, and isolated extrahepatic duct in 3.8%. Small-duct PSC (normal results of imaging and PSC proved by histology of liver biopsy) was observed only in 1.3% of patients.ConclusionPSC has become increasingly diagnosed in Iran. This is possibly because of better diagnostics and the increasing prevalence of IBD in this country. For diagnosing PSC and identifying the presence of IHD strictures, the results of both magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) showed good interobserver agreement, but the ERCP results could be used to evaluate the presence and severity of EHD strictures.



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Epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Lebanon

Publication date: Available online 28 March 2016
Source:Arab Journal of Gastroenterology
Author(s): Antoine Abou Rached, Selim Abou Kheir, Jowana Saba, Walid Ammar
Background and study aimsHepatitis B and C are two potentially life threatening liver infections. Lebanon is ranked as a zone of moderate endemicity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Lebanon and their distribution according to age, region and sex.Patients and methodsThis national prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2011 till December 2012 in the six Lebanese Governorates in collaboration with municipalities, the Ministry of Public Health, Health Centres and dispensaries. An upcoming screening for hepatitis B and C was announced? in different districts of each Governorate. All individuals presenting to local laboratory, not known to have chronic hepatitis, were asked for a blood sample and answered a questionnaire addressing sex, age, place of birth and residence. Screening tests were "Abbots" for hepatitis B and "Human Hexagon" for hepatitis C. PCR testing was used to confirm the positivity of the previous tests.ResultsOf 31147 individuals screened, 542 had a rapid test positive for HBV (prevalence 1.74%, 95% CI 1.6–1.89) with a male to female ratio of 1.08. This prevalence was higher in the South and Nabatieh (1.9%) compared to Beirut (0.73%). Of 31,147 individuals screened, 64 had a rapid test positive for HCV (prevalence 0.21%, 95% CI 0.16–0.27) with a male to female ratio of 0.85. This prevalence was higher in Nabatieh (0.61%) compared to Mount Lebanon (0.08%).ConclusionsThe prevalence of HBV and HCV in Lebanon is 1.74% and 0.21%, respectively with a higher prevalence in South and Nabatieh districts. These data rank Lebanon amongst countries with low endemicity for both viruses. Decrease in the prevalence of HBV is due to awareness campaign as well as success of the MOPH National Hepatitis Program in vaccinating all new born since 1998 and in screening and vaccinating high risk groups.



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Portal hypertension and cholestasis due to Echinococcus alveolaris: a case report

2016-03-29T07-05-02Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Yuksel Seckin, Yasir Furkan Cagin, Oguzhan Yildirim, Yilmaz Bilgic, Yahya Atayan, Mehmet Ali Erdogan, Nasuhi Engin Aydin.
Alveolar ecchinococcosis (AE) is a rare but potentially life-threatening serious parasitic disease. The parasit may involve liver and, most importantly, expand vessels and biliary tract. We present here a case of esophageal variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension and cholestasis secondary to AE. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who was admitted to emergency service with hematemesis, melena and icter. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastroesophageal varices and portal gastropathy. Contrasted computerized tomography examination showed a solid calcific lesion (cross dimension 6x11 and 5x9 cm.) of biliary tracts causing dilatation. An USG guided biopsy from the mass was performed and histological examination revealed AE. We also review here the literature on portal hypertension and cholestasis due to Echinococcus alveolaris. AE is rare a disease and may cause severe complications. Endoscopic and percutaneous drainage for biliary obstruction caused by hepatic AE has a palliative effect even in the late stages. Liver transplantation was recommended but this operation was not performed for living donor shortage. Liver transplantation should be considered in the management of advanced liver alveolar echinococcosis.


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Evaluation of a patient with optic disc drusen in the differential diagnosis of papilledema

2016-03-29T07-05-02Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Tuncay Topal, Akin Cakir, Eyup Duzgun, Kenan Olcay, Yildiray Yildirim, Melih Hamdi Unal.
Optic disc drusen (ODD) is hyaline-like calcified material accumulation that may occur at the optic nerve head. It is seen in approximately in 0.3% of the population and is often bilateral. Since bilateral cases might mimic papilledema, it is important to make the differential diagnosis. In this report; a patient followed in the neurology department with suspected papilledema and diagnosed with bilateral ODD will be assessed by means of perimetry, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNLF) analysis and fundus autofloresence (FAF) imaging methods.


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Effect of occlusal vertical dimension on swallowing patterns and perioral electromyographic activity

Summary

Abnormal swallow patterns have been associated with specific dentofacial traits, such as an anterior open bite, but the cause–effect relationship between swallowing and malocclusion remains highly controversial. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of acute change in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) on intraoral pressure swallow patterns and perioral electromyographic activity (EMG) during swallowing. Ten volunteers (five female, five male; 27–32 years) repeated standardised swallowing tasks as the OVD was progressively increased using mandibular trays of different heights. Standardised swallowing tasks were performed repetitively with each tray in place. Individual swallowing waveforms were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. Peak pressure, swallow duration, time to peak pressure and lip EMG peak activity were assessed for each swallow. Data were analysed using mixed-model analysis. As OVD increased, lip peak pressure during swallowing increased almost threefold (+2·1 kPa; P ≤ 0·001), whereas swallow duration increased by 12·7 per cent (+160 ms; P = 0·01) at lip level and by 26·4 per cent (+270 ms; P < 0·001) at tongue level. Perioral muscle activity during swallows increased by 43·7 per cent (P ≤ 0·01) up to the OVD where resting lip seal was not attainable. Swallowing waveforms varied markedly between individuals, but interindividual waveforms were only minimally affected. The adaptive response and the waveform similarities associated with OVD variation supports the existence of a central control mechanism for swallowing, which may be modified by peripheral inputs.



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Taste detection ability of elderly nursing home residents

Summary

Due to the rapid rise of aged populations throughout the world, it is essential to elucidate the cause of taste dysfunction, because it may reduce appetite, leading to inadequate dietary intake. We aimed to compare taste detection ability between dependently and independently living geriatric individuals of nearly the same age with oral status. Forty-three elderly individuals considered to be cognitively eligible and residing in nursing homes in Japan were enrolled (n = 43, 82·3 ± 8·5 years) and were compared with an independently living elderly group (n = 949, 79·9 ± 0·8 years), aiming to compare taste detection ability between dependently and independently living elders of nearly the same age. Information regarding comorbidity and medication was obtained as general health status, and oral status including number of present teeth, denture usage and maximal occlusal force was also noted. In the dependently living group, 69·4%, 14·3%, 16·3% and 8·2% of participants could detect sweet, sour, salty and bitter tastes, respectively, which was significantly lower than the independently living group for each taste (97·9%, 70·8%, 89·6% and 43·8% for sweet, sour, salty and bitter tastes, respectively). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that residing in nursing homes was associated with reduced sensitivity for four different tastes. The diseases and the situation of dependent elders were more likely the cause of the decreased taste sensitivity.



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