Κυριακή, 7 Αυγούστου 2016

New euprimate postcrania from the early Eocene of Gujarat, India, and the strepsirrhine–haplorhine divergence

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Publication date: October 2016
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 99
Author(s): Rachel H. Dunn, Kenneth D. Rose, Rajendra S. Rana, Kishor Kumar, Ashok Sahni, Thierry Smith
The oldest primates of modern aspect (euprimates) appear abruptly on the Holarctic continents during a brief episode of global warming known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, at the beginning of the Eocene (∼56 Ma). When they first appear in the fossil record, they are already divided into two distinct clades, Adapoidea (basal members of Strepsirrhini, which includes extant lemurs, lorises, and bushbabies) and Omomyidae (basal Haplorhini, which comprises living tarsiers, monkeys, and apes). Both groups have recently been discovered in the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation of Vastan lignite mine, Gujarat, India, where they are known mainly from teeth and jaws. The Vastan fossils are dated at ∼54.5 Myr based on associated dinoflagellates and isotope stratigraphy. Here, we describe new, exquisitely preserved limb bones of these Indian primates that reveal more primitive postcranial characteristics than have been previously documented for either clade, and differences between them are so minor that in many cases we cannot be certain to which group they belong. Nevertheless, the small distinctions observed in some elements foreshadow postcranial traits that distinguish the groups by the middle Eocene, suggesting that the Vastan primates—though slightly younger than the oldest known euprimates—may represent the most primitive known remnants of the divergence between the two great primate clades.



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Pre- and Postoperative Troponin Elevation: Effects on Postoperative Mortality: Erratum.

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No abstract available

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Clinical concentrations of morphine are cytotoxic on proliferating human fibroblasts in vitro.

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BACKGROUND: Morphine and other opioids are routinely used systemically and as wound infusions in the postoperative period. Their effect on wound and fracture healing remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The primary outcome was to assess the potential cytotoxicity of clinically relevant concentrations of morphine on human fibroblasts. DESIGN: Laboratory in-vitro study. SETTING: Institute of Physiology, Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich. MATERIALS: Monolayers of human fibroblasts. INTERVENTION(S): Exposure of human fibroblast monolayers to several concentrations of morphine, for different periods of time, with and without an artificially induced inflammatory process. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cell count, cell viability, cell proliferation and apoptosis. RESULTS: A concentration, time and exposure-dependent cytotoxic effect of morphine-mediated apoptosis was observed. Simulated inflammatory conditions seemed to lessen toxic effects. CONCLUSION: Cytotoxic effects of morphine are exposure, time and concentration dependent. Simulating aspects of inflammatory conditions seems to increase resistance to morphine cytotoxicity especially in the presence of higher concentration and longer exposure times. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Laboratory study, no registration needed. (C) 2016 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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