Πέμπτη, 7 Ιουνίου 2018

Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitogenome of a rare cavefish, Sinocyclocheilus multipunctatus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae)

Abstract

The genus Sinocyclocheilus is a representative group of cave creatures. However, genetic studies on Sinocyclocheilus are rare. The primary objective of this study was to explore the structure and feature of the complete mitochondrial genome of S. multipunctatus, and reconstruct the mitogenomic phylogeny of Sinocyclocheilus. The mitochondrial DNA of S. multipunctatus was amplified by overlapping PCR fragments. The mitogenome was assembled by the SeqMan and annotated using MitoAnnotator. The phylogenetic tree was established using the Bayesian inference and Maximum likelihood methods. The mitogenome of S. multipunctatus is a typical circular molecule of 16,586 bp with base composition A (31.25%), T (25.90%), G (16.35%), and C (26.50%), and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and a 931 bp control region. Phylogenetic analysis reveals two clades in the Sinocyclocheilus with robust support. S. multipunctatus is close to a newly discovered cavefish, S. ronganensis. We obtained and described the complete mitogenome of S. multipunctatus, and investigated its phylogenetic status, which may provide a valuable resource for future phylogenetic analyses and population genetic studies in Sinocyclocheilus.



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Functional conservation of Arabidopsis LNG1 in tobacco relating to leaf shape change by increasing longitudinal cell elongation by overexpression

Abstract

The LONGIFOLIA1 (LNG1) gene of Arabidopsis regulates leaf shape by polar cell elongation independent of ROTUNDAFOLIA3 (ROT3). To expand our knowledge on the function of this gens in plant systems, Arabidopsis LNG1 (AtLNG1) was introduced both sense and antisense orientation under the control of 35S CaMV promoter into tobacco plants that lack AtLNG1 homolog. Resulting transgenic tobacco plants were analyzed by their phenotype, anatomy and transcript levels. AtLNG1-overexpressing tobacco lines showed increase in the leaf petiole and leaf blade compared with wild type tobacco line. The overexpressors also showed elongated palisade cells as well as epidermal cells in the leaf length direction, but no increase in cell number. Ectopic expression of AtLNG1 in tobacco plants also increased the expression of cell wall modification-related genes, such as NT_XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLUCOSYLASE/HYDROLASE9 (NT_XTH9), NT_XTH15 and NT_XTH33, indicating that these genes appear to be target of AtLNG1. As results of molecular and cellular examination, AtLNG1 seemed to have a conserved functional role in shaping leaf morphology in both Arabidopsis and tobacco.



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gQTL: A Web Application for QTL Analysis Using the Collaborative Cross Mouse Genetic Reference Population

Multi-parental recombinant inbred populations, such as the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse genetic reference population, are increasingly being used for analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL). However specialized analytic software for these complex populations is typically built in R that works only on command-line, which limits the utility of these powerful resources for many users. To overcome analytic limitations, we developed gQTL, a web accessible, simple graphical user interface application based on the DOQTL platform in R to perform QTL mapping using data from CC mice.



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Auxin-Mediated Sterility Induction System for Longevity and Mating Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans

The ability to control both the means and timing of sexual reproduction provides a powerful tool to understand not only fertilization but also life history trade-offs resulting from sexual reproduction. However, precisely controlling fertilization has proved a major challenge across model systems. An ideal sterility induction system should be external, non-toxic, and reversible. Using the auxin-inducible degradation system targeting the spe-44 gene within the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we designed a means of externally inducing spermatogenesis arrest. We show that exposure to auxin during larval development induces both hermaphrodite self-sterility and male sterility. Moreover, male sterility can be reversed upon cessation of auxin exposure. The sterility induction system developed here has multiple applications in the fields of spermatogenesis and mating systems evolution. Importantly, this system is also a highly applicable tool for aging studies. In particular, we show that auxin-induced self-sterility is comparable to the commonly used chemically-induced FUdR sterility, while offering multiple benefits, including being less labor intensive, being non-toxic, and avoiding compound interactions with other experimental treatments.



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The Doubletime Homolog KIN-20 Mainly Regulates let-7 Independently of Its Effects on the Period Homolog LIN-42 in Caenorhabditis elegans

The Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) heterochronic pathway, which regulates developmental timing, is thought to be an ancestral form of the circadian clock in other organisms. An essential member of this clock is the Period protein whose homolog, lin-42, in C. elegans is an important heterochronic gene. LIN-42 functions as a transcriptional repressor of multiple genes including the conserved lin-4 and let-7 microRNAs. Like other Period proteins, levels of LIN-42 oscillate throughout development. In other organisms this cycling is controlled in part by phosphorylation. KIN-20 is the C. elegans homolog of the Drosophila Period protein kinase Doubletime. Worms containing a large deletion in kin-20 have a significantly smaller brood size and develop slower than wild type C. elegans. Here we analyze the effect of kin-20 on lin-42 phenotypes and microRNA expression. We find that kin-20 RNAi enhances loss-of-function lin-42 mutant phenotypes and that kin-20 mutant worms express lower levels of LIN-42. We also show that kin-20 is important for post-transcriptional regulation of mature let-7 and lin-4 microRNA expression. In addition, the increased level of let-7 found in lin-42(n1089) mutant worms is not maintained after kin-20 RNAi treatment. Instead, let-7 is further repressed when levels of kin-20 and lin-42 are both decreased. Altogether these results suggest that though kin-20 regulates lin-42 and let-7 microRNA, it mainly affects let-7 microRNA expression independently of lin-42. These findings further our understanding of the mechanisms by which these conserved circadian rhythmic genes interact to ultimately regulate rhythmic processes, developmental timing and microRNA biogenesis in C. elegans.



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Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in Sudanese patients: a study on 301 patients in a specialized centre

Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018
Source:Arab Journal of Gastroenterology
Author(s): Nassir Alhaboob Arabi, Abdulmagid Mohammed Musaad, Fatima Abbas Habiballah Mohammed, Elsaggad Eltayeb Ahmed, Muataz Salah Eldin Abdelaziz
Background and study aimsLower gastrointestinal bleeding originates from a site distal to the ligament of Treitz. It can present as an acute life-threatening or chronicbleeding. It is common among older patients and those with comorbidity. The common causes are diverticular disease, angiodysplasias, neoplasms, colitis, ischaemia and anorectal disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and causes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding among Sudanese patients.Patients and methodsIn a period of 2 years we studied 301 patients with fresh rectal bleeding out of 5625 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding in Ibn Sina Specialized Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan, This is a cross sectional observational hospital based study. All patients with fresh rectal bleeding within 24 h were included and consented.ResultLower gastrointestinal bleeding constituted 5.37% of total cases of gastrointestinal bleeding. The mean age of patients was 55.43 ± 17.779, male: female ratio was 2:1. The most common cause (if upper gastrointestinal bleeding is excluded) was diverticular disease 39.6% (n = 61) followed by piles 24.1% (n = 35), colonic tumours 12.34% (n = 19), ulcerative colitis 5.19% (n = 8), Crohn's 5.19% (n = 8), colonic polyps 3,89% (n = 6), angiodysplesia 4.5% (n = 7), colonic ulcer 2.59% (n = 4), ischaemic colitis 1.3%, nonspecific colitis 1.3% (n = 2), and small bowel source in 1.3% (n = 2). The majority of those patients with diverticular disease were male and with first presentation. The commonest cause in those patients younger than 20 years was polyps, and in those between 21 and 40 was piles followed by inflammatory bowel disease, and in those between 41 and 60 years old was piles followed by diverticular disease and tumours, and in those above 60 years was diverticular disease followed by piles and tumours. The correlation between positive colonoscopy finding and diabetes and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were statistically significant. The one-month mortality rate was 2.3%ConclusionAcute lower gastrointestinal bleeding is common among elderly patients and the commonest cause is diverticular disease. Colonoscopy plays an important role in the diagnosis. Most patients respond to conservative therapy.



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Reoperation rates and risk factors for revision 4 years after dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine

The concept of dynamic stabilization (DS) of the lumbar spine for treatment of degenerative instability has been introduced almost two decades ago. DS follows the principle of controlling movement in the coronal plane by providing load transfer of the spinal segment without fusion and at the same time reducing side effects such as adjacent segment disease (ASD). So far only little is known about revision rates after DS due to adjacent segment disease (ASD) and screw loosening (SL).

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Attenuation of the degenerative effects of endothelin-1 on cartilaginous endplate cells by the endothelin receptor antagonist BQ-123 via the wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

Context: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an inflammatory mediator associated with cartilage endplate (CEP) degeneration in the intervertebral disc. SOX9 is down-regulated during CEP degeneration, along with its targets, collagen II and aggrecan. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is associated with CEP degeneration and a downstream target of SOX9; however, the precise mechanism of CEP degeneration and the role of ET-1 are largely unknown.

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Dynamic Adaptation of Vertebral Endplate and Trabecular Bone following Annular Injury in a Rat Model of Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is associated with longitudinal remodeling of paravertebral tissues. While chronic vertebral changes in advanced stages of DDD are well-studied, very little data exists on acute vertebral bone remodeling at the onset and progression of DDD.

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Surgical versus non-surgical management for type II odontoid fractures in the elderly population: a systematic review

Odontoid process fractures, of which type II constitute the majority, are an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The incidence of geriatric type II fractures is steadily increasing in line with the ageing population. However, the decision between surgical and non-surgical intervention for type II fractures in the elderly remains controversial.

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Effect of disc degeneration on the mechanical behavior of the human lumbar spine: a probabilistic finite element study

Intervertebral disc degeneration has been subject to numerous in vivo and in vitro investigations and numerical studies during recent decades, reporting partially contradictory findings. However, most of the previous studies were limited in the number of specimens investigated and, therefore, could not consider the vast variety of the specimen geometries, which are likely to strongly influence the mechanical behavior of the spine.

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Sleep Spindle Reduction Precedes Seizures by Several Epochs

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Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology
Author(s): Jan Rémi, Caroline Bubeck, Elisabeth Hartl, F Irsel Tezer, Soheyl Noachtar




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Reliability, validity, and clinical feasibility of a rapid and objective assessment of post-stroke deficits in hand proprioception

Proprioceptive function can be affected after neurological injuries such as stroke. Severe and persistent proprioceptive impairments may be associated with a poor functional recovery after stroke. To better un...

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Anatomical Look Into OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection for Chronic Migraine Headache

Background and Objectives While existing studies about onabotulinumtoxinA for chronic migraines have focused on injection location and appropriate dosing, little consideration has been given to patient body habitus and its potential impact on efficacy. We hypothesized that with increasing patient body mass index (BMI) there would be more subcutaneous fat separating targeted muscle groups from the skin surface, such that standard 0.5-inch needles used in existing protocols may not allow intramuscular injection. This may have implications for treatment planning. Methods Anatomically normal computed tomography scans of the head, neck, and face were randomly selected. Subjects were stratified into 4 groups based on BMI, with 30 patients in each group. Four standardized locations were chosen to obtain measurements from the skin surface to the underlying muscle fascia, including (1) frontalis, (2) temporalis, (3) semispinalis capitis, and (4) trapezius. Results Median depth for the temporalis was 12.65 mm (Q1 = 9.32 mm, Q3 = 15.08 mm) for the BMI greater than 35 kg/m2 group. Median depth for the semispinalis capitis was 13.77 mm (Q1 = 10.3 mm, Q3 = 15.7 mm) for the BMI 30 to 35 kg/m2 group, and 14.75 mm (Q1 = 11.00, Q3 = 17.00 mm) for the BMI greater than 35 kg/m2 group. Median depth for the trapezius was 13.95 mm (Q1 = 10.18 mm, Q3 = 19.00 mm) for the BMI greater than 35 kg/m2 group. These medians exceeded the length of the standard 0.5-inch (12.-mm) needle used in existing protocols. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that with increasing BMI there is a greater distance between the skin surface and the muscle fascia of muscles that are targeted for injection in standard chronic migraine botulinum toxin injection protocols. Because of this, patient body habitus may be an important factor in injection technique. Accepted for publication February 12, 2018. Address correspondence to: Ali Totonchi, MD, Department of Surgery, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (e-mail: totonchia@yahoo.com). The authors declare no conflict of interest. Interim data from this work were presented at the 2017 Annual Meeting of the Ohio Valley Society of Plastic Surgeons in Pittsburgh, PA, on May 2 to 4, 2017. Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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Personalized Versus Protocolized Fluid Management Using Noninvasive Hemodynamic Monitoring (Clearsight System) in Patients Undergoing Moderate-Risk Abdominal Surgery

Advances in noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring systems allow delivery of goal-directed fluid therapy and could therefore be used in less-invasive surgical procedures. In this randomized controlled trial, we compared closed-loop–assisted goal-directed fluid therapy using a noninvasive cardiac output (Clearsight system) monitor (personalized approach) to a protocolized fluid therapy approach in 40 patients undergoing moderate-risk laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Cardiac output and stroke volume variations were not significantly different in both groups and remained within predefined target values >90% of the study time. Personalized fluid therapy does not seem to offer any hemodynamic advantage over a protocolized approach in this population. Accepted for publication May 8, 2018. Funding: Departmental. Conflicts of Interest: See Disclosures at the end of the article. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (https://ift.tt/KegmMq). Trial Registry number: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03039946). Reprints will not be available from the authors. Address correspondence to Alexandre Joosten, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Erasme, 808 Rt de Lennik, 1070 Brussels, Belgium. Address e-mail to Alexandre.Joosten@erasme.ulb.ac.be or joosten-alexandre@hottmail.com. © 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society

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Estimating the Risk of a Rare But Plausible Complication That Has Not Occurred After n Trials

No abstract available

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Barash’s Clinical Anesthesia, 8th ed

No abstract available

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More on Fatigue Mitigation for Anesthesiology Residents

No abstract available

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Intraoperative Hemodynamic and Echocardiographic Measurements Associated With Severe Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation

BACKGROUND: Severe right ventricular failure (RVF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation increases morbidity and mortality. We investigated the association between intraoperative right heart hemodynamic data, echocardiographic parameters, and severe versus nonsevere RVF. METHODS: A review of LVAD patients between March 2013 and March 2016 was performed. Severe RVF was defined by the need for a right ventricular mechanical support device, inotropic, and/or inhaled pulmonary vasodilator requirements for >14 days. From a chart review, the right ventricular failure risk score was calculated and right heart hemodynamic data were collected. Pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi) [(pulmonary artery systolic pressure − pulmonary artery diastolic pressure)/central venous pressure (CVP)] was calculated for 2 periods: (1) 30 minutes before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and (2) after chest closure. Echocardiographic data were recorded pre-CPB and post-CPB by a blinded reviewer. Univariate logistic regression models were used to examine the performance of hemodynamic and echocardiographic metrics. RESULTS: A total of 110 LVAD patients were identified. Twenty-five did not meet criteria for RVF. Of the remaining 85 patients, 28 (33%) met criteria for severe RVF. Hemodynamic factors associated with severe RVF included: higher CVP values after chest closure (18 ± 9 vs 13 ± 5 mm Hg; P = .0008) in addition to lower PAPi pre-CPB (1.2 ± 0.6 vs 1.7 ± 1.0; P = .04) and after chest closure (0.9 ± 0.5 vs 1.5 ± 0.8; P = .0008). Post-CPB echocardiographic findings associated with severe RVF included: larger right atrial diameter major axis (5.4 ± 0.9 vs 4.9 ± 1.0 cm; P = .03), larger right ventricle end-systolic area (22.6 ± 8.4 vs 18.5 ± 7.9 cm2; P = .03), lower fractional area of change (20.2 ± 10.8 vs 25.9 ± 12.6; P = .04), and lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (0.9 ± 0.2 vs 1.1 ± 0.3 cm; P = .008). Right ventricular failure risk score was not a significant predictor of severe RVF. Post-chest closure CVP and post-chest closure PAPi discriminated severe from nonsevere RVF better than other variables measured, each with an area under the curve of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.64–0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Post-chest closure values of CVP and PAPi were significantly associated with severe RVF. Echocardiographic assessment of RV function post-CPB was weakly associated with severe RVF. Accepted for publication April 30, 2018. Funding: This study was supported in part by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Award Number UL1TR001064. Conflicts of Interest: See Disclosures at the end of the article. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (https://ift.tt/KegmMq). M. D. Gudejko and B. R. Gebhardt contributed equally and share first authorship. Reprints will not be available from the authors. Address correspondence to Frederick C. Cobey, MD, MPH, FASE, Department of Anesthesiology, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111. Address e-mail to FCobey@tuftsmedicalcenter.org. © 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society

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Propofol and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: Possible Implications for Studies of Clinical Myocardial Protection Using Volatile Anesthetics in Cardiac Surgery Patients?

No abstract available

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Decision Support Tool Improves Real and Perceived Anesthesiology Resident Relief Equity

BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education requires monitoring of resident clinical and educational hours but does not require tracking daily work patterns or duty hour equity. Lack of such monitoring may allow for inequity that affects resident morale. No defined system for resident relief of weekday operating room (OR) clinical duties existed at our institution, leaving on-call residents to independently decide daily relief order. We developed an automated decision support tool (DST) to improve equitable decision making for clinical relief and assessed its impact on real and perceived relief equity. METHODS: The DST sent a daily e-mail to the senior resident responsible for relief decisions. It contained a prioritized relief list of noncall residents who worked in the OR beyond 5 PM the prior clinical day. We assessed actual relief equity using the number of times a resident worked in the OR past 5:30 PM on 2 consecutive weekdays as our outcome, adjusting for the mean number of open ORs each day between 5:00 PM and 6:59 PM in our main OR areas. We analyzed 14 months of data before implementation and 16 months of data after implementation. We assessed perceived relief equity before and after implementation using a questionnaire. RESULTS: After implementing the DST, the percentage of residents held 2 consecutive weekdays over the total of resident days worked decreased from 1.33% to 0.43%. The percentage of residents held beyond 5:30 PM on any given day decreased from 18.09% to 12.64%. Segmented regression analysis indicated that implementation of the DST was associated with a reduction in biweekly time series of residents kept late 2 days in a row, independent of the mean number of ORs in use. Surveyed residents reported the DST aided their ability to make equitable relief decisions (pre 60% vs post 94%; P = .0003). Eighty-five percent of residents strongly agreed that a prioritized relief list based on prior day work hours after 5 PM aided their decision making. After implementation, residents reported fewer instances of working past 5 PM within the past month (P

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Stoelting’s Anesthesia and Co-Existing Disease, 7th ed

No abstract available

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Risks and Benefits of Ultrasound, Nerve Stimulation, and Their Combination for Guiding Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Retrospective Registry Analysis

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound, nerve stimulation, and their combination are all considered acceptable ways to guide peripheral nerve blocks. Which approach is most effective and associated with the fewest complications is unknown. We therefore used a large registry to analyze whether there are differences in vascular punctures, multiple skin punctures, and unintended paresthesia. METHODS: Twenty-six thousand seven hundred and thirty-three cases were extracted from the 25-center German Network for Regional Anesthesia registry between 2007 and 2016 and grouped into ultrasound-guided puncture (n = 10,380), ultrasound combined with nerve stimulation (n=8173), and nerve stimulation alone (n = 8180). The primary outcomes of vascular puncture, multiple skin punctures, and unintended paresthesia during insertion were compared with conditional logistic regression after 1:1:1 propensity score matching. Results are presented as odds ratios and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Propensity matching successfully paired 2508 patients with ultrasound alone (24% of 10,380 patients), 2508 patients with a combination of ultrasound/nerve stimulation (31% of 8173 patients), and 2508 patients with nerve stimulation alone (31% of 8180 patients). After matching, no variable was imbalanced (standardized differences

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Cardiac Structure and Function in Morbidly Obese Parturients: An Echocardiographic Study

BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide is a major threat to global health. Cardiac structural and functional changes are well documented for obesity as well as for pregnancy, but there is limited literature on morbidly obese parturients. We hypothesized that there are both cardiac structural and functional differences between morbidly obese pregnant women and pregnant women of normal body mass index (BMI). METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study was performed in 2 referral maternity units in Cape Town, South Africa, over a 3-month period. Forty morbidly obese pregnant women of BMI ≥40 kg·m−2 (group O) were compared to 45 pregnant women of BMI ≤30 kg·m−2 (group N). Cardiac structure and function were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography, according to the recommendations of the British Society of Echocardiography. The 2-sample t-test with unequal variances was used for the comparison of the mean values between the groups. RESULTS: Acceptable echocardiographic images were obtained in all obese women. Statistical significance was defined as P

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Deep neuromuscular blockade and surgical conditions during laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: A randomised, blinded study

BACKGROUND Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair is a common surgical procedure. However, muscle contractions and general muscle tension may impair the surgical view and cause difficulties suturing the hernial defect. Deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) paralyses the abdominal wall muscles and may help to create better surgical conditions. OBJECTIVES The current study investigated if deep compared with no NMB improved the surgical view during laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. DESIGN Crossover study. SETTING The study was carried out at Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark and conducted from May 2015 until February 2017. PARTICIPANTS A total of 34 patients were randomised in an investigator-initiated, assessor-blinded crossover design of deep vs. no NMB during laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. INCLUSION CRITERIA Adults scheduled for elective laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. EXCLUSION CRITERIA Known allergy to any study medication, known homozygous variants in the butyrylcholinesterase gene, severe renal disease, neuromuscular disease, lactating or pregnant women, any indication for rapid sequence induction. INTERVENTIONS Deep NMB was established with rocuronium and reversed with sugammadex. Anaesthesia was conducted with propofol and remifentanil. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was evaluation of surgical view assessed on a five-point rating scale. Other outcomes included the surgical conditions during laparoscopic suturing of the hernia defect. RESULTS We found no difference in ratings for the surgical view when comparing deep with no NMB: mean −0.1 (95% confidence interval −0.4 to 0.2) (P = 0.521, paired t test). However, deep compared with no NMB improved the rating score for surgical conditions while suturing the hernia defect (P = 0.012, Mann–Whitney U test). No differences were found in either total length of surgery (P = 0.76) or hernia suturing time (P = 0.81). CONCLUSION Deep compared with no NMB did not change the rating score of the surgical view immediately after introduction of trocars during laparoscopic ventral hernia repair, but the surgical condition were improved during suturing of the hernia. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02247466. Correspondence to Matias V. Madsen, Department of Anaesthesiology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, Herlev, DK-2730, Denmark E-mail: matias.vested.madsen@regionh.dk © 2018 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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The primate remains from Roc de Santa (Late Eocene, NE Spain) revisited: New taxonomic allocation

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Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution
Author(s): Raef Minwer-Barakat, Judit Marigó, Salvador Moyà-Solà
The scarce primate remains from the late Eocene locality of Roc de Santa (Central Pyrenees, NE Spain) were first documented in 1975. This material included a mandibular fragment with P3-M2 and a maxillary fragment with P3-M3 assigned to Adapis magnus (later transferred to the genus Leptadapis), and an isolated M3 attributed to Necrolemur antiquus. However, these specimens were never described in detail. We have thoroughly studied these specimens, with the exception of the mandibular fragment, which has been lost. The maxillary fragment is much smaller than in Leptadapis magnus and shows clear morphological differences from that species; this specimen is assigned to Microchoerus hookeri. Similarly, the isolated M3 resembles that of M. hookeri in size and morphology, and can therefore be attributed to this taxon. In addition, we describe an upper incisor never reported previously, which can also be allocated to M. hookeri, representing the first description of this tooth for the species. Therefore, we conclude that the previous taxonomic determinations were mistaken and all the available primate specimens from Roc de Santa can be confidently assigned to the species M. hookeri, previously described from the same-age localities of Sossís, Spain, and Eclépens-B, Switzerland.



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New fossils from Tadkeshwar Mine (Gujarat, India) increase primate diversity from the early Eocene Cambay Shale

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Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution
Author(s): Kenneth D. Rose, Rachel H. Dunn, Kishor Kumar, Jonathan M.G. Perry, Kristen A. Prufrock, Rajendra S. Rana, Thierry Smith
Several new fossil specimens from the Cambay Shale Formation at Tadkeshwar Lignite Mine in Gujarat document the presence of two previously unknown early Eocene primate species from India. A new species of Asiadapis is named based on a jaw fragment preserving premolars similar in morphology to those of A. cambayensis but substantially larger. Also described is an exceptionally preserved edentulous dentary (designated cf. Asiadapis, unnamed sp. nov.) that is slightly larger and much more robust than previously known Cambay Shale primates. Its anatomy most closely resembles that of Eocene adapoids, and the dental formula is the same as in A. cambayensis. A femur and calcaneus are tentatively allocated to the same taxon. Although the dentition is unknown, exquisite preservation of the dentary of cf. Asiadapis sp. nov. enables an assessment of masticatory musculature, function, and gape adaptations, as well as comparison with an equally well-preserved dentary of the asiadapid Marcgodinotius indicus, also from Tadkeshwar. The new M. indicus specimen shows significant gape adaptations but was probably capable of only weak bite force, whereas cf. Asiadapis sp. nov. probably used relatively smaller gapes but could generate relatively greater bite forces.



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Cigarette Smoking Status and Substance Use in Pregnancy

Abstract

Objectives Substance use during pregnancy is a significant public health issue. Prenatal substance use increased in the past decade while prenatal cigarette smoking has remained stable. Co-use of tobacco and other drugs is a concern because of potential additive risks. This study aims to describe the prevalence rates of substance use among pregnant women and examine the association between smoking status (nonsmoker, recent quitter and current smoker) and other drug use. Methods In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women (n = 500) were recruited from two obstetric practices to complete three substance use screeners and have their urine tested for 12 different drug classes, including cannabis, opioids and cocaine. Participants were divided into three groups based on survey responses: nonsmokers, recent quitters (smoked in the month prior to pregnancy but not past month) and current smokers (past-month). Results Approximately 29% of participants reported smoking in the month before pregnancy. During pregnancy, 17, 12 and 71% were current smokers, recent quitters and nonsmokers respectively. Overall prevalence of illicit or prescription drug use in pregnancy was 27%. Cannabis was the most common drug used in pregnancy with prevalence of 22%, followed by opioids (4%), cocaine (1%), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (1%), amphetamines (1%), and benzodiazepines (1%). On multivariable logistic regression, smoking in pregnancy was associated with a positive urine drug screen; with adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.7 (95% CI 2.6–8.3) for current smokers and 1.6 (95% CI 0.8–3.3) for recent quitters. Factors negatively associated with positive drug screen were second and third trimester pregnancies, 0.5 (0.3–0.9) and 0.3 (0.2–0.6) respectively; and employment, 0.5 (0.3–0.8). Conclusions for Practice Co-use of tobacco and illicit drugs, particularly cannabis, is relatively high during pregnancy. Additional research is needed to understand the health implications of co-use versus use of tobacco only. Given the strong association between smoking and other drug use, clinicians should routinely assess for illicit drug use in women who smoke during pregnancy.



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The Effect of Paid Leave on Maternal Mental Health

Abstract

Objectives I examined the relationship between paid maternity leave and maternal mental health among women returning to work within 12 weeks of childbirth, after 12 weeks, and those returning specifically to full-time work within 12 weeks of giving birth. Methods I used data from 3850 women who worked full-time before childbirth from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort. I utilized propensity score matching techniques to address selection bias. Mental health was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale, with high scores indicating greater depressive symptoms. Results Returning to work after giving birth provided psychological benefits to women who used to work full-time before childbirth. The average CESD score of women who returned to work was 0.15 standard deviation (p < 0.01) lower than the average CESD score of all women who worked full-time before giving birth. Shorter leave, on the other hand, was associated with adverse effects on mental health. The average CESD score of women who returned within 12 weeks of giving birth was 0.13 standard deviation higher (p < 0.05) than the average CESD score of all women who rejoined labor market within 9 months of giving birth. However, receipt of paid leave was associated with an improved mental health outcome. Among all women who returned to work within 12 weeks of childbirth, those women who received some paid leave had a 0.17 standard deviation (p < 0.05) lower CESD score than the average CESD score. The result was stronger for women who returned to full-time work within 12 weeks of giving birth, with a 0.32 standard deviation (p < 0.01) lower CESD score than the average CESD score. Conclusions The study revealed that the negative psychological effect of early return to work after giving birth was alleviated when women received paid leave.



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Current Approaches to Cancer Genetic Counseling Services for Spanish-Speaking Patients

Abstract

Barriers to genetic counseling services (GCS) utilization for Spanish-speaking patients (SSP) may include language barriers and limited availability of bilingual genetic counselors (GCs). The sample included GCs who: (1) practice cancer genetic counseling, (2) report a cancer practice setting, and (3) have a US mailing address. We assessed: (1) number of Spanish-speaking GCs, (2) estimated proportion of Hispanic patients, and (3) approaches used to counsel SSP. Of respondents (n = 229), 10% (n = 23) spoke Spanish. A higher proportion of GCs practicing in states with ≥ 25% Hispanics reported speaking Spanish compared to those in states with lower Hispanic populations (p = 0.02). While there was a significantly higher percentage of Spanish-speaking GCs in states with larger Hispanic populations, the absolute number was low and unlikely to meet the needs of patients. There is need to increase availability of GCS for SSPs and to understand the impact of services on patient health outcomes.



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