Κυριακή, 29 Απριλίου 2018

The emergency paediatric surgical airway: A systematic review

BACKGROUND Although an emergency surgical airway is recommended in the guidelines for a paediatric cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate (CICO), there is currently no evidence regarding the best technique for this procedure. OBJECTIVE To review the available literature on the paediatric emergency surgical airway to give recommendations for establishing a best practice for this procedure. DESIGN Systematic review: Considering the nature of the original studies, a meta-analysis was not possible. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Google Scholar and LILACS databases. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Studies addressing the paediatric emergency surgical airway and reporting the following outcomes: time to tracheal access, success rate, complications and perceived ease of use of the technique were included. Data were reported using a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis. Strengths and Weaknesses describe the intrinsic (dis)advantages of the techniques. The opportunities and threats describe the (dis)advantage of the techniques in the setting of a paediatric CICO scenario. RESULTS Five studies described four techniques: catheter over needle, wire-guided, cannula or scalpel technique. Mean time for placement of a definitive airway was 44 s for catheter over needle, 67.3 s for the cannula and 108.7 s for the scalpel technique. No time was reported for the wire-guided technique. Success rates were 43 (10/23), 100 (16/16), 56 (87/154) and 88% (51/58), respectively. Complication rates were 34 (3/10), 69 (11/16), 36 (55/151) and 38% (18/48), respectively. Analysis shows: catheter over needle, quick but with a high failure rate; wire-guided, high success rate but high complication rate; cannula, less complications but high failure rate; scalpel, high success rate but longer procedural time. The available data are limited and heterogeneous in terms of reported studies; thus, these results need to be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSION The absence of best practice evidence necessitates further studies to provide a clear advice on best practice management for the paediatric emergency surgical airway in the CICO scenario. Correspondence to Dr. Markus F. Stevens, Department of Anaesthesiology, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 15, Amsterdam 1105 AZ, The Netherlands E-mail: m.f.stevens@amc.uva.nl Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (https://ift.tt/2ylyqmW). © 2018 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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Intra-operative cutaneous temperature monitoring with zero-heat-flux technique (3M SpotOn) in comparison with oesophageal and arterial temperature: A prospective observational study

BACKGROUND Continuous monitoring of core temperature is essential during major surgery as a way of improving patient safety. Oesophageal probes or specific arterial catheters are invasive methods used in this setting. A new noninvasive device based on zero-heat-flux (ZHF) technique (SpotOn) seems promising but has been poorly investigated during rapid core temperature changes (RCTC). OBJECTIVE To assess the accuracy of a SpotOn sensor vs. an oesophageal probe or specific arterial catheter during a slow change in core temperature of less than 1 °C within 30 min and RCTC ≥ 1 °C within 30 min. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING Operating rooms at the University Hospital of Poitiers, France. PATIENTS Fifty patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia were enrolled from June 2015 to March 2016. Data from 49 patients were finally analysed. Among these, 15 patients were treated with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. INTERVENTION Each patient had a ZHF sensor placed on the skin surface of the forehead (TempZHF) and an oesophageal probe (TempEso) used as a reference method. Twenty-two patients also had a thermodilution arterial catheter (TempArt) placed in the axillary artery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Core temperature was continuously recorded from the three devices after induction of anaesthesia. Comparison of temperature measurements between methods was made using the Bland and Altman method during two separate periods according to the speed of core temperature changes. RESULTS Compared with TempEso, bias and limits of agreement for TempZHF were 0.1 ± 0.5 °C during slow core temperature changes periods and 0.6 ± 1.8 °C during RCTC periods (P = 0.0002). Compared with TempArt, these values were −0.1 ± 0.4 and 0.5 ± 1.7 °C, respectively (P = 0.0039). The ZHF sensor was well tolerated. CONCLUSION A SpotOn sensor using the ZHF method seems reliable for core temperature monitoring during abdominal surgery when variations in core temperature are slow rather than rapid. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02869828. Correspondence to Matthieu Boisson, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers, Poitiers, France E-mail: matthieu.boisson@chu-poitiers.fr © 2018 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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W.Va. fire chief makes TIME’s top 100 influential people list

Huntington Fire Chief Jan Rader, who was recently featured in the Netflix documentary "Heroin(e)," was recognized for raising awareness about the opioid crisis

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