Κυριακή, 11 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

ISOLATION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF KARANJACHROMENE FROM THE SEEDS OF PONGAMIA PINNATA (L. PIERRE)

2016-09-11T23-14-43Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Devendra N. Kage, Nuzhahat Tabassum, Vijaykumar B. Malashetty, Raghunandan Deshpande, Y. N. Seetharam.
Context: Isolation of chemical compound karanjachromene from the Seeds of Pongamia Pinnata and evaluation of its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Materials and methods: Karanjachromene has been successfully extracted from the seeds of Pongamia Pinnata using n-hexane, petroleum ether and alcohol with Soxhlet extraction. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the some were assessed administering in Swiss albino mice. The anti-inflammatory activity of the test compound was determined by mice paw edema inhibition method. The analgesic activity was determined by both acetic acid induced writhing and tail immersion methods. Results: Karanjachromene at doses 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg shown 40.48% and 59.6% inhibition of paw edema respectively, at the end of 3 h standard drug diclofenac sodium produced 63.01% inhibition in paw volume at 10 mg/kg. The oral administration of test compound karanjachromene significantly inhibited writhing response induced by acetic acid in a dose dependent manner. Karanjachromene produced 29.64% and 42.14% inhibition of writhing at doses 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg respectively. Standard drug diclofenac sodium produced 56.47 % inhibition of writhing at 10 mg/kg. Discussion and Conclusion: The administration of karanjachrome is potent to inhibit the paw edema starting from the 1st hour and during all phases of inflammation, which may be due to inhibition of different inflammatory mediators. The acetic acid induced writhing response could be mediated by peritoneal mast cells, acid sensing ion channels and the prostaglandin pathways. The test compound inhibited both mechanisms of pain and inflammation and are more found active peripherally than centrally. Karanjachromene exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents


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A REVIEW OF MONOPOLISITC COMPETITION AMONG INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS

2016-09-11T23-14-43Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Jehangir Bharucha.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore and analyse the monopolistically competitive Internet Service Providers (ISPs) market structure in Mumbai and their operative strategies. Assessing the various factors at play, the project focuses on the relative effect of the corresponding marketing strategies on subscribers and attempts to identify how inconsistencies between the assured services and its subsequent delivery, results in failing to capture the competitive advantage that is observed in other marketplaces. Factoring in the opinions and feedback of the survey respondents, as well as the conceptual tactics of non-price competition and product or service differentiation in a monopolistic market, the study proposes an informed framework to tackle the existing issues therein.


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LEPTOSPIROSIS – AN ENIGMATIC ZOONOSIS

2016-09-11T23-14-43Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Mythri B.A..
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis which has a global distribution. The disease is still an enigma 130 years post discovery. Leptospirosis is mainly a disease of the animals like the rodents and various other animals, wherein man is an accidental host. Leptospira is a spirochete, which to be visualised in a dark field microscope or in a light microscope after special staining techniques. It is a slow growing organism and requires special media like the Fletcher`s medium. Leptospirosis results when the person comes in contact with the organism either as an occupational hazard or during avocational exposure or during floods. The pathogenesis of leptospirosis is incompletely understood. Despite years of speculation, the route and mode of entry of leptospires in natural infections is not clear. The site of entry into host is through mucosal surfaces. Important portals of entry are fresh or partially healed abrasions of the skin and intact mucosa of the buccal cavity, nasal passages or conjunctiva. The disease can be seen in two forms, the mild anicteric form and the severe icteric form also known as Weil`s disease. The diagnosed leptospirosis cases are just the tip of the iceberg; many go undiagnosed due to the protean manifestations of the disease. The drug of choice for treatment is Penicillin. Vaccines are available for animals. An approved vaccine for humans is still awaited.


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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF DIATOMS FROM WATERBODIES OF MUMBAI

2016-09-11T23-14-43Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Disha Rana, Deepika Bhandari.
Diatom plays an important role in Forensic Science and in the studies of water quality. Diatom acts as a supportive evidence for ascertaining the cause of death as well as the place of drowning. Presence of diatoms in the distant vital organs is an important method to distinguish between ante-mortem and post-mortem drowning. It is possible to pinpoint the site of drowning, if diatom species recovered from the tissues of the corpse are compared to that found in the water body from where the corpse is recovered. In the present study, 10 water bodies located in various parts of Mumbai were sampled for the study. Isolation of diatoms was carried out using acid digestion method. Total 35 species of diatoms were isolated and characterised. The diatom species identified belong to the following genera: Gyrosigma, Navicula, Melosira, Pinnularia, Surirella, Hantzschia, Eunotia, Fragilaria, Nitzschia, Gomphonema, Cymbella, Cyclotella, Neidim, Caloneis, Synedra, Epithemia, Frustulia. The information obtained helped to create a reference database on diatoms which can be utilized in future for ecological assessment and ready reference in drowning cases


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ISOLATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS COMPLEX FROM STOOL SPECIMEN IN A RETROVIRAL DISEASE PATIENT

2016-09-11T23-14-43Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Nilma Hirani, Pranali Medhekar, Ameeta Joshi, Vaishali Wabale, Abhay Chowdhary.
Amongst various forms of TB, TB of the gastrointestinal tract is the sixth most frequent form of extra-pulmonary TB. Though any part of the gastrointestinal tract can be involved, the most common site of involvement is ileocaecal region. It can have a varied presentation, frequently mimicking other diseases, thus causing delay in diagnosis and management. Therefore a high degree of suspicion along with proper use of diagnostic modalities is essential for timely diagnosis of the disease. Here, we present a case of isolation of a strain of MTB complex resistant to rifampicin from stool specimen of a retroviral disease patient diagnosed with abdominal Kochs.


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DEVELOPING AND VALIDATING CURRICULUM FOR ADMINISTRATIVE SKILLS WORKSHOP FOR DEPARTMENTAL HEADS OF MEDICAL COLLEGE

2016-09-11T23-14-43Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Suresh N. Chari, Madhur M. Gupta, Shubhada A. Gade.
Context: Heads of department in a medical college are required to be fully trained to assume administrative roles. Unfortunately the medical education curriculum is silent on these issues and it is left to the teacher to learn these skills either by shadowing or by self-experience while on the job. Literature is also scarce on a defined validated curriculum for holding such workshops. Aims: To develop and validate a curriculum for administrative skills workshop for departmental heads of medical college. Settings and Design: Initial first draft of the curriculum was prepared based on the experience and knowledge of the mentors and the author. This was circulated to 7 experts (three deans of medical college, 2 management experts, and two heads of corporate hospitals) for their comments and suggestions on the duration, content and method of delivery. Telephonic conversation, conference calls and email discussion with them was extensively done to come to a consensus. This final draft was sent back to the experts as a last phase of validation. Results and Conclusion: The study in all probabilities demonstrates the first validated curriculum for conduct of a two day workshop on administrative skills for thirty head of departments in a medical college. This is the need of the hour since a head of department in a medical college in India has to struggle to meet the administrative needs of the organization


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A CADAVERIC STUDY OF BICEPS BRACHII MUSCLE – CLINICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY CORRELATIONS

2016-09-11T23-14-43Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Patel Dinesh K., Shinde Amol A., Bharambe Vaishaly K..
Introduction: Knowledge of anatomical variations of the muscles is required during diagnosis with various imaging techniques. Literature mentions variations of additional heads of biceps brachii muscles. Aim: To find incidence and variations of additional heads of biceps brachii muscle. Methodology Meticulous dissection of 50 limbs for variation of origin, insertion and heads of biceps brachii muscle. Results: We found 5 (10%) limbs showing accessory head of biceps. Bilateral variation was seen in one cadaver. One cadaver showed additional head taking origin from deltoid. Conclusion: Role of evolution can be the cause of additional heads. Knowledge of the variations in the morphology of biceps brachii muscles is of immense importance in preoperative diagnosis and planned surgeries Non-surgical treatment plays an important role in the treatment of primary liver cancer, which includes transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, percutaneous ablation therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, etc


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Distinctive neuronal firing patterns in subterritories of the subthalamic nucleus

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Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology
Author(s): Nicolò G. Pozzi, Gabriele Arnulfo, Andrea Canessa, Frank Steigerwald, Robert Nickl, György A. Homola, Marco M. Fato, Cordula Matthies, Claudio Pacchetti, Jens Volkmann, Ioannis U. Isaias
ObjectiveDeep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Anatomical connectivity analyses and task-related physiological studies have divided the STN into different functional domains: sensorimotor, limbic, and associative – located in its dorsolateral (dSTN), anteroventral (vSTN) and medial territories, respectively. Targeting sensorimotor STN is essential for stimulation efficacy and is supported by intraoperative micro-electrode recordings. A different neuronal signature in microelectrode recordings across STN subterritories was explored in this study.MethodsStable recordings from 30 PD patients were assigned to dSTN or vSTN by means of an anatomical method (based on fused computed tomography/magnetic resonance images) and through a priori tri-segmented partition of the recording itself. We computed the inter-spike interval (ISI) and ISI-characteristics, mean firing rate (MFR), discharge patterns and mean burst rate (MBR) of each detected single unit activity.ResultsWe showed a different MBR between dSTN and vSTN (1.51±0.18vs.1.76±0.22 events/minute, Wilcoxon rank sum test, p<0.05) and a trend in the difference between their MFR (12.78vs.15.05Hz, Wilcoxon rank sum test, p=0.053) only with the anatomically based method.ConclusionBurst firing differs across STN subterritories.SignificanceDifferent functions of subthalamic domains might be reflected by distinctive burst signalling of its subterritories.



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Effect of stimulus type and temperature on EEG reactivity in cardiac arrest

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Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology
Author(s): Tadeu A. Fantaneanu, Benjamin Tolchin, Vincent Alvarez, Raymond Friolet, Kathleen Avery, Benjamin M. Scirica, Molly O'Brien, Galen V. Henderson, Jong Woo Lee
ObjectiveElectroencephalogram (EEG) background reactivity is a reliable outcome predictor in cardiac arrest patients post therapeutic hypothermia. However, there is no consensus on modality testing and prior studies reveal only fair to moderate agreement rates. The aim of this study was to explore different stimulus modalities and report interrater agreements.MethodsWe studied a multicenter, prospectively collected cohort of cardiac arrest patients who underwent therapeutic hypothermia between September 2014 and December 2015. We identified patients with reactivity data and evaluated interrater agreements of different stimulus modalities tested in hypothermia and normothermia.ResultsOf the 60 patients studied, agreement rates were moderate to substantial during hypothermia and fair to moderate during normothermia. Bilateral nipple pressure is more sensitive (80%) when compared to other modalities in eliciting a reactive background in hypothermia. Auditory, nasal tickle, nailbed pressure and nipple pressure reactivity were associated with good outcomes in both hypothermia and normothermia.ConclusionsEEG reactivity varies depending on the stimulus testing modality as well as the temperature during which stimulation is performed, with nipple pressure emerging as the most sensitive during hypothermia for reactivity and outcome determination.SignificanceThis highlights the importance of multiple stimulus testing modalities in EEG reactivity determination to reduce false negatives and optimize prognostication.



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Animal Models of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Methods and Mechanisms

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Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology
Author(s): Mark P. Jackson, Asif Rahman, Belen Lafon, Gregory Kronberg, Doris Ling, Lucas C. Parra, Marom Bikson
The objective of this review is to summarize the contribution of animal research using direct current stimulation (DCS) to our understanding of the physiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We comprehensively address experimental methodology in animal studies, broadly classified as: 1) transcranial stimulation; 2) direct cortical stimulation in vivo and 3) in vitro models. In each case advantages and disadvantages for translational research are discussed including dose translation and the overarching "quasi-uniform" assumption, which underpins translational relevance in all animal models of tDCS. Terminology such as anode, cathode, inward current, outward current, current density, electric field, and uniform are defined. Though we put key animal experiments spanning decades in perspective, our goal is not simply an exhaustive cataloging of relevant animal studies, but rather to put them in context of ongoing efforts to improve tDCS. Cellular targets, including excitatory neuronal somas, dendrites, axons, interneurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells are considered. We emphasize neurons are always depolarized and hyperpolarized such that effects of DCS on neuronal excitability can only be evaluated within subcellular regions of the neuron. Findings from animal studies on the effects of DCS on plasticity (LTP/LTD) and network oscillations are reviewed extensively. Any endogenous phenomena dependent on membrane potential changes are, in theory, susceptible to modulation by DCS. The relevance of morphological changes (galvanotropy) to tDCS is also considered, as we suggest microscopic migration of axon terminals or dendritic spines may be relevant during tDCS. A majority of clinical studies using tDCS employ a simplistic dose strategy where excitability is singularly increased or decreased under the anode and cathode, respectively. We discuss how this strategy, itself based on classic animal studies, cannot account for the complexity of normal and pathological brain function, and how recent studies have already indicated more sophisticated approaches are necessary. One tDCS theory regarding "functional targeting" suggests the specificity of tDCS effects are possible by modulating ongoing function (plasticity). Use of animal models of disease are summarized including pain, movement disorders, stroke, and epilepsy.



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Regional and network relationship in the intracranial eeg second spectrum

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Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology
Author(s): Rasesh B. Joshi, Nicolas Gaspard, Irina I. Goncharova, Robert B. Duckrow, Dominique Duncan, Jason L. Gerrard, Dennis D. Spencer, Lawrence J. Hirsch, Hitten P. Zaveri
ObjectiveWe examined low-frequency amplitude modulations of band power time-series, i.e. the second spectrum, of the intracranial EEG (icEEG) for evidence of support for spatial relationships between different parts of the brain and within the default mode network (DMN).MethodsWe estimated magnitude-squared coherence (MSC) of the running power in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands for one-hour background icEEG epochs recorded from 9 patients. We isolated two test areas within the DMN and one control area outside it. We tested if the relationship between DMN areas was stronger than the relationship between each of these areas and the control location, and between all intrahemispheric contact pairs with similar intercontact distance.ResultsWe observed very low values of second spectrum relationship between different parts of the brain, except at very short distances. These relationships are strongest in the delta band and decrease with increasing frequency, with gamma band relationships being the weakest. Our DMN-specific analysis showed no enhanced connectivity in the second spectrum in DMN locations in any frequency band.ConclusionsThough we observed significantly nonzero relationships in lower frequency bands, second spectrum relationships are consistently very low across the entire brain in every frequency band.SignificanceThis study suggests a lack of support for the DMN in the icEEG second spectrum.



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Effectiveness of a Treatment Involving Soft Tissue Techniques and/or Neural Mobilization Techniques in the Management of the Tension-Type Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Alejandro Ferragut-Garcías, Gustavo Plaza-Manzano, Cleofás Rodríguez-Blanco, Olga Velasco-Roldán, Daniel Pecos-Martín, Jesús Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Bartomeu Llabrés-Bennasar, Ángel Oliva-Pascual-Vaca
ObjectiveTo evaluate the effects of a protocol involving soft tissue techniques and/or Neural Mobilization Techniques in the management of patients with Frequent episodic tension-type headache (FETTH) and Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH).DesignRandomized controlled, double blind, placebo control and before-after trial.SettingRehabilitation area of Son Llatzer Hospital and Fisioplanet CentreParticipantsNinety-seven patients (78 women; 19 men) diagnosed with FETTH or CTTH, were randomly assigned to groups A, B, C or D.Interventions(A) placebo superficial massage; (B) soft tissue techniques; (C) neural mobilization; (D) a combination of (B) and (C).Main Outcomes MeasuresThe pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the temporal muscles (PPT1, PPT2) and supraorbital region (PPT3), the frequency (Freq) and maximal intensity (Int) of the pain crisis, and the punctuation using the Hit-6 questionnaire (Hit6) were evaluated. All variables were assessed before, at the end of the treatment and 15 days and 30 days post-intervention.ResultsGroups B, C, and D had an increase of PPT and a reduction of Freq, Int, and Hit-6 in all time-points after the intervention compared to baseline and Group A (p < 0.001 in all cases). Group D had the highest PPT values and the lowest values in Freq and Hit-6 after the intervention.ConclusionsThe application of soft tissue techniques and neural mobilization in FETTH or CTTH patients induces significant changes in pressure pain threshold, the characteristics of the pain crisis, and its impact on daily life activities compared to the application of these techniques as isolated interventions.



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Diffuse White Stuff in the Lungs: Challenges and Advances

Publication date: Available online 10 September 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America
Author(s): Jeffrey P. Kanne




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Direct evidence for human exploitation of birds in the Middle Stone Age of South Africa: The example of Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal

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Publication date: October 2016
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 99
Author(s): Aurore Val, Paloma de la Peña, Lyn Wadley
Here, we present direct taphonomic evidence for the exploitation of birds by hunter-gatherers in the Middle Stone Age of South Africa as far as ∼77 ka. The bird assemblage from Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal, was analysed for bone surface modifications. Cut-marks associated with skinning, defleshing, and disarticulation, perforations on distal humeri produced during disarticulation of the forewing, peeling, and human tooth marks were observed on bird bones (i.e., mostly pigeons, doves, Galliformes, waders, and raptors) recovered from pre-Still Bay, Still Bay, Howiesons Poort, and post-Howiesons Poort techno-complexes. We conducted experiments to butcher, disarticulate, cook, and consume pigeon and dove carcasses, in order to create a comparative collection of bone surface modifications associated with human consumption of these birds. Human/bird interactions can now be demonstrated outside of Europe and prior to 50 ka. The evidence sheds new light on Middle Stone Age subsistence strategies in South Africa and introduces a fresh argument to the debate regarding the early emergence of behaviours usually associated with Later Stone Age hunter-gatherers.



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Ohio firefighter-paramedic defends UFC Heavyweight Championship

By EMS1 Staff

CLEVELAND — Stipe Miocic, a firefighter-paramedic for Valley View Fire Department, defended the UFC Heavyweight title against Alistair Overeem by first-round TKO Saturday. In the process, he won a $50,000 bonus check for "Fight of the Night."

Miocic became the UFC Heavyweight Champion after knocking out the former UFC champion Fabricio Werdum in May of this year.

Miocic was floored by an early punch, but was able to recover and get back to his feet. Later in the round, the champ assumed top control and hit his opponent with hard shots, forcing the referee to stop the fight at 4:27 of the first round.

Following the win, Miocic gave a backstage interview urging viewers to thank first responders.

"Let's all stand together," said Miocic. "If you see a policeman, a fireman, or someone at the hospital, tell them thank you. God bless them all."

.@StipeMiocicUFC: a champion, a fighter, a firefighter. #AlwaysRemember #NeverForget 🇺🇸 #UFC203 http://pic.twitter.com/5TwoyBHUNC

— UFC (@ufc) September 11, 2016


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