|Migraine and mood disorders: Prevalence, clinical correlations, and disability|
Sita Jayalakshmi, Sudhindra Vooturi
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2019 10(1):1-2
|A new era in stereotactic brain biopsy: Frameless navigation-based system|
Murat Şakir Ekşi
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2019 10(1):3-3
|Anxiety, depression, and its relationship with migraine|
Vimal Kumar Paliwal
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2019 10(1):4-5
|Central nervous system tuberculosis – The gray area in tuberculosis treatment|
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2019 10(1):6-7
|Utilization of "Screening brief intervention and referral to treatment" approach for tobacco addiction in day-to-day clinical practice in India: The need of the hour|
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2019 10(1):8-9
|Geographical disparity and traumatic brain injury in America: Rural areas suffer poorer outcomes|
B Brown Joshua, Kheng Marin, A Carney Nancy, M Rubiano Andres, Puyana Juan Carlos
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2019 10(1):10-15
Introduction: Significant heterogeneity exists in traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes. In the United States, TBI remains a primary driver of injury-related mortality and morbidity. Prior work has suggested that disparity exists in rural areas; our objective was to evaluate potential differences in TBI mortality across urban and rural areas on a national scale. Methods: Age-adjusted TBI fatality rates were obtained at the county level across the U.S. from 2008 to 2014. To evaluate geography, urban influence codes (UIC) were also obtained at the county level. UIC codes range from 1 (most urban) to 12 (most rural). Metropolitan counties are defined as those with an UIC ≤2, while nonmetropolitan counties are defined as an UIC ≥3. County-level fatality rates and UIC classification were geospatially mapped. Linear regression was used to evaluate the change in TBI fatality rate at each category of UIC. The median TBI fatality rate was also compared between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. Results: Geospatial analysis demonstrated higher fatality rates distributed among nonmetropolitan counties across the United States. The TBI fatality rate was 13.00 deaths per 100,000 persons higher in the most rural UIC category compared to the most urban UIC category (95% confidence interval 12.15, 13.86; P < 0.001). The median TBI rate for nonmetropolitan counties was significantly higher than metropolitan counties (22.32 vs. 18.22 deaths per 100,000 persons, P < 0.001). Conclusions: TBI fatality rates are higher in rural areas of the United States. Additional studies to evaluate the mechanisms and solutions to this disparity are warranted and may have implications for lower-and middle-income countries.
|Vitamin D deficiency in children with psychiatric illness in a tertiary care hospital in North India|
Nidhi Chauhan, Susanta Kumar Padhy, Ruchita Shah, Savita Malhotra
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2019 10(1):16-20
Background: Vitamin D is increasingly recognized as important for brain health, apart from its role in endocrine and bone health. There is a growing recognition of worldwide “epidemic” of Vitamin D deficiency, and growing data from adult population illustrate the association between Vitamin D deficiency and psychiatric disorders. In children, its role is implicated in brain development, function, and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the extent of Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Methodology: Retrospective chart review of participants, who had attended the psychiatry outpatient department, was conducted to ascertain the extent of blood Vitamin D level requisition and its level. Results: Out of 836, 60 participants had received the requisition for blood Vitamin D level, and results were documented for 40 participants (males – 28; females – 12). No specific reason was cited for getting Vitamin D level done. The mean Vitamin D level was in the deficient range, i.e. 13.34 ng/ml with 80% of the sample having Vitamin D deficiency and 13% having insufficient Vitamin D level. More males had Vitamin D deficiency, however, the small number of females in the study limits the generalizability of the results. Among the diagnostic categories, neurodevelopmental disorders had lower mean Vitamin D level, with lowest Vitamin D for autism, i.e., 10.9 ng/ml. Conclusion: The cause-effect relationship between Vitamin D deficiency and childhood psychiatric disorders could not be derived from the study. However, it provides important initial data for the relationship between Vitamin D deficiency and childhood psychiatric disorders from India.
|Role of decompressive laminectomy without instrumentation in the management of nurick Grade 4 and 5 cervical compressive myelopathy|
Sunil Malagi, Subhas Konar, Dhaval P Shukla, Dhananjaya I Bhat, Nishanth Sadashiva, Bhagavatula I Indira Devi
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2019 10(1):21-27
Introduction: Cervical laminectomy is a very well-known posterior decompressive procedure for cervical compressive myelopathy (CCM). Our objective is to evaluate the functional effect of posterior decompressive laminectomy for poor grade CCM. Methods: This study was an observational retrospective study carried out on patients with poor-grade CCM who underwent decompressive laminectomy from January 2010 to December 2015. Patients with Nurick Grades 4 and 5 (walking with support or bedbound) were included in the study. Clinical data and radiological information were collected from medical records, and objective scales were applied to compare the surgical outcome between preoperative score and postoperative score. Results: A total of 69 patients who underwent decompressive laminectomy for poor grade CCM were included. The mean age was 54.9 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 5.3:1. Ossified posterior longitudinal ligament comprised 52.6% cases. The follow-up data of at least 6 months' duration after surgery was available for 57 (82.6%) cases. On comparing with preoperative Nurick grade at follow-up, 40 of the 57 patients (70.2%) were found to have improvement following surgery by at least one grade. The remaining 17 (29.8%) had either remained the same or had deteriorated further. The mean preoperative modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score was 8.4 ± 2.8, and the mean follow-up score was 11.8±0.3 (P = 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the number of levels of laminectomy, postoperative deterioration, and anesthesia grade were predictors of outcome. Conclusion: Decompressive laminectomy for poor grade myelopathy is effective in improving functional outcome.
|Migraine and mood disorders: Prevalence, clinical correlations and disability|
K Rammohan, Shyma Manikkoth Mundayadan, Soumitra Das, C Velayudhan Shaji
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2019 10(1):28-33
Introduction: Both migraine and mood disorders are prevalent disorders with many studies demonstrating that they are comorbid with each other with increased migraine-related disability in such patients. Aim: The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that mood disorders are comorbid with migraine with increased disability and to identify any clinical features in migraineurs which may be associated with mood disorders. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with complaints of headache to the Neurology Outpatient Department of a Tertiary CARE Hospital from August 01, 2016 to February 28, 2017, were subjected to International Classification of Headache Disorder 3 beta criteria to satisfy a diagnosis of migraine and were assessed in detail as to headache characteristics. Mood disorders were assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and migraine-related disability was assessed by Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire. Patients with serious medical complaints, known previous psychiatric disease, other types of headaches and recent prophylactic drug intake were carefully excluded. Results: A total of 133 patients were studied. The duration and frequency of migraine headaches were found to correlate with the presence of mood disorders and the migraine-related disability in patients with comorbid mood disorders was significantly higher. Factors such as total duration of migraine, aura, vomiting, phono, and photophobia were not found to be statistically correlated with mood disorders. Conclusions: Rates of depression and anxiety in migraine vary widely in various studies due to variations in study criteria, population characteristics and various scales used. We found a prevalence of 16.54% of anxiety and 9.02% of depression in migraineurs, a rate comparable to or less than many studies in international literature and a significantly increased disability in individuals with comorbid mood disorders and migraine. Routinely including questionnaires such as HAD in screening patients with migraine to rule out comorbid mood disorders may be warranted. Because we have carefully excluded all other primary (especially tension and medication overuse headaches) and secondary headaches and selected prophylactic drug naïve patients, we contend that this study provides a clear clinical profile of migraineurs with mood disorders.
|Is crush cytology of central nervous system lesions relevant in surgical practice today?|
Krishan Kumar Yadav, Rashmi Bhatti, Nikhil Moorchung, Deepti Mutreja, Ajay S Carvalho
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice 2019 10(1):34-38
Background: Intraoperative crush cytology is a useful tool for diagnosing the lesions of the central nervous system (CNS). However, because of the development of newer and better imaging techniques, it is important to evaluate if crush cytology is still relevant in neurosurgical practice. Aims: We evaluated the crush cytology smears in a series of cases where neurosurgical intervention was performed. We studied the role of crush cytology in the intraoperative diagnosis. We report a series of cases where intraoperative crush cytology helped the surgeon revise the surgery during the operation. Materials and Methods: A small portion of all CNS lesions was taken intraoperatively and the tissue was crushed between two slides. The slide was stained using the toluidine blue, Leishman stain, Pap stain and a routine H & E stain. The slides were the evaluated. Results: We evaluated the 50 cases of CNS lesions. We found that intraoperative crush cytology is particularly important in differentiating between neoplastic and nonneoplastic CNS lesions. It may also help in differentiating lymphomas from high-grade gliomas. Finally, crush cytology may help the surgeon in delineating the lesions during surgery. Conclusion: We conclude that crush cytology remains relevant in neurosurgical practice today and it should be adopted in all neurosurgical centers as a routine diagnostic technique.