Σάββατο, 17 Σεπτεμβρίου 2016

The future of Norwegian EMS:

""Some of us are starting as apprentice in 6 months... Stay healthy ..! ExEMTNor

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The future of Norwegian EMS:

""Some of us are starting as apprentice in 6 months... Stay healthy ..! ExEMTNor

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The future of Norwegian EMS:

""Some of us are starting as apprentice in 6 months... Stay healthy ..! ExEMTNor

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The future of Norwegian EMS:

""Some of us are starting as apprentice in 6 months... Stay healthy ..! ExEMTNor

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High-doses of proton pumps inhibitors in refractory gastro-intestinal cancer: A case series and the state of art

In recent years, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been investigated at high-dose to modulate tumour microenvironment acidification thus restoring chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Moreover, several clinical data supports the role of cytotoxic drugs at low-dose continuously delivered as anticancer therapy.

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High-doses of proton pumps inhibitors in refractory gastro-intestinal cancer: A case series and the state of art

In recent years, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been investigated at high-dose to modulate tumour microenvironment acidification thus restoring chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Moreover, several clinical data supports the role of cytotoxic drugs at low-dose continuously delivered as anticancer therapy.

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Socio- economic status of the goat farmers in Nadia District of West Bengal

2016-09-17T09-14-35Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Dr Keshab Chandra Dhara, Dr Nita Ray, Prof Arunasish Goswami, Prof Prabir Kumar Bandopadhyay.
The socio- economic status of randomly selected five hundred ten goat farmers in and around Mohanpur village under Haringhata block in the Nadia district of West Bengal state revealed that women (62.75%) were mostly engaged in goat rearing. The majority of the goat owners were within the age group of 30- 45 and they were mostly marginal farmers (64.71%). The goat farmers were mixed in caste and most of them were Hindu by religion (68.63%). Most of the goat owners received training on animal husbandry. The caste, family size or farmers education had little impact on income generation but training on animal husbandry helped them to earn more. Thus the socio- economic status of the goat farmers mostly women can be uplifted through training particularly on goat husbandry. Hence the improvement of Black Bengal goat in the farmers house towards economic goat rearing and knowledge of scientific breeding practice has a potential for improving the livelihood of the poor farmers.


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Fatigue Exacerbation by Interval or Continuous Exercise in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

imagePurpose: The objective of this study is to determine whether the typical exacerbation of symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) after a bout of exercise differs between high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or continuous (CONT) aerobic exercise of the same duration and mechanical work. Methods: Participants with specialist-diagnosed CFS performed two 20-min bouts of cycling in a randomized crossover study. The bouts were either moderate-intensity continuous (70% age-predicted HR maximum) or high-intensity interval exercise, separated by at least 2 wk. Self-report questionnaires capturing fatigue, the related symptoms, and actigraphy were collected across 2 d before and 4 d after the exercise. Comparisons between exercise bouts were made using paired sample t-tests. Results: Fourteen moderately affected participants who were unable to work, but not bed bound, completed the study (nine female, 32 ± 10 yr, 67 ± 11 kg). Mechanical work was matched successfully between the exercise bouts (HIIT, 83,037, vs CONT, 83,348 J, P = 0.84). Mean HR (HIIT, 76% ± 5%, vs CONT, 73% ± 6% age-predicted HR maximum, P

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Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, 4th Edition

No abstract available

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Hip Strength in Patients with Quadriceps Strength Deficits after ACL Reconstruction

imagePurpose: Quadriceps strength deficits persist for years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and patients with these deficits often shift torque demands away from the knee extensors to the hip during functional tasks. However, it is not clear how quadriceps strength deficits may affect hip strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in lower extremity strength in individuals with ACL reconstruction with differing levels of quadriceps strength asymmetry. Methods: Isometric strength was recorded bilaterally in 135 participants (73 control and 62 with unilateral ACL reconstruction, time from surgery = 30.9 ± 17.6 months) from the knee extensors and flexors, hip extensors and abductors, and hip internal and external rotator muscle groups. Symmetry indices (limb symmetry index (LSI)) were created based on quadriceps strength, and subjects with ACL reconstruction were subdivided (high quadriceps (LSI ≥ 90%), n = 37; low quadriceps (LSI

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Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Better Executive Function in Young Women

imagePurpose: A positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cognitive function has been demonstrated mainly in children and older adults. Women attending college live in a cognitively demanding setting where optimal cognition matters but often experience declines in CRF. Our aim was to test whether CRF is associated with executive function in young adult women. Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study included 120 healthy women age 18–35 yr in a university setting. Each woman completed a maximal treadmill-based exercise test to determine peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak), computerized tests of executive function, and questionnaires to assess motivation and other factors with potential to influence physical and cognitive performance. Results: Overall CRF was excellent, with a sample mean V˙O2peak of 44.6 mL·min−1·kg−1. After adjusting for covariates, higher V˙O2peak was associated with better performance on attention (P

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Fitness during Breast Cancer Treatment and Recovery in an Athlete: A Case Study

imagePurpose: This is a case study of an aerobically trained, multisport, female athlete (age = 39) diagnosed with stage IIIc human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive breast cancer. The focus of the study is on measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (V˙O2peak) through the course of cancer therapy. Methods: A symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance test was performed to determine V˙O2peak. The tests were performed at five different time points: 1) at diagnosis of breast cancer and before initiating chemotherapy, 2) after completion of chemotherapy (5 months postdiagnosis), 3) 2.5 months after bilateral mastectomy surgery (9 months postdiagnosis), 4) immediately after radiation therapy (11 months postdiagnosis), and 5) recovery (32 months postdiagnosis). Results: At diagnosis and before initiating chemotherapy, V˙O2peak was 50.1 mL O2·min−1·kg−1. The most precipitous decline in fitness, approximately 14%, was observed from initial diagnosis through the completion of chemotherapy. The subject regained 9% of her fitness after chemotherapy, despite an intervening mastectomy surgery. Radiation therapy was associated with an approximately 4% decline in fitness from her postmastectomy surgery value. Ultimately, 32 months after diagnosis and 22 months after the completion of radiation therapy, the subject was able to regain pretreatment fitness levels. Conclusion: The results of the case study describe the effects of undergoing extensive breast cancer therapy on measures of V˙O2peak for a highly aerobically trained, multisport athlete. In this case, exercise training reversed the decrement in measured V˙O2peak that occurred during cancer therapy.

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Contralateral Repeated Bout Effect of Eccentric Exercise of the Elbow Flexors

imagePurpose: This study compared the magnitude of the repeated bout effect (RBE) for different time intervals between two bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors to better understand the contralateral RBE (CL-RBE). Methods: Untrained young men (22.0 ± 1.8 yr) were allocated to either a control or one of seven CL-RBE groups (n = 13 per group). The CL-RBE groups performed exercise consisting of 30 maximal isokinetic (30°·s−1) eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors (ECC1) with either dominant or nondominant arm followed 0.5 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h (1 d), 7 d (1 wk), 28 d (4 wk), or 56 d (8 wk) by the same exercise (ECC2) using the opposite arm. The control group used the nondominant arm for ECC1 and ECC2 separated by 2 wk. Results: Maximal voluntary concentric contraction torque, peak torque angle, range of motion, upper arm circumference, muscle soreness, ultrasound echo intensity, and plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration changed (P 8 wk) and requires a day to be conferred.

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Overuse Injuries of the Pediatric and Adolescent Throwing Athlete

imageABSTRACT: In the hypercompetitive environment of year round youth baseball, arm pain is commonplace. Although much research has been done about injuries in the overhead throwing athlete, the emphasis has been on the more elite levels, where athletes have reached full development. The anatomy of the skeletally immature athlete, including open physeal plates and increased tissue laxity, raises unique issues in the presentation and treatment of repetitive throwing injuries of the elbow and shoulder. With a focus on "little leaguers," this discussion evaluates five of the most common elbow and shoulder injuries—Little Leaguer's elbow, ulnar collateral ligament sprain or tear, osteochondritis dissecans/Panner's disease, Little Leaguer's shoulder, and multidirectional instability. In the developmentally distinct pediatric athlete, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment may differ from that established for adults. Offering early diagnosis and treatment appropriate to a child's level of development will enable youth to not only continue to play sports but to also maintain full functionality as active adults.

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Revisiting Tabata’s Protocol: Does It Even Exist?

No abstract available

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Advances in Exercise, Fitness, and Performance Genomics in 2015

imageABSTRACT: This review of the exercise genomics literature encompasses the highest-quality articles published in 2015 across seven broad topics: physical activity behavior, muscular strength and power, cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance, body weight and adiposity, insulin and glucose metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, and hemodynamic traits. One study used a quantitative trait locus for wheel running in mice to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in humans associated with physical activity levels. Two studies examined the association of candidate gene ACTN3 R577X genotype on muscular performance. Several studies examined gene–physical activity interactions on cardiometabolic traits. One study showed that physical inactivity exacerbated the body mass index (BMI)–increasing effect of an FTO SNP but only in individuals of European ancestry, whereas another showed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) SNPs from genome-wide association studies exerted a smaller effect in active individuals. Increased levels of moderate-to-vigorous–intensity physical activity were associated with higher Matsuda insulin sensitivity index in PPARG Ala12 carriers but not Pro12 homozygotes. One study combined genome-wide and transcriptome-wide profiling to identify genes and SNPs associated with the response of triglycerides (TG) to exercise training. The genome-wide association study results showed that four SNPs accounted for all of the heritability of △TG, whereas the baseline expression of 11 genes predicted 27% of △TG. A composite SNP score based on the top eight SNPs derived from the genomic and transcriptomic analyses was the strongest predictor of ΔTG, explaining 14% of the variance. The review concludes with a discussion of a conceptual framework defining some of the critical conditions for exercise genomics studies and highlights the importance of the recently launched National Institutes of Health Common Fund program titled "Molecular Transducers of Physical Activity in Humans."

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Mediators of Exercise Effects on HRQoL in Cancer Survivors after Chemotherapy

imagePurpose: We investigated the hypothesis that combined resistance and endurance exercise improves cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, thereby reducing fatigue and improving global quality of life (QoL) and physical function among cancer survivors who completed curative treatment including chemotherapy. Methods: Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-wk exercise intervention (n = 186) or a wait list control group (n = 91). Data were collected at baseline and after 12 wk. Path analyses using follow-up values adjusted for baseline values, age, and gender were conducted to test if the exercise effects on global QoL and physical function (European Organization Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire-Core 30) were mediated by changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (peak V˙O2), hand-grip strength, lower body muscle function (30-s chair stand test), and fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory). Results: Compared with the wait list control, exercise increased cardiorespiratory fitness (β = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0–2.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) and reduced general (β = −1.0; 95% CI, −1.8 to −0.2) and physical fatigue (β = −1.5; 95% CI, −2.3 to −0.6). The exercise effect on physical fatigue was mediated by change in cardiorespiratory fitness (β = −0.2; 95% CI, −0.4 to −0.1). Higher hand-grip strength was significantly associated with lower physical fatigue and better lower body muscle function with lower physical and general fatigue. Lower general fatigue and physical fatigue were significantly associated with higher global QoL (β = −1.6; 95% CI, −2.2 to −1.1; and β = −1.7; 95% CI, −2.3 to −1.1, respectively) and physical function (β = −1.0; 95% CI, −1.3 to −0.7; and β = −1.2; 95% CI, −1.6 to −0.9, respectively). The models explained 44%–61% of the variance in global QoL and physical function. Conclusion: Beneficial effects of exercise on global QoL and physical function in cancer survivors were mediated by increased cardiorespiratory fitness and subsequent reductions in fatigue.

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Neutrophil Depletion Attenuates Muscle Injury after Exhaustive Exercise

imagePurpose: The infiltration of macrophages in skeletal muscle during exhaustive exercise promotes inflammation, myofiber lesion, and muscle injury. Although neutrophils upregulate macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscles during exercise, the role of neutrophils in promoting muscle injury after exhaustive exercise remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of preexercise neutrophil depletion with antineutrophil antibody treatment on muscle injury, inflammation, and macrophage infiltration after exhaustive exercise. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to four groups, namely, sedentary with control antibody (n = 10), sedentary with antineutrophil antibody (n = 10), exhaustive exercise with control antibody (n = 10), and exhaustive exercise with antineutrophil antibody (n = 10). The mice were given intraperitoneal injection of the antineutrophil antibody (anti-Ly-6G, clone 1A8) or the control antibody (anti-Ly-6G, clone 2A3), and remained inactive or performed exhaustive exercise on a treadmill 48 h after the injection. Twenty-four hours after the exhaustive exercise, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed for histological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. Infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages was evaluated with Ly-6G and F4/80 immunohistochemistry staining procedures. Muscle fiber injury was detected based on the number of IgG staining fiber. The mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were evaluated with real-time reverse transcription PCR. Results: Exhaustive exercise increased neutrophil infiltration into the gastrocnemius muscle substantially by 3.1-fold and caused muscle injury, but these effects were markedly suppressed by preexercise treatment with antineutrophil antibody (neutrophil infiltration, 0.42-fold, and muscle injury, 0.18-fold). Treatment with antineutrophil antibody also decreased macrophage infiltration (0.44-fold) and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (0.55-fold) and interleukin-6 (0.51-fold) in the skeletal muscle after exhaustive exercise. Conclusion: These results suggest that neutrophils contribute to exacerbating muscle injury by regulating inflammation through the induction of macrophage infiltration.

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High-Intensity Interval Training for Cognitive and Mental Health in Adolescents

imagePurpose: Emerging literature suggests that physical activity and fitness may have a positive effect on cognitive and mental health in adolescents. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of two high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols for improving cognitive and mental health outcomes (executive function, psychological well-being, psychological distress, and physical self-concept) in adolescents. Methods: Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8 ± 0.6 yr) were randomized to three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP; n = 21), resistance and aerobic program (RAP; n = 22), and control (n = 22). HIIT sessions (8–10 min per session) were delivered during physical education lessons or at lunchtime three times per week for 8 wk. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately postintervention to detect changes in executive function (trail making test), psychological well-being, psychological distress, and physical self-description by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects were examined using linear mixed models. Cohen's d effect sizes and clinical inference were also calculated. Results: While results were not significant, small improvements in executive function (mean change (95% CI) −6.69 (−22.03, 8.64), d = −0.32) and psychological well-being (mean change (95% CI) 2.81 (−2.06, 7.68), d = 0.34) were evident in the AEP group; and moderate improvements in executive function (mean change (95% CI) −10.73 (−26.22, 4.76), d = −0.51), and small improvements in well-being (mean change (95% CI) 2.96 (−1.82, 7.75), d = 0.36) and perceived appearance (mean change (95% CI) 0.32 (−0.25, 0.86), d = 0.35), were observed for the RAP group. Mean feeling state scores improved from preworkout to postworkout in both HIIT conditions, with significant results for the AEP (P = 0.001). Conclusions: This study highlights the potential of embedding HIIT within the school day for improving cognitive and mental health among adolescents.

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Cardiovascular and Renal Effects of Birdseed Associated with Aerobic Exercise in Rats

imageIntroduction: Phalaris canariensis L. (Pc), known as birdseed, is rich in tryptophan. The aqueous extract of Pc (AEPc) treatment reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) via mechanisms mediated by the tryptophan metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Hypertension is a risk factor to cardiovascular and renal diseases. Considering that physical exercise improves hypertension and cardiovascular function, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the benefits of exercise (Ex) would be enhanced by concomitant AEPc treatment (400 mg·kg−1·d−1 p.o.). Methods: Vascular reactivity was assessed in aorta rings from SHR treated with AEPc for 4 wk. Training intensity was based on maximal lactate steady state obtained during the 2-wk adaptation period in a treadmill running. Then exercised (60 min running, five times per week during 8 wk) or sedentary SHR were untreated or treated with AEPc during 8 wk. SBP was estimated by plethysmograph. Heart mass and body mass were used to obtain the index of cardiac hypertrophy. Glucose tolerance test was evaluated by oral glucose overload, and the mRNA expressions of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-10 in the kidney were obtained by real time polymerase chain reaction. Results: AEPc induced endothelial-mediated vascular relaxation. AEPc or Ex alone reduced SBP, the index of cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular fibrosis, improved glucose metabolism, and attenuated proteinuria and the renal expression of the proinflammatory IL-1β with an overexpression in the anti-inflammatory IL-10. AEPc potentiated the benefits of the Ex on the cardiovascular system, metabolic parameters, and renal inflammation. Conclusion: Birdseed reduced cardiovascular risk related to hypertension and had positive effects when associated to physical exercise.

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Effect of Acute Exercise on Fatigue in People with ME/CFS/SEID: A Meta-analysis

imagePurpose: A prominent symptom of myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome, or systemic exertion intolerance disease (ME/CFS/SEID) is persistent fatigue that is worsened by physical exertion. Here the population effect of a single bout of exercise on fatigue symptoms in people with ME/CFS/SEID was estimated and effect moderators were identified. Methods: Google Scholar was systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles published between February 1991 and May 2015. Studies were included where people diagnosed with ME/CFS/SEID and matched control participants completed a single bout of exercise and fatigue self-reports were obtained before and after exercise. Fatigue means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted to calculate effect sizes and the 95% confidence interval. Effects were pooled using a random-effects model and corrected for small sample bias to generate mean Δ. Multilevel regression modeling adjusted for nesting of effects within studies. Moderators identified a priori were diagnostic criteria, fibromyalgia comorbidity, exercise factors (intensity, duration, and type), and measurement factors. Results: Seven studies examining 159 people with ME/CFS/SEID met inclusion criteria, and 47 fatigue effects were derived. The mean fatigue effect was Δ = 0.73 (95% confidence interval = 0.24–1.23). Fatigue increases were larger for people with ME/CFS/SEID when fatigue was measured 4 h or more after exercise ended rather than during or immediately after exercise ceased. Conclusions: This preliminary evidence indicates that acute exercise increases fatigue in people with ME/CFS/SEID more than that in control groups, but effects were heterogeneous between studies. Future studies with no-exercise control groups of people with ME/CFS/SEID are needed to obtain a more precise estimate of the effect of exercise on fatigue in this population.

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Raw Accelerometer Data Analysis with GGIR R-package: Does Accelerometer Brand Matter?

imagePurpose: This study aimed to determine the agreement between outputs from contemporaneous measures of acceleration from wrist-worn GENEActiv and ActiGraph accelerometers when processed using the GGIR open source package. Methods: Thirty-four participants wore a GENEActiv and an ActiGraph GT3X+ on their nondominant wrist continuously for 2 d to ensure the capture of one 24-h day and one nocturnal sleep. GENEActiv.bin files and ActiGraph .csv files were analyzed with R-package GGIR version 1.2-0. Key outcome variables were as follows: wear time, average magnitude of dynamic wrist acceleration (Euclidean norm minus one [ENMO]), percentile distribution of accelerations, time spent across acceleration levels in a 40-mg resolution, time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA: total, 10-min bouts), and duration of nocturnal sleep. Results: There was a high agreement between accelerometer brands for all derived outcomes (wear time, MVPA, and sleep; intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] > 0.96), ENMO (ICC = 0.99), time spent across acceleration levels (ICC > 0.93), and accelerations ≥50th percentile of the distribution (ICC > 0.82). ENMO (mean ± SD, GENEActiv = 29.9 ± 20.7 mg, ActiGraph = 27.8 ± 21.4 mg) and accelerations between the 5th and the 75th percentile of the distribution measured by the GENEActiv were significantly higher than those measured by the ActiGraph. Correspondingly, the number of minutes recorded between 0 and 40 mg was significantly greater for the ActiGraph (745 min cf. 734 min), and the number of minutes recorded between 40 and 80 mg was significantly greater for the GENEActiv (110 min cf. 105 min). Conclusion: Derived outcomes (wear time, MVPA, and sleep) were similar between brands. Brands compared well for acceleration magnitudes >50–80 mg but not lower magnitudes indicative of sedentary time. Caution is advised when comparing the magnitude of ENMO between brands, but there was a high consistency between brands for the ranking of individuals for activity and sleep outcomes.

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Apoptosis of T-Cell Subsets after Acute High-Intensity Interval Exercise

imageIntroduction: High-intensity interval training (HIT) exercise has gained much interest in both performance and recreational sports. This study aims to compare the effect of HIT versus continuous (CONT) exercise with regard to changes of circulating T cells and progenitor cells. Methods: Subjects (n = 23) completed an HIT test and an isocaloric CONT test. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 3 and 24 h postexercise for the assessment of low differentiated (CD3+CD28+CD57−), highly differentiated T cells (CD3+CD28−CD57+), regulatory T cells (Tregs) (CD4+CD25+CD127−), hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD45+CD34+), and endothelial progenitor cells (CD45−CD34+KDR+) by flow cytometry. The detection of apoptosis was performed by using labeling with annexin V. To analyze potential mechanisms affecting T cells, several hormones and metabolites were analyzed. Results: Both exercise tests induced an increase of catecholamines, cortisol, and thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (P

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Incidence of intracranial haemorrhage in low-birth weight infants and its outcome: a hospital based prospective study

2016-09-17T02-58-17Z
Source: International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Rajesh Debbarma, Asim De, Sanjib Debbarma.
Background: Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most important neurological complications in low birth weight (LBW) infants, especially in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during the neonatal period. The objectives of the present study was to determine the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage among the low birth weight infants (


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