Παρασκευή, 25 Νοεμβρίου 2016

FACTORS AFFECTING PREWEANING SURVIVABILITY OF KIDS IN AN ORGANIZED GOAT FARM

2016-11-25T21-55-21Z
Source: International Journal of Livestock Research
Muthukumar Subramaniyan, Thamil Vanan Thanga, Meenakshisundaram Subramanian, Hemalatha Senthilnayagam.
A study was carried out to find out the factors influencing kid survivability in an organized goat farm with more than 500 breedable Tellicherry does at Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. Detailed study was carried out in all the 52 kids died out of 551 live kids born during the study period of nine months. The influence of dam weight at kidding, birth weight, dams milk yield, litter size, kid sex, age of susceptibility and parity on kid survivability were studied. The chi square analysis of the data revealed that significantly higher survival rate were recorded in kids born to dams of 25-40 kg body weight with 300-500 ml of milk yield per day with more than 1.5 kg birth weight, kids born as singles and after third parity survived better (P

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DC Fire and EMS donate food to homeless before Thanksgiving

The day before Thanksgiving, DC Fire and EMS stopped by a homeless encampment to distribute some food.

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Electrical impedance myography for discriminating traumaticperipheral nerveinjury in the upper extremity

Traumatic peripheral nerve injury (TPNI) is common in clinical practice, where more than 5% of patients are annually admitted to a level-one trauma center with concurrent TPNI (Robinson, 2004; Taylor et al., 2008). Typically seen in young adult men, TPNI occurs after a variety of traumatic events, including penetrating injury, crush, stretch, and ischemia (William, 2008). Severe nerve injury can have devastating effects on the quality of a patient's life. The classic symptoms of TPNI are sensory and motor function defects, which can cause full paralysis of the affected extremity or refractory neuropathic pain (Houdek and Shin, 2015).

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IOP-details

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Publication date: December 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 110





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Editorial Board

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Publication date: December 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 110





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Instructions to Authors

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Publication date: December 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 110





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Beyond the N1: A review of late somatosensory evoked responses in human infants

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Publication date: December 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 110
Author(s): Joni N. Saby, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Peter J. Marshall
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) have been used for decades to study the development of somatosensory processing in human infants. Research on infant SEPs has focused on the initial cortical component (N1) and its clinical utility for predicting neurological outcome in at-risk infants. However, recent studies suggest that examining the later components in the infant somatosensory evoked response will greatly advance our understanding of somatosensory processing in infancy. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the existing electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies on late somatosensory evoked responses in infants. We describe the late responses that have been reported and discuss the utility of such responses for illuminating key aspects of somatosensory processing in typical and atypical development.



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Neural mechanisms underlying attribution of hostile intention in nonaggressive individuals: An ERP study

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Publication date: December 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 110
Author(s): Jean Gagnon, Mercédès Aubin, Fannie Carrier Emond, Sophie Derguy, Monique Bessette, Pierre Jolicoeur
Although the perception of hostile intentions in other people can have a clear adaptive function, researchers have paid little attention to the capacity of nonaggressive individuals to infer hostile intentions in others. The goal of the present study was to study brain mechanisms associated with expectations of hostile/non-hostile intent and their on-line evaluation. Scenarios with a hostile versus non-hostile social context followed by a character's ambiguous aversive behavior were presented to readers, and we recorded and analyzed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to critical words that disambiguated the hostile versus non-hostile intent behind the behavior. Fifty nonaggressive individuals participated in the study. Non-hostile critical words that violated hostile intention expectations elicited a larger negative-going ERP deflection with central and posterior maximums between 400 and 600ms after word onset compatible with an N400 effect. Finally, there were marginally significant correlations between N400 effect sizes and hostile as well as neutral attribution bias measured by a self-report questionnaire. The results suggest that nonaggressive individuals evaluate rapidly, on-line, their attributions of the hostile intent of others. The methodology we developed provides the field with a new paradigm with which to study social attributions of hostile intent likely to contribute to hostile or aggressive reactions.



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Structural alterations of the pyramidal pathway in schizoid and schizotypal cluster A personality disorders

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Publication date: December 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 110
Author(s): Esther Via, Carles Orfila, Carla Pedreño, Antoni Rovira, José M. Menchón, Narcís Cardoner, Diego J. Palao, Carles Soriano-Mas, Jordi E. Obiols
AimSchizoid (ScPD) and Schizotypal (SPD) personality disorders are rare and severe disorders. They are associated with high liability to schizophrenia and present an attenuated form of its negative symptoms, which are considered a putative endophenotype for schizophrenia. The trans-diagnostic study of negative symptoms in non-psychotic populations such as ScPD/SPD might provide useful markers of a negative-symptom domain; however, little is known about their neurobiological substrates. The aim of the study was to investigate differences in gray and white matter volumes in subjects with ScPD/SPD compared to a group of healthy controls.MethodsStructural magnetic resonance images were obtained from 20 never-psychotic subjects with ScPD/SPD and 28 healthy controls. Resulting values from clusters of differences were correlated in patients with relevant clinical variables (O-LIFE scale).ResultsScPD/SPD presented greater bilateral white matter volume compared to healthy controls in the superior part of the corona radiata, close to motor/premotor regions, which correlated with the O-LIFE subtest of cognitive disorganization. No differences were found in regional gray matter or global gray/white matter volumes.ConclusionGreater volumes in motor pathways might relate to cognitive symptoms and motor alterations commonly present in schizophrenia-related disorders. Given the established link between motor signs and psychosis, structural alterations in motor pathways are suggested as a putative biomarker of a negative-symptom domain in psychosis subject to further testing.



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Low heart rate variability in patients with clinical burnout

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Publication date: December 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 110
Author(s): Anna-Karin Lennartsson, Ingibjörg Jonsdottir, Anna Sjörs
Several studies have shown that acute psychosocial stress and chronic psychosocial stress reduce heart rate variability (HRV). It is likely that individuals suffering from burnout have reduced HRV, as a consequence of the long-term stress exposure. This study investigated HRV in 54 patients with clinical burnout (40 women and 14 men) and in 55 individuals reporting low burnout scores (healthy; 24 women and 31 men) and 52 individuals reporting high burnout scores (non-clinical burnout; 33 women and 19 men). The participants underwent a 300s ECG recording in the supine position. Standard deviation of normal R-R intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive normal interval differences (RMSSD) were derived from time domain HRV analysis. Frequency domain HRV measures; total power (TP), low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), and LF/HF ratio were calculated. All HRV measures, except LF/HF ratio, were lower in the clinical burnout patients compared to both the non-clinical burnout group and the healthy group. The difference was larger between the patients and the healthy group than between the patients and the non-clinical burnout group. HRV did not differ significantly between the non-clinical burnout group and the healthy group. Low HRV in burnout patients may constitute one of the links to associated adverse health, since low HRV reflects low parasympathetic activity – and accordingly low anabolic/regenerative activity.



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Presenting changes in acoustic features synchronously to respiration alters the affective evaluation of sound

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Publication date: December 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 110
Author(s): Takashi G. Sato, Junji Watanabe, Takehiro Moriya
Synchronization of respiration to cyclic auditory stimuli is a well-observed phenomenon and known to have an effect on affective evaluation of the presented sound. However, no studies have separated the effect of the change in respiratory movement itself and that when there is synchrony between respiration and sound. In this study, we used a system that can change the acoustic features synchronously with the respiration phase and directly investigated the effect the synchrony has on affective ratings without changing respiratory movements. An acoustic stimulation was presented where the sound intensity (SI) or fundamental frequency (F0) was modulated in response to the participant's respiration phase. Affective evaluations of the acoustic stimuli were made by using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). The experiments compared synchronous and asynchronous conditions. In the synchronous condition, SI (or F0) was increased with inhalation (decreased with exhalation) or decreased with inhalation (increased with exhalation). In the asynchronous condition, a sound identical to that presented in the synchronous condition was replayed. The participants evaluated sounds that were acoustically the same but where the temporal relationship differed between respiration and the acoustic features. In our results, significantly higher arousal ratings were observed when the change in SI and respiration (inhalation or exhalation) was synchronous and when the increase in F0 and inhalation was synchronous. This suggests that the synchronous phenomenon between respiration and auditory stimuli can play a critical role in affective evaluation.



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Practice-induced and sequential modulations in the Simon task: evidence from pupil dilation

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Publication date: December 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 110
Author(s): Stefania D'Ascenzo, Cristina Iani, Roberto Guidotti, Bruno Laeng, Sandro Rubichi
Recent evidence showed that pupil dilation (PD) reflects modulations in the magnitude of the Simon interference effect due to correspondence sequence. In the present study we used this measure to assess whether these modulations, thought to result from cognitive control mechanisms, are influenced by prior practice with an incompatible stimulus-response (S-R) mapping. To this end, PD and reaction times (RTs) were recorded while participants performed a Simon task before and after executing a spatially incompatible practice. The sequential analysis revealed that PD mirrored the conflict-adaptation pattern observed in RTs. Crucially, sequential modulations were not affected by prior practice. These findings support the view that the modulations of the Simon effect due to prior practice and those due to correspondence sequence result from two different mechanisms, and suggest that PD can help to better understand the mechanisms underlying response selection and cognitive control in the Simon task.



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Endoscopic ultrasonography in chronic asymptomatic pancreatic hyperenzymemia: The more we see, the less we know



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Erratum to: Effectiveness of adalimumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis in clinical practice: comparison between anti-tumour necrosis factor-naïve and non-naïve patients



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Marsh frogs, Pelophylax ridibundus , determine migratory direction by magnetic field

Abstract

Orientation by magnetic cues appears to be adaptive during animal migrations. Whereas the magnetic orientation in birds, mammals, and urodele amphibians is being investigated intensively, the data about anurans are still scarce. This study tests whether marsh frogs could determine migratory direction between the breeding pond and the wintering site by magnetic cues in the laboratory. Adult frogs (N = 32) were individually tested in the T-maze 127 cm long inside the three-axis Helmholtz coil system (diameter 3 m). The arms of the maze were positioned parallel to the natural migratory route of this population when measured in accordance with magnetic field. The frogs were tested under two-motivational conditions mediated by temperature/light regime: the breeding migratory state and the wintering state. The frogs' choice in a T-maze was evident only when analyzed in accordance with the direction of the magnetic field: they moved along the migratory route to the breeding pond and followed the reversion of the horizontal component of the magnetic field. This preference has been detected in both sexes only in the breeding migratory state. This suggests that adult ranid frogs can obtain directional information from the Earth's magnetic field as was shown earlier in urodeles and anuran larvae.



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Barriers in adopting a healthy lifestyle: Insight from college youth

2016-11-25T03-46-27Z
Source: International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Anjali, Manisha Sabharwal.
Obesity, a preventable chronic disease, is becoming a serious health problem in all age groups due to the indulgence in a sedentary lifestyle. As a result, the population is at a risk of developing several obesity-related disorders, which in turn is likely to create a huge public health burden for developing nations shortly. With the rise in obesity trends across the population, it is necessary to target the different phases of life to tackle obesity problem. After schoolchildren, college students are the appropriate targets for interventions as their lives are in a transitional phase. Even if individual behavior changes are made, this alone is not likely to result in improved health and quality of life without an environment that enables sustenance of those changes. Therefore, all the interventions must take ones socio-ecological system that shapes behavior into consideration in creating health-promoting programs.


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The biochemical and histopathological effects of salusin alpha and salusin beta on cold restricted stress induced gastric injury

2016-11-25T03-28-16Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Ayhan Tanyeli, Ersen Eraslan, Elif Polat, Tugba Bal.
Salusin-α and salusin-β are recently discovered bioactive endogenous peptides with both haemodynamic and mitogenic activity. Salusin-α and salusin-β immunoreactivity has been detected in the stomach and intestine. Our study is designed to examine the oxidative stress, cytokines and histological effects of administration of salusin-α and salusin-β on cold-restricted stress (CRS)-induced gastric ulcers. A total of 32 Sprague Dawley, male rats were divided into four groups randomly. Group1: Control; Group2: CRS (Rats were placed individually in the restriction chamber and were subjected to the cold restricted stress at 4°C for 4 h); Group3: CRS+5nmol/kg Salusin-α; Group4: CRS+5nmol/kg Salusin-β. We determined malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), salusin-α and salusin-β levels from stomach tissue, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)) levels from serum. Multiple comparison tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn have been used for the analysis of the data. All the results were presented as mean±SD. When compared to the control group; while salusin-α level significantly increases in the group to which CRS has been applied, Salusin-β has shown a slight increase. While MDA, MPO, TNF-α, IL1-1β, and SOD activity in group subjected to the CRS changed, in the groups administered salusin-α and salusin-β, MDA, MPO and TNF-α levels decreased, and SOD activity and IL-1β levels increased. The mucosal injury and caspase-3 expression increasing with the application of CRS in the histological examinations decreased with the application of salusins. The suppression of salusin-α and salusin-β on caspase-3 expression by means of their effects on oxidative injury and TNF-α levels shows that these two hormones could be an anti-ulcerative agent.


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