Πέμπτη, 30 Ιουνίου 2016

Adäquate Ernährung bei langzeitbeatmeten Patienten

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 364-367
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109765

In dieser Rubrik werden Nachrichten aus der Wissenschaft kurz und prägnant für Sie zusammengefasst.
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Modernisierung von Notaufnahmen notwendig

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 423-425
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109944

Kurz & bündig - was gibt es Neues rund ums Fachgebiet AINS? Die wichtigsten Meldungen auf einen Blick finden Sie hier
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Videolaryngoskopie verbessert Intubationsergebnisse

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 364-367
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109766

In dieser Rubrik werden Nachrichten aus der Wissenschaft kurz und prägnant für Sie zusammengefasst.
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Asthma bronchiale - Anästhesiologisches Management

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 402-409
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-106371

In der anästhesiologischen Praxis haben Atemwegs- und Lungenerkrankungen einen hohen Stellenwert. Das pulmonale System wird sowohl durch die Allgemein- als auch durch die Regionalanästhesie erheblich beeinflusst. Dies lässt sich durch deutlich häufiger auftretende perioperative Komplikationen bei pulmonalen Risikopatienten im Vergleich mit Lungengesunden nachweisen. Die Durchführung einer Anästhesie bei Patienten mit Asthma muss verschiedene klinische Aspekte berücksichtigen. Diese beruhen v. a. auf der pulmonalen Erkrankung des Patienten, Art und Ausmaß des chirurgischen Eingriffs und den Wirkungen von Anästhetika und mechanischer Ventilation auf die pulmonale und kardiale Funktion. Der nachfolgende Artikel beschreibt wesentliche Charakteristika und diskutiert Probleme des anästhesiologischen Managements bei Asthmapatienten.
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Narkosezwischenfall: Wer hilft traumatisierten Anästhesisten?

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 364-367
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109767

In dieser Rubrik werden Nachrichten aus der Wissenschaft kurz und prägnant für Sie zusammengefasst.
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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DGAI-Forschungsstipendium der Fresenius-Stiftung 2016

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 423-425
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109942

Kurz & bündig - was gibt es Neues rund ums Fachgebiet AINS? Die wichtigsten Meldungen auf einen Blick finden Sie hier
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Hypothermie bei erhöhtem Hirndruck nicht erfolgreich

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 364-367
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109768

In dieser Rubrik werden Nachrichten aus der Wissenschaft kurz und prägnant für Sie zusammengefasst.
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Stroke-Unit-Betreiber-Treffen in Berlin

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 423-425
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109946

Kurz & bündig - was gibt es Neues rund ums Fachgebiet AINS? Die wichtigsten Meldungen auf einen Blick finden Sie hier
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Magnesium ohne Effekt nach Tonsillektomie

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 364-367
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109769

In dieser Rubrik werden Nachrichten aus der Wissenschaft kurz und prägnant für Sie zusammengefasst.
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Veranstaltungen

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 430-430
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-111095



© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Kasuistik: Suffiziente High-Frequency-Jet-Ventilation über 2,5 h

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 368-371
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-110265

Wir berichten von einer 54-jährigen Patientin, die sich 2009 einer Ross-OP unterzogen hatte und 2013 erneut einen Aorta-ascendens-Bogenersatz mit Elefant Trunk, einen Aortenwurzelersatz mit klappentragendem Conduit nach Bentall (23 mm-Bioprothese) und einen Pulmonalklappenwechsel mit Homograft erhalten hatte. Postoperativ wies die Patientin eine funktionelle Einengung der Trachea auf Höhe der Bifurkation um 50 % auf sowie eine persistierende ösophagotracheale Fistel. Endoskopische Versuche des Fistelverschlusses waren insgesamt frustran, die Trachea war primär endoskopisch mit einem Trachealstent versorgt worden. Wir schildern die anästhesiologische Versorgung des operativen Verschlusses der Fistel und der Tracheateilresektion mittels High-Frequency-Jet-Ventilation (HFJV) über insgesamt 2,5 h. Die Patientin konnte am 17. postoperativen Tag entlassen werden.
[...]

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Asthma bronchiale - Notfallmedizinische Versorgung

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 412-420
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-107624

Die Versorgung von Asthmapatienten mit lebensbedrohlichen Anfällen ist eine Herausforderung für den Notfallmediziner. Die schnelle und korrekte Therapie, basierend auf inhalativen β2-Mimetika und Anticholinergika kombiniert mit systemischen Glukokortikoiden verhindert meist fatale Verläufe. Bei Nichtansprechen müssen zusätzlich systemische β2-Mimetika, MgSO4 und evtl. Theophyllin zur Anwendung kommen, um eine Intubation und invasive Beatmung möglichst zu vermeiden.Die Patienten - und insbesondere jene mit Risikofaktoren für einen fatalen Verlauf - müssen bis zur Beschwerdefreiheit unter Beobachtung bleiben. Leichte und mittelschwere Anfälle können bei Erreichen von Beschwerdefreiheit ambulant versorgt werden. Im Rettungsdienst muss die Beobachtungszeit bis zur Beschwerdefreiheit gewährleistet sein, ansonsten sollten die Patienten in das nächstgelegene geeignete Krankenhaus transportiert und in der Notaufnahme vorgestellt werden.
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Hyperoxie in Anästhesie und Intensivmedizin – Zu viel des Guten?

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 372-377
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-105156

Über Jahrzehnte gehörte Sauerstoff zur Standardtherapie zahlreicher akuter Krankheitsbilder, wie z.B. des akuten Myokardinfarkts. Im Bereich der perioperativen Medizin wird die Routine-Gabe hoher Sauerstoffkonzentrationen (>80%) u. a. zur Reduktion chirurgischer Wundinfektionen propagiert. Sauerstoff führt jedoch zum Anstieg des systemvaskulären Widerstands, zur Reduktion der Herzfrequenz sowie des kardialen Schlagvolumens und somit zur Reduktion der mikrovaskulären Perfusion, z.B. in den Koronar- und Hirngefäßen. Ergebnisse aus prospektiven, randomisierten und verblindeten Studien zu den Outcome-Effekten einer Hyperoxie in den Bereichen der Anästhesie und Intensivmedizin sind kaum vorhanden. Insbesondere jüngere Daten weisen jedoch darauf hin, dass Hyperoxie zur Erhöhung der perioperativen und intensivmedizinischen Morbidität und Mortalität führen könnte. Auch in den Leitlinien des European Resuscitation Councils von 2015 wird die Gabe von Sauerstoff bei verschiedenen Krankheitsbildern kritisch bewertet. Der vorliegende Artikel soll eine orientierende Übersicht zu den physiologischen und klinischen Effekten einer Hyperoxie geben und ihre Anwendung im perioperativen Bereich sowie in der Intensivmedizin beleuchten.
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Cannabis als Medizin: Deutsche Schmerzgesellschaft dafür

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 423-425
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109941

Kurz & bündig - was gibt es Neues rund ums Fachgebiet AINS? Die wichtigsten Meldungen auf einen Blick finden Sie hier
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Weaning - Mehr als nur Beatmung beenden

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 378-385
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-109186

Maschinelle Beatmung ist ein essentieller Bestandteil der modernen Intensivtherapie. Sie kommt bei Patienten mit akuter respiratorischer Insuffizienz zum Einsatz und hat – je nach Art des respiratorischen Versagens – unterschiedliche Einsatzformen. Vor allem die invasive maschinelle Beatmung sollte so rasch wie möglich beendet werden, um dessen Risiken zu vermeiden.Der überwiegende Anteil beatmeter Patienten kann nach kurzfristiger Behandlungsdauer unproblematisch von der Beatmung entwöhnt werden. Bei etwa 20% aller beatmeten Patienten kann jedoch ein äußerst protrahierter und komplexer Entwöhnungsprozess beobachtet werden, auch wenn die zur Beatmung geführte Ursache längst behoben ist. Neben dem einzelnen Vorgang des Trennens vom Beatmungsgerät werden in diesem Artikel insbesondere die pathophysiologischen Vorgänge, die zum prolongierten Weaning führen, adressiert.
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Erhöhte Transparenz verbessert Arzt-Patienten-Beziehung

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 423-425
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109943

Kurz & bündig - was gibt es Neues rund ums Fachgebiet AINS? Die wichtigsten Meldungen auf einen Blick finden Sie hier
[...]

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Quiz intensiv – Stellen Sie die Diagnose!

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 387-388
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-109666



© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Should we prescribe lithium more often?

2016-06-30T18-48-34Z
Source: Düşünen Adam: The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences
Willem A. Nolen.



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Erweiterung des Herausgebergremiums: Herzlich willkommen bei der AINS!

Anästhesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016; 51: 361-361
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-111092



© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

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Depression, Type 2 Diabetes, and Poststroke Cognitive Impairment

Background. Ten percent of stroke survivors develop dementia, which increases to more than a third after recurrent stroke. Other survivors develop less severe vascular cognitive impairment. In the general population, depression, and diabetes interact in predicting dementia risk, and they are both prevalent in stroke. Objective. To assess the cumulative association of comorbid depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes with cognitive outcomes among stroke survivors. Methods. Multicenter observational cohort study of people within 6 months of stroke. Depression and cognitive status were screened using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), respectively. Processing speed, executive function and memory were assessed using the Trail Making Test parts A and B, and the 5 Word Delayed Free Recall task. Results. Among 342 participants (age 67.0 ± 13.5 years, 43.3% female, 46 ± 35 days poststroke), the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 32.2% and depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥16) were found in 40.6%. Diabetes and depressive symptoms increased the risk of severe cognitive impairment (MoCA <20) with adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-3.74, P = .010) for 1 comorbidity and OR 3.18 (95% CI 1.26-8.02, P = .014) for both comorbidities. Associated cognitive deficits included executive function (F1, 168 = 3.43, P = .035) but not processing speed (F1, 168 = 1.86, P = .16) or memory (F1, 168 = 0.82, P = .44). Conclusions. Diabetes and depressive symptoms were associated cumulatively with poorer cognitive screening outcomes poststroke, particularly deficits in executive function. Having 1 comorbidity doubled the odds of screening for severe cognitive impairment, having both tripled the odds.



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Prurito pigmentosa ve topikal tetrasiklin tedavisi

2016-06-30T18-08-44Z
Source: Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi
.
Burada lokal tutulum gösteren, hepatit C infeksiyonu olan bir prurigo pigmentosa hastasında topikal tetrasiklin kullanılmış, lezyon ve semptomlarda düzelme sağlanmıştır. Böylece sistemik tedavinin yapılamadığı hastalarda, bu tedavinin bir alternatif olabileceği düşünülebilir. İngiliz literatüründe, prurigo pigmentosada topikal tetrasiklin kullanımı henüz bildirilmemiştir. Elbette, topikal tetrasiklinin daha fazla vakada kullanılması ile elde edilecek veriler daha anlamlı olacaktır.


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Inherited thrombophilia should not be investigated asa a risk factor in etiology of unexplained infertility

2016-06-30T18-08-44Z
Source: Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi
Cengiz Beyan, Esin Beyan.



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Medication related dystonic reactions especially in children on risperidone: a description of eleven cases and review of the literature

2016-06-30T18-08-44Z
Source: Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi
Emel Ataş Berksoy, Ünsal Yılmaz, Tanju Çelik, Hüseyin Anıl Korkmaz, Selçuk Yazıcı, Rahmi Özdemir, Özlem Bekem Soylu.
Objective: In this study, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of children who had admitted to the pediatric emergency unit due to drug- induced acute dystonia, particularly following risperidone treatment. Material and Methods: The hospital records of eleven patients (range 3- 16 years age) who had been diagnosed as acute dystonic reaction in our emergency unit, between January and December 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Six of the patients had used risperidone. One of these was accidental ingestion of an unknown amount. The others had taken risperidone


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Gender Gap and Inequality in health professionals’ income in Iran

2016-06-30T18-08-44Z
Source: Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi
Enayatollah Homaie Rad, Yahya Bayazidi, Sajad Delavari, Satar Rezaei.
Objective: The income inequality has increased significantly throughout the world. The aim of current study was to examine income inequality using Gini Coefficient among health professionals in Iran in 2012. Also, gender income gap and its determinant were assessed in this study. Material and methods: Using propensity scoring method, we examined the existence of income gap between male and female physicians. At the end OLS regression was estimated to find variables effect health professional income. Results: The results of the study showed that Gini coefficient for health professional income was 0.428. A significant difference was found between male and female income after adjustment of confounder variables. Conclusion: There are differences in income by the type of the work of professionals, working in private sector and sex. It is suggested that the government make policies to reducing the income gap between health professionals.


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Is serum tenascin-C level potential biomarker in pancreatic adenocarcinoma?

2016-06-30T18-08-44Z
Source: Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi
Senem Karabulut, Mehmet Karabulut, Halil Alış, Makbule Tambaş, Selin Kapan, Osman Köneş, Şule Karaman, Murat Serilmez, Faruk Taş.
Objective: Tenascin-C (TNC) is an extracellular matrix protein involved in the tissue construction. Its expression levels have been detected low levels in normal tissues, but high in many tumors. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical significance of serum TNC levels in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA). Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients with histopathologically confirmed PA diagnosis and sex- and age-matched 30 healthy controls were included into the current study. Serum TNC levels were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Results: Median age was 59 (range, 32-84). Of the patients, 61% were male, 70% had good performance status, and 68% had tumors localized at pancreas head. Pancreaticoduodenectomy and palliative surgery were performed in 5 (15%) and 4 (12%) of the 9 (27%) patients who underwent surgical procedure. Serum TNC levels were found to be significantly higher in patients compared with control group (p0.05). Similarly, it was shown that serum TNC levels had no effect on overall survival (p=0.31). Conclusions: Serum TNC level is a diagnostic biomarker for patients with PA. However, it has neither predictive nor prognostic value in this group of patients.


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Changes in the treatment of acute diverticulitis

2016-06-30T18-08-44Z
Source: Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi
Cevher Akarsu, Osman Köneş, Sinan Binboğa, Ahmet Cem Dural, Murat Çikot, Gülay Şahin, Selin Kapan, Halil Alış.
Objective: Acute diverticulitis is a common disease of western society and it is gradually increasing in frequency. Although its etiology, natural course, complications and diagnostic methods are defined, there is no agreement in the literature on which treatment option should be implemented. Nonoperative approaches in the treatment of acute diverticulitis are coming into prominence in recent years. Parallel with the discussions in the literature, we aim to present changes in our clinical approach to acute diverticulitis in last 5 years. Material and Methods: Patients admitted to our clinic with acute abdomen and diagnosed as acute diverticulitis and treated between January 2010 and February 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. The demographic characteristics of the patients, radiological findings, treatment modalities (medical / surgical), length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality rates were evaluated. Results: Of 106 patients, 67 (63.2%) were male and mean age was 54.3 (27-87). The average length of hospital stay was 4.4 days (range 1-18). 79.2% of patients were governed medically and 20.8% of pantients were treated with a surgical procedure. The mean follow-up period was 28 months (range 15-39). When the number of applications are considered, surgical approaches in treatment are found to be reduced to appropriate levels proportional to the treatment modalities of modern age. Conclusion: Nonoperative approach in uncomplicated acut diverticulitis is an effective and reliable method. In complicated diverticulitis, surgical techniques , primarily nonresectional approaches, can be applied.


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Ovaryan malignensiyi taklit eden endometrioma rüptürü

2016-06-30T18-08-44Z
Source: Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi
Elçin Telli, Tufan Öge, Ömer Tarık Yalçın, Sabit Sinan Özalp, Evrim Çiftçi.
Endometriomalar overdeki kistik endometrium lezyonlarıdır. Ca 125 düzeylerinin endometriozisin şiddeti ile korele olduğu gösterilmiştir. Çalışmamızda plevral efüzyon, pelvik asit, yüksek Ca125 düzeyi ile ovaryan malignensi gibi prezente olan hastada tek lokülden rüptüre olmuş multiloküle endometriotik kist olgusuna ait veriler sunulmuştur.


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Disability in the elderly in terms of public health

2016-06-30T18-08-44Z
Source: Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi
Çağla Yiğitbaş, S. Erhan Deveci.
Elders frequently are defined as persons aged 65 years and over. All populations around the world are seeing increasing numbers of elders. Elders physiological, biological, emotional, chronological and functional properties accommodate it to specific problems. Growing numbers of older citizens worldwide cause to seek new solutions on their families, communities, and countries, including increased needs for health care, in-home care-giving, and appropriate housing. On the other hand, some of the functions and social relations decrease with aging regarding physical and psychological aspects. Increased disability rate among the elderly is becoming one of the common problems. Disability is a significant issue for todays society with major social and economic consequences. Also it has become a significant financial burden in the country as well as the effects on society. So the purpose of this review is to address aging and disability issues from the conceptual point of view of public health.


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Toxic hepatitis associated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in a chronic viral hepatitis B patient: a case report

2016-06-30T18-08-44Z
Source: Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi
Pervin Özkan Kurtgöz, Havva Tünay, Fatma Kurban, Serkan Kurtgöz, Kasım Demir, Gürsel Acartürk.
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (ACA) related hepatotoxicity is among the most common causes of drug-related hepatotoxicity. Cholestatic liver injury is the most common type. Symptoms usually begin 1-4 weeks after ingestion and heal within 8 weeks. Rarely develop fulminant hepatitis and death. In this study, we present a case of a 62-year-old woman who had chronic viral hepatitis B and developed toxic hepatitis after receiving ACA treatment. When ACA was discontinued, the patients symptomps improved and her liver enzyme levels reduced to near to the normal range.


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Invasive papillary carcinoma of the male breast

2016-06-30T18-08-44Z
Source: Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi
Ebubekir Gündeş, Faruk Aksoy, Celalettin Vatansev, Hacı Hasan Esen, Ali Bal.
Breast cancer is rarely seen in male patients. All the histological types of female breast cancer can be seen in male patients. Invasive papillary carcinoma is a rare breast cancer type. We hereby report the case of a 67-year-old male patient who underwent modified radical mastectomy because of invasive papillary carcinoma. The patient presented to our clinic with the complaint of a painless mass in his right breast. Tru-cut biopsy guided by imaging was performed. The pathological results of the biopsy were in line with invasive papillary carcinoma. We performed modified radical mastectomy on the patient. No recurrences were seen in the 24-month follow-up period.


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ROLE OF INTRAMEDULLARY INTERLOCKING NAILING IN MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURE SHAFT OF HUMERUS: A CASE SERIES OF 25 PATIENTS

2016-06-30T17-57-56Z
Source: Journal Of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences (A Peer Reviewed Indexed Medical Journal)
Ummat Ashwani,*Kochhar Sonia, Singh Ravinder, Behal Nancy.
AbstractHumerus fracture is one of the common fractures in Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) and domestic injuries. In view of better union, functional outcome and patient comfort, internal fixation has become order of the day. Now a days interlocking intramedullary nails have gained popularity for stabilization of humeral shaft fractures due to preservation of fracture haematoma, minimal exposure, rigid fixation with early mobilization. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of intramedullary interlocking nails in achieving union in fracture shaft of humerus. A prospective clinical study on twenty-five patients of humeral shaft fractures was performed using antegrade locked intramedullary nailing in our hospital setting. 96% rate of union was achieved in present study with union occurring in less than 15 weeks in 60% of our cases at 6 months , 19 (78%) patients had full range of shoulder movements and only 3 (12%) had restriction of flexion and abduction greater than 20°. This study shows that antegrade locked intramedullary nailing is reliable and also very effective in treating multiply injured patients with humeral shaft fractures.


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VALSALVA MANOEUVRE: AN ASSESSMENT OF CARDIAC PARASYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY IN PREGNANCY

2016-06-30T17-57-56Z
Source: Journal Of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences (A Peer Reviewed Indexed Medical Journal)
Kochhar Sonia, Ummat Ashwani.
The present study was designed to assess the heart rate variability in the three trimesters of pregnancy. 100 subjects in the age group of 20- 40 years were taken up for the study, of these 25 were non-pregnant healthy females (control) and 75 were healthy pregnant females further divided into three groups of 25 each according to the three trimesters of pregnancy. Valsalva Ratio and Tachycardia ratio were calculated to assess the cardiac parasympathetic activity. It is concluded that there is significant increase in heart rate in the third trimester compared to non- pregnant healthy females (p


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QUIZ: AN ACTIVE LEARNING APPROACH TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF MBBS STUDENTS

2016-06-30T17-57-56Z
Source: Journal Of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences (A Peer Reviewed Indexed Medical Journal)
Dutt H. K., Kothiyal G., Thakur H., Chaturvedi A. Raina R.S., Parihar D., Singh P., Singh G..
Introduction: The study of basic medical sciences is the key to approach clinical sciences as competent doctors. The present day undergraduate medical curriculum calls for constant reinforcement of teaching skills. A quiz based exercise is one such step in the direction. The objective of this study was to assess whether a quiz based program in Pharmacology is a potentially interactive non conventional teaching aid to encourage learning among medical students. Methods: A quiz was organised for which the topics were declared prior to the event. Second professional MBBS students participated in the preliminary screening round. Qualified students participated in the quiz as eight teams which competed for Quarterfinal, Semi-final, Final and the Extempore to become the winner. The students were also asked to answer the pretested feedback questionnaire. Results: The positive impact of the quiz leads to the improvement in the overall performance of the class which was found to be statistically significant (p


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ESO Solutions names Scott Hester as Vice President of Sales

Scott Hester joins ESO as VP of Sales, leading a nationwide team of account managers.

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EFFECT OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE ON HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES AFTER EXTUBATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE LAPROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

2016-06-30T17-57-56Z
Source: Journal Of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences (A Peer Reviewed Indexed Medical Journal)
*Singh Navab, Tyagi Vivek, Subhash, Sangeeta, Chand Pramod, Vashisth Tuhin.
Extubation is a procedure which requires clinical judgement & objective assessment of adequate reversal of anaesthetic drugs. Use of drugs like opioids, beta blockers, lidocaine has been made to minimize the haemodynamic stress response to extubation. However, all these drugs have some drawbacks. Dexmedetomidine ( an á2-adrenoceptor agonist) was used by authors to minimize the hemodynamic response to extubation. Dexmedetomidine use resulted in clinically significant reduction in heart rate, blood pressure when compared to placebo in patients undergoing laproscopic cholecystectomy.


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How to Remove the Gamber-Johnson Console Box Faceplates & Accessories

It takes about 30 seconds to remove the faceplates from the Gamber-Johnson console box to access your electronics or swap out accessories. All you need is a Phillips head screwdriver to remove the hold-down rails, then pop off the faceplates and accessories for easy access or re-arrangement.

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ADVERSE EVENTS REPORTING IN ANAESTHESIA : AN IMPORTANT TOOL OF QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM

2016-06-30T17-57-56Z
Source: Journal Of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences (A Peer Reviewed Indexed Medical Journal)
*Anand Nidhi, Rai V..
Anaesthesia practice is a complex system and adverse events do occur during the functioning of this system. The aim of our study was to identify the incidents, outcome and risk factors. Every anaesthesia department should develop adverse event reporting system to prevent recurrences, improve the outcome and make anaesthesia more safe to the patients. It was a two year prospective study conducted at tertiary level teaching hospital. During this period 8752 patients were given anaesthesia and 53 (0.61%) adverse events were reported. Maximum events occurred in general surgery department (26.42%) and in patients with ASA grade I (47.17%) and grade II (32.08%). 79.25% incidencts occurred during elective surgery and respiratory system (43.40%) was more involved. 94.34% patients had complete recovery while 5.66% showed fatal outcome. During the study under reporting of events was noted. Reporting of events and analyses are important to improve the patient safety and outcome.


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How to Remove the Gamber-Johnson Console Box Faceplates & Accessories

It takes about 30 seconds to remove the faceplates from the Gamber-Johnson console box to access your electronics or swap out accessories. All you need is a Phillips head screwdriver to remove the hold-down rails, then pop off the faceplates and accessories for easy access or re-arrangement.

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Gamber-Johnson's Motion Attachments for Tablets, Laptops and Keyboards

The Mongoose is an easy to use, intuitive solution that places the computer in a variety of ergonomic positions. The slide arm allows you to simply push the computer back to the retracted position and automatically locks into place, preventing unwanted movement when the vehicle is in motion. The locking slide arm also can be rotated 360° locking into place at every 15° simply by pulling the front lever. With a lower profile, the Mongoose allows the driver to easily see the computer screen, while maintaining their line of sight to the road.

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ACUTE CHANGES AFTER 30 MINUTE OF DYNAMIC EXERCISE IN ARTERIAL STIFFNESS AND PULSE WAVE VELOCITY OF HEALTHY YOUNG AND MIDDLE AGED INDIVIDUALS

2016-06-30T17-57-56Z
Source: Journal Of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences (A Peer Reviewed Indexed Medical Journal)
*Bhunia Snehasis, Bhunia Bonny, Aski Basavaraj S., Sant Santosh Kumar.
The major non invasive evaluation of cardiovascular parameters include arterial stiffness index (ASI), ankle - brachial index (ABI), right and left brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (Right & left ba PWV), heart ankle pulse wave velocity (ha PWV), heart brachial pulse wave velocity (hb PWV) and carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cf PWV), blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, pulse and mean) at four regions (right and left brachial and right and left ankle), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) which have a prime role to diagnose the patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. ASI of right and left brachial, ASI of right and left ankle and PWV at left ba PWV, right ba PWV, cf PWV, ha PWV, hb PWV and ha PWV were investigated before and after 30 min of acute dynamic exercise in young aged 20 + 2.4yrs and middle aged 40 + 1.5 yrs healthy male sedentary subjects to know the underlying mechanisms behind the advantages of taking regular dynamic exercise leading to alteration of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and to assess endothelial dysfunction, elasticity and also autonomic adjustments as well as sympatho-vagal balance. ASI at all four regions were significantly reduced (p0.05) before and after acute dynamic exercise for 30 min in both the groups. The data suggested cardiac autonomic balance and vasodilatation of major arteries by reducing in arterial stiffness (ASI) as well as decrease in PWV in both young and middle aged individuals. The percentage change of arterial stiffness index at right & left brachial and right & left ankle was significant (P


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CITRIC ACID AS A ROOT SURFACE BIOMODIFICATION AGENT: AN UPDATE

2016-06-30T17-57-56Z
Source: Journal Of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences (A Peer Reviewed Indexed Medical Journal)
*Sharma Kratee, Arora Vipin Kumar, Madan Ellora, Thakur Rajesh Kumar.
Background:- Modification of the root surface by various means, known as biomodification procedures, has been introduced by using a variety of physical and chemical agents, in order to detoxify, decontaminate, and demineralise the root surface. Citric acid is the oldest and most frequently used root biomodifying agent as it removes the smear layer, accelerates new attachment. Materials and methods:- EBSCO HOST was searched for entries since 1966 2014, which included:- Journal of Periodontology, Annals of Periodontology, Periodontology 2000, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative dentistry, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology and Journal of Periodontal Research. Results:- Out of 20 studies, only 6 reported evidence of regeneration, for citric acid. Conclusion:- The role of citric acid as a root biomodifying agents in regeneration is still unpredictable and questionable.


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AN INCIDENTAL FINDING OF UNICORNUATE UTERUS WITH UNILATERAL OVARIAN AGENESIS AND IPSILATERAL TWINING OF FALLOPIAN TUBES DURING CESAREAN

2016-06-30T17-57-56Z
Source: Journal Of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences (A Peer Reviewed Indexed Medical Journal)
*Tyagi Stuti, Jain Suchitra, Singh Surinder, Yog Pragya. S.
Congenital anomalies of the uterus have long been recognized as a cause of obstetric as well as gynecological complications. However, the incidence of anatomic uterine defects is difficult to determine since many women with such anomalies are not diagnosed, especially if they are asymptomatic 1 . About 2-4% of fertile women with normal reproductive outcomes have associated uterine anomalies 2. Unicornuate uterus accounted for 9.6% of all uterine anomalies 1. In this case report, we presented a case of unicornuate uterus with unilateral ovarian agenesis and ipsilateral twining of fallopian tube diagnosed incidentally during cesarean delivery.


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A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON PATTERN OF TOBACCO CONSUMPTION AND PREVALENCE OF PASSIVE SMOKING AND ITS HEALTH HAZARD AWARENESS AMONG ELDERLY PATIENTS.-A COASTAL KARNATAKA STUDY

2016-06-30T17-57-56Z
Source: Journal Of Advance Researches In Biological Sciences (A Peer Reviewed Indexed Medical Journal)
*Kempaller Vinayak J, Kiran K G, Patil Sandeep, Kiran Udaya N, Shetty Shruthi M, Dinesh S M.
Introduction : Passive smoking is the combination of side stream smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke exhaled by a smoker. Exposure to passive smoking can take place at home, workplace or at public places. The present study is a cross sectional study conducted to assess the prevalence of passive smoking and to know the knowledge regarding ill effects among female patients. Material and Method : In this study 130 patients were recruited in different RHC's of costal Karnataka. The patients were interviewed using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Result : A total of 130 patients ,(55.4% males, and 44.6% females), among these 39.2% were using tobacco in any form. Around 61.5% patients were exposed to tobacco smoke in last thirty days at any place. In 30.8% patients home, smoking was allowed.20.8% of female patients gave history of smoking by their husbands .48.5% patients were aware that passive smoking causes health Hazard. Among these, majority (52.3%) of them were aware that passive smoking causes lung cancer. Conclusion : The smokers in a public places were the main source for passive smoking among elderly patients. The present study is limited to small sample size and it's lightening to further studies in a large sample size to conclude the same.


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A SMAD4 mutation indicative of juvenile polyposis syndrome in a family previously diagnosed with Menetrier's disease

Menetrier's disease (MD) is a rare disease with unknown aetiology, characterized by hypertrophic folds within the fundus and body of the stomach.

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Iatrogenic Immunodeficiency-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Pediatric Patient

2016-06-30T17-53-30Z
Source: Annals of Paediatric Rheumatology
Stephanie Phillips, DO, Charles Newman, MD, Austin Turner, MD, Michael Stump, MD, Katherine Silver, MD, Richard Silver, MD, Michelle Hudspeth, MD, John Lazarchick, MD.
It is estimated that approximately 90% of the adult population is infected with the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). In states of immunosuppression, the disruption in immune regulation can manifest as lymphoproliferative disease that classically presents as a lymphoma. Rarely, EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disease can present as a mucocutaneous ulcer. While this phenomenon is becoming well documented in the adult population, cases affecting pediatric patients are lacking. In this report, we describe a case of a pediatric immunosuppressed patient presenting with an EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer. EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer in an immunosuppressed patient is an entity within the spectrum of iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) which closely resembles the better-categorized post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Though the concept of lymphoproliferative disorders in immunosuppressed patients has been well established, this is a unique case in a pediatric patient.


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Treatment sequence of synchronously (liver) metastasized colon cancer

No standards for staging, systemic therapy or the timing of an operation are defined for patients newly diagnosed with synchronous metastases and a primary in the colon. An expert group of radiologists, medical, radiation and surgical oncologists therefore came together to discuss staging and treatment sequence for these patients and came up with a recommendation based on current evidence of potential therapeutic options. The discussion was organized to debate recommendations centred on 5 topics and therefore the position paper is built upon these titles and their subtitles.

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Long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-1 methylation level as a molecular marker of early gastric cancer

This study was performed to examine the state of long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-1 methylation level in gastric epithelial dysplasias (GEDs) and evaluate as a molecular marker for gastric carcinogenesis when it was compared with RUNX3 expression.

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Nerve ultrasound in CMT2E/CMT1F due to NEFL mutation: confirmation of an axonal pathology

Ultrasound (US) has been used for nerve evaluation in generalized peripheral nervous system diseases, including inflammatory and inherited neuropathies (Zaidman et al., 2009; Grimm et al., 2016; Schreiber et al., 2013).

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Evaluation of an injectable hydrogel and PMMA in restoring mechanics to compressively fractured spine motion segments

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Compressive fracture can produce profound changes to the mechanical profile of a spine segment. Minimally invasive repair has the potential to restore both function and structural integrity to an injured spine. Use of both hydrogels to address changes to the disc, combined with PMMA to address changes to the vertebral body has the potential to facilitate repair.

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Frailty and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for degenerative spine disease

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Frailty is defined as a state of decreased reserve and susceptibility to stressors. The relationship between frailty and postoperative outcomes after degenerative spine surgery has not been studied.

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Interaction between Bms1 and Rcl1, two ribosome biogenesis factors, is evolutionally conserved in zebrafish and human

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Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Yong Wang, Qinfang Zhu, Ling Huang, Yanqing Zhu, Jun Chen, Jinrong Peng, Li Jan Lo




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A Repetitive DNA-Directed Program of Chromosome Packaging during Mitosis

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Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Shao-Jun Tang




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Transient Neonatal Diabetes with Fanconi Bickel Syndrome

2016-06-30T02-48-21Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Elif Ozsu, Cengiz Kara, Gulay Can Yilmaz, Derya Tepe, Murat Aydin.
Fanconi- Bickel Syndrome (FBS) is a rare glycogen storage disease (GSD) . Transient diabetes is rarely reported with FBS. We describe a patient with FBS diagnosed by diabetes findings and identification of a mutation in the GLUT2. A male infant, from a consanguineous marriage, presented with hyperglycemia and urinary system infections at 59 days and was given insulin therapy. At age 3 months, insulin was discontinued. Neonatal diabetes may be a first presentation of infants with FBS.


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The effects of ankaferd blood stopper on DNA damage and enzymes with paranchymal damaged rabbits

2016-06-30T02-48-21Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Bayram Metin, Esma Menevse, Abdullah Sivrikaya, Tamer Altinoks, Hilal Arikoglu.
Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) is a medical product that is used in several injuries, dental operations, prevention of minor or major bleeding after spontaneous or surgerical operations and have anti-microbial, anti-inflamatory, anti-thrombin, anti-platelet, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-oxidants effects. The present study is aimed to evaluate the effects of ABS on 8-hydroxy-2ˈ-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels over pleural adhesions in rabbits with pulmonary parenchymal damage.16 New Zelland species rabbits were divided in two groups such as control (n=7) and study group (n=7). One rabbit in each group died during anesthesia. In both groups, we performed wedge resections in equal size to the left lower lobes of all rabbits. No interventions were made on control group, whereas 5 puffs (1 cc) ABS was performed to the resection area at study group. Tube thoracostomy that performed both groups were terminated postoperatively at 6th hour after drainage and air leakages follow up. Rabbits were sacrificed with anesthetics at postoperative 8th day. Lung tissues were collected for analyzing of 8-OHdG, SOD, MPO. The 8-OHdG levels were respectively 2.01±0.39 ng/ml in control group and, 0.38±0.12 ng/ml in study. The differences between study and control group were statistically important group (p


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Where is the ball? behavioral and neural responses elicited by a magic trick

Abstract

We present results from two experiments, in which subjects watched continuous videos of a professional magician repeatedly performing a maneuver in which a ball could "magically" appear under a cup. In all cases, subjects were asked to predict whether the ball would appear under the cup or not, while scalp EEG recordings were performed. Both experiments elicited strong and consistent behavioral and neural responses. In the first experiment, we used two blocks of videos with different probabilities of the ball appearing in the cup and found that, first, based on the behavioral responses, the subjects could track this probability change; and second, the different probabilities modulated the neural responses. In the second experiment, we introduced a control condition in which the magician performed the maneuver under the table, out of subjects' view. Comparing the two conditions (i.e., performing the maneuver within or out of the subjects' view), we found that, first, the magic trick dramatically biased the subjects' behavioral responses; and second, the two conditions led to differential neural responses, in spite of the fact that the stimulus triggering the evoked responses (seeing the ball in the cup) was exactly the same. Altogether, our results show how new insights into sensory and cognitive processing can be obtained using adapted magic tricks. Moreover, the approach of analyzing responses to continuous video presentations offers a more ecological setting compared to classic evoked potential paradigms, which are typically based on presenting static images flashed at the center of the screen.



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When and how should leeches be applied in cases of venous congestion?

2016-06-30T00-48-38Z
Source: Medicine Science | International Medical Journal
Cengiz Aldemir, Fatih Duygun.
Aim of this study is to discuss the results of cases where leeches were applied to prevent the development of venous congestion following replantation and flap surgery. Methods Leeches were applied to a total of 31 patients with appropriate and sufficient follow-up in the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinics of Antalya State Hospital and Antalya Training and Research Hospital between 1997 and 2015. The patients comprised 20 cases of replantation and 11 cases of crush syndrome. The rates of necrosis were examined in these patients following the application of leeches. Results Following the application of leeches, necrosis was determined in 5 of the 20 adult replantation or revascularisation cases with venous congestion and in 6 of the 11 cases of crush injury. No serious allergic reaction was observed in any case following leech application. Conclusion In patients with replantation or crush injuries who cannot be treated by conventional methods, the application of leeches is an effective method in the treatment of venous congestion.


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Antioxidant Properties and Phytochemical Contents of Garcinia schomburgkiana Pierre.

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Imron Meechai, Worrapong Phupong, Warangkana Chunglok, Puttinan Meepowpan.
This study was conducted to determine the phytochemical contents and radical scavenging activities of twelve Garcinia schomburgkiana extracts from the leaves, roots, twigs and branches. Among all extracts, the root (RA) and branch (BA) acetone extract revealed high phenolic (427.83±4.84 and 390.15±7.89 mg GAE/g extract), flavonoid (626.32±59.97 and 414.49±15.99 mg QE/g extract) and xanthone (625.80±3.78 and 615.07±9.97 mg AME/g extract) contents and possessed greater antioxidant capacities and radical scavenging activities than the standard vitamin C and Trolox. Our results reveal that G. schomburgkiana were potential natural sources of antioxidant with high amount of phenolics, flavonoids xanthones and beneficial fatty acid derivatives.


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Production of antioxidant xylooligosaccharides from lignocellulosic materials using Bacillus amyloliquifaciens NRRL B-14393 xylanase

2016-06-30T00-22-42Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Mona M. Rashad, Abeer E. Mahmoud, Mohamed U. Nooman, Hadeer A. Mahmoud, Alaa El-Din M.M. El-Torky, Akaber T. Keshta.
The present study aimed to evaluate the enzymatic production of XOS, antioxidant activities together with total phenolic contents from different lignocellulosic materials and birchwood xylan using both crude and pure forms of Bacillus amyloliquifaciens NRRL B-14393 xylanase respectively. The mode of action of the pure xylanase was studied by HPLC and the end products analysis of birchwood xylan revealed that xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose were the only end products. The resulted XOS mixture exhibited potent antioxidant activity of 87.36 % and high total phenolic content of 182.88 mg GAE/ liter of extract. XOS were obtained from different alkali pretreated agricultural residues by the crude xylanase action with a yield in a range from 54.4% to 85.5%. Maximum scavenging abilities and total phenolic contents of XOS mixtures of all the tested materials were determined. XOS mixtures of orange and mango peels revealed relatively higher antioxidant activities (96% and 76.84% ,respectively) and total phenolic acid contents (156.32 and 133.74 mg GAE/ liter of extract ,respectively) compared to the other XOS mixtures. In conclusion, Bacillus amyloliquifaciens NRRL B-14393 xylanase could be a promising source for production of XOS with high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities.


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Combination of resveratrol and fluoxetine in an acute model of depression in mice: Prevention of oxidative DNA fragmentation and monoamines degradation

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Omar A.H. Ahmed-Farid, Rania F. Ahmed, Dalia O. Saleh.
Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol with diverse biological activities, including potent hepato-protective and antidepressant-like effects. Fluoxetine (FLX) is one of the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs, however; it has recently been postulated to induce liver damage. The present study aimed to assess the benefits of combining half the conventional doses of RSV and FLX in an acute reserpine model of depression. Depression was induced in mice by a single i.p. reserpine injection. Oral administration of FLX (10 mg/kg), RSV (80 mg/kg) or their combination (FLX; 5 mg/kg and RSV; 40mg/kg) started one hour after reserpine injection and daily for the following two consecutive days. Behavioral tests were performed on the third day. Brain monoamines were assessed. Prevention of neurodegeneration and preservation potential of the DNA integrity were determined according to the brain nitric oxide and 8 -hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine contents. Effect on oxidative stress in both brain and liver was evaluated. Results revealed that combining half the dose of FLX with RSV showed antidepressant activity that was comparable to the effect of using FLX alone and in conclusion; we recommend that further investigations should be conducted to assess the applicability of using combinations of RSV and FLX to treat depression.


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In vitro Anticoagulant Activity of Siddha Sastric Formulation Linga Mathirai compared with Low Molecular Weight Heparin

2016-06-30T00-22-42Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Thanigavelan Vembu, Mathukumar Sivagnanam, Pitchiah Kumar Murugan.
Linga Mathirai (LM) is a Siddha Sastric formulation indicated for treating cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LM against the formation of thrombus and platelet aggregation on compared with Low molecular weight Heparin. In vitro clot lysis and platelet aggregation assays were employed for the study on blood samples of rat. Whole blood samples and platelets obtained by centrifugation were used for clot lysis and aggregation assay respectively. Platelet aggregation was induced by agonists Thrombin and Adenosine diphosphate (ADP). The different concentrations of LM (100, 200, 500, 1000 µL) were prepared with the adjuvant Ginger decoction for test samples and 100 µL low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was used for treating standard group. Against clot formation and platelet aggregation, LM did not exhibit significant efficacy on compared with normal saline (control) and heparin. However, LM at its higher concentration 1000 µL exhibited significant inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation induced by both Thrombin and ADP when compared with distilled water (control). Under this study, it is concluded that the test drug Linga Mathirai had comparable and slightly lesser efficacy than low molecular weight heparin.


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Sodium Butyrate Attenuates Nephrotoxicity Induced by Tamoxifen in Rats

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Hanan Saleh, Basma Mohamed, Mohamed-Assem S. Marie.
Background: Tamoxifen (TAM) is a hormonal selective estrogen modulator used in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. It associated with increased in the oxidative stress in cells leading to tissue injury. Sodium butyrate (NaBu) increased the glutathione redox system and diminished the oxidative stress. Objective: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the ameliorative effect of NaBu against TAM-induced kidney injury by reducing the generation of oxidative stress. Materials and Method: Rats were divided mainly into four group as follow: control, rats received saline for 14 days orally then saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 7 days, NaBu, rats received saline orally for 14 days, NaBu (300mg/kg) (i.p.) for 7 days, TAM, rats received TAM (40mg/kg) orally for 14 days, then saline (i.p.) for 7 days, (TAM-NaBu) rats received TAM orally for 14 days, NaBu (i.p.) for 7 days. Results: Kidney injury followed by TAM treatment was assessed by the elevation in the levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and MDA and reduction in some oxidative biomarkers, in addition to the abnormal architecture of the kidney. Conversely, Administration of sodium butyrate could ameliorate all of these damaging effects in the antioxidant system in the TAM-treated group. Conclusion: NaBu affords significant increments in the antioxidant enzymes. In addition, it has the capacity to protect the kidney from the oxidative stress induced by TAM through improving the kidney function and diminishing the free radicals. Supplementation of NaBu could be useful in alleviating TAM-induced kidney injury.


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Optimized gastroretentive floating carvedilol tablets: an approach for prolonged gastric residence time and enhanced absorption

2016-06-30T00-22-42Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Khalid El-Say.
Carvedilol (CVD) is an antihypertensive agent with short elimination half-life, pH-dependent solubility, and narrow absorption window. So, the present study aimed to prolong its gastric residence time that entailed a development of an optimized gastroretentive floating tablets (GRFTs) using 32 full factorial design. The tablets were fabricated by direct compression using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and carbopol 940 as release retarding polymers. The quality attributes of the tablets were evaluated. The buoyancy lag time, total floating time, swelling ability and in vitro release studies were also carried out in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37 ± 0.5 °C. Statistical data analysis revealed that the optimized formulation containing 21.91% HPMC and 15% carbopol 940 had acceptable hardness, optimum floating behavior and 24h controlled-release pattern. The design succeeded to develop CVD-GRFTs with floating ability and controlled release behavior that could improve its solubility, and improve its availability at the best absorptive site.


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Protective Influence of Ficus asperifolia Miq Leaf Extract on Carbon tetrachloride (CCL4)-Induced Testicular Toxicity in rat’s Testes

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo, Adebola Busola Ojo, Bashir Ajiboye, Adewale Fadaka, Oluwatosin Debbie Imiere, Oluwatosin Adeyonu, Isreal Olayide.
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the polyphenolic rich Ficus asperifolia (Miq.) leaf extract in protecting rat testes against carbon tetrachloride-induced testicular damage in male Wistar rats. Thirty rats (weighing 140 - 180 g) were divided into five groups. In each treatment groups, aqueous extract of F. asperifolia (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw) administered by oral gavage for 21 days before exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) 3 mL kg 1i.p. were used to test protective influence of the plant extract. Protective influence were observed on antioxidant marker enzymes such as reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA) and histological examination.. Animal exposure to the CCl4 resulted in significant elevation in the MDA with concomitant depletion (p

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Efficacy and Safety of Metformin in Weight Loss in Bahraini Population

2016-06-30T00-22-42Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Sayed Mahmood Al-qallaf.
The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of metformin in weight loss in Bahraini population. This study was a cross-sectional survey of 100 Bahraini patients aged 20 or more randomly selected. Using a self-administered questionnaire, volunteers answered questions regarding purposes, doses, side effects and sources of information of metformin and its impact on weight. Results have shown that 44 % of the participants have experienced weight loss after starting metformin. Weight loss reported was 1-5 kilograms by 45.4%and up to 10 Kg by 32 % of participants. Moreover, 23% of the patients have not experienced any adverse effects after starting metformin while some patients had abdominal pain (31 %) or loss of appetite (29 %). The findings of this study prove that metformin is an effective drug for weight loss. The results may have been influenced by other factors such as specific diet and physical exercises. In regard to safety, metformin was found to have a good safety profile as the side effects reported were mild to moderate and tended to subside after a period of use.


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Effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Azospirillum on growth and nutrition of banana plantlets during acclimatization phase

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Villarreal Tania Carina, Medina María Emilia, Ulloa Santiago Miguel, Darwin Rueda Ortiz, Bangeppagari Manjunatha, Selvaraj Thangaswamy, Sikandar I. Mulla.
The effect of the co-inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Azospirillum on micro-propagated banana seedlings development during their adaptation phase was determined. At the time of transplanting, banana seedlings were inoculated with an indigenous mycorrhizal inoculum containing 10 spores/g at four doses: 0, 50, 100 and 200 g. Seventy days after fungal inoculation, 20 ml of Azospirillum in four concentrations (0, 106, 107 and 108 CFU/ml) were applied. Finally, after 98 days from the start of the experiment a second dose (40 ml) of Azospirillum in the concentrations mentioned above was inoculated. Plants were harvested 5 months after transplanting and the growth and nutritional parameters were evaluated. The analysis of the data showed that banana plants co-inoculated with 200 g of AMF and 1.5E8 CFU/ml of Azospirillum presented greater development, an increase of 7 times in height, 4 times in perimeter, 16 times in leaf area, 12 times in aerial biomass, and 8 times in root biomass en relación a las plantas control. The results achieved were due to synergism between fungus-bacteria when inoculated at higher doses, with lower doses stimulating growth is minimal. The co-inoculation in high doses demonstrates adequate support and cooperative effect between HMA and Azospirillum crops. In addition, co-inoculation promotes optimal nutritional status because microorganisms allowed plants achieve greater absorption of phosphorus and nitrogen relative to those treated with single inoculation and the control.sphorus and nitrogen relative to those treated with single inoculation and the control.


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Honey mediated silver nanoparticles and their inhibitory effect on aflatoxins and ochratoxin A

2016-06-30T00-22-42Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Tarek A El-Desouky, Hala A.M. Ammar.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have potential antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. The synthesis of AgNPs have been reported using several chemical and physical methods which are not friendly environment. Therefore, our technique has focused on the synthesis of AgNPs by natural compounds. The aim of this study has been to synthesis AgNPs by safe nontoxic method using Egyptian honey (EH) as reducing and capping agents and to investigate its ability to reduce the mycelial growth and the production of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus, respectively. AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The obtained results indicated that the synthesis of honey AgNPs depends on the concentration of bulk metal (AgNO3) used in the synthesis process. The TEM image has revealed the formation of spherical well dispersed AgNPs, while the main size of AgNPs detected by DSL is 9.9 nm. Our results have indicated that 3 mg -100 ml media of honey derived AgNPs have reduced the aflatoxin (AF) G1, G2, B1 and B2 production by A. parasiticus to 77.55, , 62.91, 58.76 and 66.56%, respectively and ochratoxin A (OTA) by A. ochraceus to 79.85 % with significantly inhibitory effect on mycelial growth. The percentage of reduction depends on the AgNPs concentration.


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Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding exercise among people exercising in gymnasium and recreational parks around Kuantan, Malaysia

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Mohamed Afif Asyraf bin Mohamed Roshdin Murad, Nor Azlina A. Rahman, Nor Iza A. Rahman, Mainul Haque.
Physical inactivity is becoming a global epidemic and lead to many diseases. This cross-sectional study tried to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding exercise among married and single person attending gymnasium and recreational parks. Furthermore, this study tried to look for factors associated with regularity of exercise and to find association between knowledge and attitude on practice of exercise. A total of 103 participants aged above 18 years old were purposely selected to answer an interview-guided questionnaire. Likert scale was used for participants to answer the questionnaire on KAP and the total score for each knowledge, attitude and practice was computed to find the associations using SPSS. The mean age of the respondent was 25.34 years (SD=5.699). Knowledge was not significantly associated with practice (r=0.071, p=0.475). There was also no significant correlation between practice and attitude score (r=0.006, p=0.510). Therefore, there is no association between knowledge and attitude on practice of exercise. Besides that, endurance exercise like jogging, cycling and walking was a respondents choice as their exercise routine. Other than that, there are significant associations between factors of gender (p=0.014), marital status (p


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In vitro antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against biofilm forming bacteria by the pigment from Desert soil Streptomyces sp D25.

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Manikkam Radhakrishnan, Venugopal Gopikrishnan, Ganesan Vijayalakshmi, Vanaja Kumar.
Streptomyces from rare ecosystems is the promising source for secondary metabolites exhibiting diverse biological activities. The present study reports the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against biofilm forming bacteria by the pigment produced from Desert soil Streptomyces sp. D25. Crude pigment from the Streptomyces sp D25 was produced by agar surface fermentation using yeast extract malt extract agar and extracted using ethyl acetate. Antioxidant activity of pigment was tested at 100 -500µg/ml concentration by DPPH and nitric acid scavenging assay. Antimicrobial activity against the biofilm forming bacteria was tested by disc diffusion method. The Streptomyces pigment showed 35.63% and 96.19% free radical scavenging activity in DPPH assay and nitric oxide assay, respectively. The results of radical scavenging activity of pigment in DPPH and nitric oxide assay showed its antioxidant potential. In antimicrobial assay, the pigment showed 10-20 mm inhibition against biofilm forming bacteria at 25µg/ml. Further in vivo studies on this Streptomyces pigment pave the way for its biomedical applications.


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Physalis minima Linn Methanolic Extract Reduces Blood Glucose Level without Compromising Sperm Quality in Normoglycaemic Mice

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Dzulsuhaimi Daud, Siti Fatimah Elias, Fatimah Sarah Mohamad Hassan, Mohammad Noor Jalil, Alene Tawang.
Effects of Physalis minima Linn (PML) methanolic extract on blood glucose level and sperm quality of normoglycaemic mice have been investigated. Twenty four ICR male mice were randomly assigned to four groups and fed with maintenance diets (commercial rat chow, 5 g/head/day and water ad-libitum). Group A (n=6) served as a control and received additional 2 ml/kg bodyweight (bwt) of distilled water, Group B (n=6) was supplemented with 50 mg/kg bwt of PML, Group C (n=6) was supplemented with 100 mg/kg bwt of PML and Group D (n=6) was supplemented with 200 mg/kg bwt of PML. Bodyweight and blood glucose level were monitored on a weekly basis. After four weeks of treatment, all animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and their epididymis was collected and subjected to sperm analysis. Bodyweight was increased (p0.05) were observed between treatments. Blood glucose was decreased significantly (p


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Perception and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among undergraduate students in a Nigerian University

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Ufuoma Shalom Ahwinahwi, Kingsley Chukwudi.
This study was designed to evaluate the Perception and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) among the undergraduate Students of Delta State University (DELSU), Abraka-Nigeria.Self- administered questionnaires were distributed randomly to the participants.Out of 450 students that consented and participated in the study, 368 (81.78%) had used or were currently using at least one of the various CAM modalities; Family members (282, 37.15%) were the most common source of information and knowledge about CAM while Herbal medicine (250, 37.71%) was the most commonly used and perceived to be the most effective CAM method; the most popular ailment effectively treated with CAM was Malaria (142, 34.22%) . Pharmacists (98, 45.80%) played a major role in influencing their perceptions towards CAM use and the major reason for CAM use was that CAM is Cheaper (159, 27.09%) than Conventional medicine, however, lack of scientific evidence to support CAM practices (340, 31.66%) was obtained as the most prevailing barrier to CAM use.Majority of undergraduate Students of DELSU used CAM and possessed positive perceptions of Complementary and Alternative medicine.Concerted efforts should therfore be made by members of the healthcare team to ensure the safety of these modalities.


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Antibacterial activity of the major compound of an endophytic fungus isolated from Garcinia preussii

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Jean-Bosco Jouda, Judith-Laure Demgne Fopossi, Céline Djama Mbazoa, Jean Wandji.
The chemical investigation of the crude extract from the solid state fermentation of Aspergillus japonicus, an endophytic fungus harboring leaf of Garcinia preussii, by means of LC-MS led to the isolation of two compounds, variecolin (1) and neovasifuranone B (2) from the cyclohexane fraction. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of its spectral data with those reported in the literature. The antimicrobial studies showed that the isolated compounds exhibits antibacterial activity


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Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Sumatriptan in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

2016-06-30T00-22-42Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
M. Srinidhi, Md. Mushabbar Basha, V. Raj Kumar, J. Rajendra Kumar.
A simple, highly sensitive stability indicating reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of sumatriptan succinate in bulk and tablet dosage form. The analysis was performed on reverse phase C18 ODS Inertsil (250×4.6mm, 5µm) column, with a mobile phase containing buffer: aetonitrile: methanol (80:10:10 v/v/v), pH was adjusted to 2.5 with orthophosphoric acid (OPA) at 221nm, by an isocratic elution mode with 1ml/min flow rate using photo diode array (PDA) detector at ambient temperature. The injection volume and retention time was found 20μl and 4.4minutes respectively. The method produced linear responses in the concentration range of 5-150 µg/ml, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values for HPLC method were found to be 1.967 and 5.961 μg/ml respectively. The recovery of the method was 98% of the labelled value. This method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity and robustness. Sumatriptan subjected to different ICH prescribed stress conditions of acid, alkali, peroxide, reduction, thermal, photolytic and humidity degradation. This method successfully applied to stability indicating method and also found to be routine quantitative analysis of sumatriptan by easily available materials with low cost.


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Facile way for synthesis silver nanoparticles for obtaining antibacterial textile fabrics

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Ahmed Saad Montaser, Mohamed A Ramadan, Ali Ali Hebeish.
One pot synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with well-defined size using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as stabilizing agent and sodium borohybride (NaBH4) as reducing agent was successfully performed. Preparation of AgNPs was carried out under a variety of conditions including concentrations of AgNPs, PVA and NaBH4. UV-vis spectra and TEM images were employed to characterize AgNPs obtained under the said different conditions. Physical and mechanical properties of cotton/polyester fabric treated with the as-synthesized silver nanoparticles were measured. SEM and EDX used to scanning and monitoring the morphology and elemental change pertaining to fabric surface. Antibacterial activity against E.coli as Gm ve bacteria and Staphylococcus aurous bacteria as Gm +ve bacteria were successfully examined against the treated and untreated fabrics.


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In vitro trypanocidal activity of the Egyptian plant Schinopsis lorentizii against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi

2016-06-30T00-22-42Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Khaled Rashed, Daniele Da Silva Ferreira, Viviane Rodrigues Esperandim, Maria Gabriela Marçal, Breno Mumic Sequeira, Luzio Gabriel Bocalon Flauzino, Wilson Roberto Cunha.
Chagas disease is a chronic illness caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates, approximately 16-18 million people are infected in Latin American. Plant extracts exhibit a wide variety of secondary metabolites and can play an important role in the discovery of new compounds with biological potential. The in vitro trypanocidal activity of the extracts obtained from six plant species collected in Egypt (Parkia africana, Parkia roxburgi, Lagerstromeia speciosa, Schinopsis lorentzii, Lagerstromeia indica, and Sapindus saponaria) was assayed against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of T. cruzi. The cytotoxic activity of the most active extract was also evaluated by conducting MTT assays. S. lorentzii and S. saponaria were the most active extracts against the trypomastigote form; IC50 values were 9.9 and 27.34 g/mL, respectively. The S. lorentzii extract was also evaluated against the amastigote form (IC50 was 111.5 g/mL). The S. lorentzii extract did not exhibit significant cytotoxic activity. The selectivity index value indicated that this extract was highly selective for the parasite. The S. lorentzii and S. saponaria extracts exhibit trypanocidal activity, probably as a result of the presence of different constituents and their concentrations in the extracts.


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Relation between Serum Magnesium Level and Severity and Frequency of Migraine Headache Attacks

2016-06-30T00-22-41Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Ghasem Fattahzadeh Ardalani, Esmaeil Ghoryshi, Bahareh Javani.
Magnesium Level and Severity and Frequency of Migraine Headache Attacks. Methods: This is a clinical trial study that has been done on 100 patients were divided randomly into two groups (Migraine patients and healthy patients each with 50 cases). For the first group (migraine patients) in addition to the usual migraine medication, magnesium oxide pills were prescribed and for healthy patients placebo was administered. Changes in the serum magnesium levels, severity and frequency of migraine headache attacks, one and three months after the start of the study were evaluated and collected data analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.16. Results: In migraine patients, 26% and in healthy patients, 30% were male and rests of them were female. All patients were aged 18-65 years. At one month and three months after intervention, the mean serum magnesium levels and headache severity was similar between two groups. One month later, reducing the number of headache attacks in the migraine patient was similar to the healthy patients but three months later, there was significant difference between two groups. (P= 0.004). Conclusion: Results showed that administration of magnesium can reduce the number of migraine attacks and can be more effective in preventing of disease.


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Triterpenes and Sterols from Hoya diversifolia Blume

2016-06-30T00-22-42Z
Source: Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science
Nelson M. Panajon, Fernando B. Aurigue, Chien-Chang Shen, Consolacion Y. Ragasa.
Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane extracts of Hoya diversifolia Blume led to the isolation of β-amyrin cinnamate (1), squalene (2), β-sitosterol (3), a mixture of β-amyrin (4a), α-amyrin (4b) and lupeol (4c) in a 4:2:1 ratio and saturated hydrocarbons from the leaves; and 2, taraxerol (5), lupeol cinnamate (6), and a mixture of 3 and stigmasterol (7) in a 2:1 ratio from the stems. The structures of 1-7 were identified by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature.


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Haplotype analysis reveals that the recurrent BRCA1 deletion of exons 23 and 24 is a Greek founder mutation

ABSTRACT

A recurrent large genomic rearrangement (LGR) encompassing exons 23 and 24 of the BRCA1 gene has been identified in breast-ovarian cancer families of Greek origin. Its breakpoints have been determined as c.5406 + 664_*8273del11052 (RefSeq: NM_007294.3) and a diagnostic PCR has been set up for rapid screening. In a series of 2,092 high-risk families fully screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations, we have found the deletion in 35 families (1.68%), representing 7.83% of the mutations identified in both genes and 10.3% of the total BRCA1 mutations. In order to characterize this deletion as a founder mutation, haplotype analysis was conducted in 60 carriers from 35 families, using three BRCA1 intragenic microsatellite markers and four markers surrounding the BRCA1 locus. Our results demonstrate a common shared core disease-associated haplotype of 2.89Mb. Our calculations estimate that the deletion has originated from a common ancestor 1,450 years ago, which most probably inhabited the Asia Minor area. The particular (LGR) is the third mutation of such type that is proven to have a Greek founder effect in the Greek population, illustrating the necessity for LGRs testing in individuals of Greek descent.

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

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Spreading depolarization in the brain of Drosophila is induced by inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase and mitigated by a decrease in activity of protein kinase G

Spreading depolarization (SD) is characterized by a massive redistribution of ions accompanied by an arrest in electrical activity that slowly propagates through neural tissue. It has been implicated in numerous human pathologies including migraine, stroke and traumatic brain injury and thus elucidating control mechanisms underlying the phenomenon could have many health benefits. Here we demonstrate the occurrence of SD in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster providing a model system whereby cellular mechanisms can be dissected using molecular genetic approaches. Propagating waves of SD were reliably induced by disrupting the extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) either directly or by inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase with ouabain. The disturbance was monitored by recording the characteristic surges in [K+]o using K+-sensitive microelectrodes or by monitoring brain activity by measuring direct current (DC) potential. Using wild-type flies we show that young adults are more resistant to SD compared to older adults, evidenced by shorter bouts of SD activity and attenuated [K+]o disturbances. Furthermore, we show that the susceptibility to SD differs between wild-type flies and w1118 mutants demonstrating that our ouabain-model is influenced by genetic strain. Lastly, flies with low levels of protein kinase G (PKG) had increased latencies to onset of both ouabain-induced SD and anoxic depolarization compared to flies with higher levels. Our findings implicate the PKG pathway as a modulator of SD in the fly brain and given the conserved nature of the signalling pathway it could likely play a similar role during SD in the mammalian CNS.



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Functional evidence for a direct excitatory projection from the lateral habenula to the ventral tegmental area in the rat

The lateral habenula, a phylogenetically conserved, epithalamic structure, is activated by aversive stimuli and reward omission. Excitatory efferents from the lateral habenula predominately inhibit midbrain dopamine neuronal firing through a disynaptic, feedforward inhibitory mechanism involving the rostromedial tegmental nucleus. However, the lateral habenula also directly targets dopamine neurons within the ventral tegmental area, suggesting that opposing actions may result from increased lateral habenula activity. In the present study, we tested the effect of habenular efferent stimulation on dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area of Sprague-Dawley rats using a parasagittal brain slice preparation. Single pulse stimulation of the fr excited 48% of dopamine and 51% of non-dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area of rat pups. These proportions were not altered by excision of the rostromedial tegmental nucleus and were evident in both cortical and striatal projecting dopamine neruons. Glutamate receptor antagonists blocked this excitation and fr stimulation elicited eEPSPs with a nearly constant onset latency, indicative of a monosynaptic, glutamatergic connection. Comparison of responses in rat pups and young adults showed no significant difference in the proportion of neurons excited by fr stimulation. Our data indicate that the well-known, indirect inhibitory effect of lateral habenula activation on midbrain dopamine neurons is complemented by a significant, direct excitatory effect. This pathway may contribute to the role of midbrain dopamine neurons in processing aversive stimuli and salience.



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A step towards understanding the human ventral visual pathway

The human ventral visual pathway is implicated in higher-order form processing, but the organizational principles within this region are not yet well understood. Recently, Lafer-Sousa and colleagues (J Neurosci, 36:1682-1697) used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate that functional responses in the human ventral visual pathway share a broad homology with the those in macaque inferior temporal cortex (IT), providing new evidence supporting the validity of the macaque as a model of the human visual system in this region. In addition, these results give new clues for understanding the organizational principles within the ventral visual pathway, and the processing of higher-order color and form, suggesting new avenues for research into this cortical region.



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Adaptive muscle plasticity of a remaining agonist following denervation of its close synergists in a model of complete spinal cord injury

Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) alters the contractile properties of skeletal muscle and although exercise can induce positive changes, it is unclear if the remaining motor system can produce adaptive muscle plasticity in response to a subsequent peripheral nerve injury. To address this, the nerve supplying the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was sectioned unilaterally in four cats that had recovered hindlimb locomotion following spinal transection. In these spinal cats, kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were collected before and for 8 weeks after denervation. Muscle histology was performed on the lateral (LG) and medial (MG) gastrocnemii bilaterally in four spinal and four intact cats. In spinal cats, cycle duration for the hindlimb ipsilateral or contralateral to the denervation could be significantly increased or decreased compared to pre-denervation values. Stance duration was generally increased and decreased for the contralateral and ipsilateral hindlimbs, respectively. The EMG amplitude of MG was significantly increased bilaterally following denervation and remained elevated 8 weeks post-denervation. In spinal cats, the ipsilateral LG was significantly smaller than the contralateral LG whereas the ipsilateral MG weighed significantly more than the contralateral MG. Histological characterizations revealed significantly larger fiber areas for Type IIa fibers of the ipsilateral MG in three of four spinal cats. Microvascular density in the ipsilateral MG was significantly higher than the contralateral MG. In intact cats, no differences were found for muscle weight, fiber area or microvascular density between homologous muscles. Therefore, the remaining motor system after complete SCI retains the ability to produce adaptive muscle plasticity.



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Pain Anticipatory Phenomena in Patients with Central Post-stroke Pain: A Magnetoencephalography Study

Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is characterized by hemianesthesia associated with unrelenting chronic pain. The final pain experience stems from interactions between sensory, affective, and cognitive components of chronic pain. Hence, managing CPSP will require integrated approaches aimed not only at the sensory but also the affective-cognitive spheres. A better understanding of the brain's processing of pain anticipation is critical for the development of novel therapeutic approaches that target affective-cognitive networks and alleviate pain-related disability. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize the neural substrates of pain anticipation in patients suffering from intractable CPSP. Simple visual cues evoked anticipation while patients awaited impending painful (PS), non-painful (NPS) or no stimulus (NOS) to their non-affected and affected extremities. MEG responses were studied at gradiometer level event related fields analysis and time-frequency oscillatory analysis upon source localization. On the non-affected side, significantly greater responses were recorded during PS. PS (vs. NPS and NOS) exhibited significant parietal and frontal cortical activations in the beta and gamma bands, respectively, whereas NPS (vs. NOS) displayed greater activation in the orbito-frontal cortex. On the affected extremity, PS (vs. NPS) did not show significantly greater responses. These data suggest that anticipatory phenomena can modulate neural activity when painful stimuli are applied to the non-affected extremity but not the affected extremity in CPSP patients. This dichotomy may stem from the chronic effects of pain on neural networks leading to habituation or saturation. Future clinically-effective therapies will likely be associated with partial normalization of the neurophysiological correlates of pain anticipation.



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Reduced frontal theta oscillations indicate altered crossmodal prediction error processing in schizophrenia

Our brain generates predictions about forthcoming stimuli and compares predicted with incoming input. Failures in predicting events might contribute to hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia (SZ). When a stimulus violates prediction, neural activity that reflects prediction error (PE) processing is found. While PE processing deficits have been reported in unisensory paradigms, it is unknown whether SZ patients (SZP) show altered crossmodal PE processing. We measured high-density electroencephalography and applied source estimation approaches to investigate crossmodal PE processing generated by audiovisual speech. In SZP and healthy controls (HC), we used an established paradigm in which high and low predictive visual syllables were paired with congruent or incongruent auditory syllables. We examined crossmodal PE processing in SZP and HC by comparing differences in event-related potentials and neural oscillations between incongruent and congruent high and low predictive audiovisual syllables. In both groups event-related potentials between 206 and 250 ms were larger in high compared with low predictive syllables, suggesting intact audiovisual incongruence detection in the auditory cortex of SZP. The analysis of oscillatory responses revealed theta-band (4-7 Hz) power enhancement in high compared with low predictive syllables between 230 and 370 ms in the frontal cortex of HC but not SZP. Thus, aberrant frontal theta-band oscillations reflect crossmodal PE processing deficits in SZ. The present study suggests a top-down multisensory processing deficit and highlights the role of dysfunctional frontal oscillations for the SZ psychopathology.



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Competition between movement plans increases motor variability: evidence of a shared resource for movement planning

Do movement plans, like representations in working memory, share a limited pool of resources? If so, the precision with which each individual movement plan is specified should decrease as the total number of movement plans increases. To explore this, human participants made speeded reaching movements toward visual targets. We examined if preparing one movement resulted in less variability than preparing two movements. The number of planned movements was manipulated in a delayed response cueing procedure that limited planning to a single target (Exp. 1) or hand (Exp. 2), or required planning of movements toward two targets (or with two hands). For both experiments, initial movement direction variability was higher in the two-plan than in the one-plan condition, demonstrating a cost associated with planning multiple movements, consistent with the limited resource hypothesis. In a third experiment we show that the advantage in initial variability of preparing a single movement was present only when the trajectory could be fully specified. This indicates that the difference in variability between one and two plans reflects the specification of full motor plans, not a general preparedness to move. The precision cost related to concurrent plans represents a novel constraint on motor preparation, indicating that multiple movements cannot be planned independently, even if they involve different limbs.



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Relating normalization to neuronal populations across cortical areas

Normalization, which divisively scales neuronal responses to multiple stimuli, is thought to underlie many sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. In every study where it has been investigated, neurons measured in the same brain area under identical conditions exhibit a range of normalization, ranging from suppression by nonpreferred stimuli (strong normalization) to additive responses to combinations of stimuli (no normalization; for examples, Lee and Maunsell, 2009; Busse et al., 2009). Normalization has been hypothesized to arise from interactions between neuronal populations, either in the same or different brain areas (Heeger, 1992; Carandini et al., 1997; Carandini and Heeger, 2012; Busse et al., 2009; Chance et al., 2002; Rubin et al., 2013; Rust et al., 2006; Sit et al., 2009), but current models of normalization are not mechanistic and focus on trial-averaged responses. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying normalization, we examined interactions between neurons that exhibit different degrees of normalization. We recorded from multiple neurons in three cortical areas while rhesus monkeys viewed superimposed drifting gratings. We found that neurons showing strong normalization shared less trial-to-trial variability with other neurons in the same cortical area and more variability with neurons in other cortical areas than did units with weak normalization. Furthermore, the cortical organization of normalization was not random: neurons recorded on nearby electrodes tended to exhibit similar amounts of normalization. Together, our results suggest that normalization reflects a neuron's role in its local network and that modulatory factors like normalization share the topographic organization typical of sensory tuning properties.



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Vestibular and oculomotor influences on visual dependency

The degree to which a person relies on visual stimuli for spatial orientation is termed visual dependency (VD). VD is considered a perceptual trait or cognitive style influenced by psychological factors and mediated by central re-weighting of the sensory inputs involved in spatial orientation. VD is often measured using the rod-and-disk test, wherein participants align a central rod to the subjective visual vertical (SVV) in the presence of a background that is either stationary or rotating around the line of sight - dynamic SVV. Although this task has been employed to assess VD in health and vestibular disease, it is unknown what effect torsional nystagmic eye movements may have on individual performance. Using caloric ear irrigation, 3D video-oculography and the rod-and-disk test, we show that caloric torsional nystagmus modulates measures of visual dependency and demonstrate that increases in tilt after irrigation are positively correlated with changes in ocular torsional eye movements. When the direction of the slow phase of the torsional eye movement induced by the caloric is congruent with that induced by the rotating visual stimulus, there is a significant increase in tilt. When these two torsional components are in opposition there is a decrease. These findings show that measures of visual dependence can be influenced by oculomotor responses induced by caloric stimulation. The findings are of significance for clinical studies as they indicate that VD, which often increases in vestibular disorders, is not only modulated by changes in cognitive style but also by eye movements, in particular nystagmus.



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CrossTalk proposal: Metabolic syndrome causes sleep apnoea



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Rebuttal from Craig L. Phillips, Camilla M. Hoyos, Brendon J. Yee and Ronald R. Grunstein



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Rebuttal from Alexandros N. Vgontzas, Jordan Gaines, Silke Ryan and Walter T. McNicholas



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CrossTalk proposal: Sleep apnoea causes metabolic syndrome



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Τετάρτη, 29 Ιουνίου 2016

The 4th Great Wall Symposium, 2015

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Genome-editing technologies for gene correction of hemophilia

Abstract

Hemophilia is caused by various mutations in blood coagulation factor genes, including factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX), that encode key proteins in the blood clotting pathway. Although the addition of therapeutic genes or infusion of clotting factors may be used to remedy hemophilia's symptoms, no permanent cure for the disease exists. Moreover, patients often develop neutralizing antibodies or experience adverse effects that limit the therapy's benefits. However, targeted gene therapy involving the precise correction of these mutated genes at the genome level using programmable nucleases is a promising strategy. These nucleases can induce double-strand breaks (DSBs) on genomes, and repairs of such induced DSBs by the two cellular repair systems enable a targeted gene correction. Going beyond cultured cell systems, we are now entering the age of direct gene correction in vivo using various delivery tools. Here, we describe the current status of in vivo and ex vivo genome-editing technology related to potential hemophilia gene correction and the prominent issues surrounding its application in patients with monogenic diseases.



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