Κυριακή, 17 Ιουλίου 2016

ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF RESIDENTIAL COLLEGE USING GLOBAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE: A CROSS SECTIONAL ANALYSIS

2016-07-17T23-11-17Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Hiral Shah, Hitarthi Dhami, Tarpan Shah.
Background: We are facing a rising trend of NCDs (Non-communicable diseases) associated with sedentary lifestyle. Students who are obese or develop obesity during college years are at increased risk for continued obesity throughout adulthood. Present study was conducted with an objective to study prevalence of sedentary lifestyle among college students and its epidemiological correlates, in particular with the association with hostel residence. Methodology: Cross-sectional analysis of 50 female residential students of age ranged from 19-22 years was conducted for assessment of BMI and Physical activity level by Global Physical Acivity Questinnaire (GPAQ). Informed consent was obtained prior. From GPAQ questionnaire Physical activity level and BMI data was collected and analysis was done. Result: Out of 50 subjects 26% subjects were having vigorous PA. 62% subjects were having moderate PA. 12% subjects were having low PA. Out of 50 subjects 42% subjects were in normal categories. 10% subjects were Overweight. 48% subjects were Underweight. Discussion: In present study, reason for poor physical activity level in 12% students may be physical inactivity during the daily routine and travel domain. They can be encouraged to improve their physical activity level on daily basis. College activities should include compulsory extra-curricular activities to be undertaken by the students such as including sports, athletics, aerobics or yoga. Conclusion: 12% subjects were found to have low PA. 10% subjects were Overweight. 48% subjects were Underweight. There is still a need to encourage students in residential college to be active on routine basis to prevent shattering burden of non-communicable diseases in society.


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ASSOCIATION OF SERUM MAGNESIUM WITH GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

2016-07-17T23-11-17Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
A. Velayutharaj, R. Saraswathi, R. Shivakumar, S. Saha, G. Niranjan, R. Ramesh, AR. Sreenivasan.
Background - Context: Magnesium is an essential intracellular cation involved in many carbohydrate oxidation enzyme reactions and in glucose transporting mechanisms besides its involvement in insulin secretion, binding and activity. Body concentrations of Mg++ lowered by poor glycemic control and may predispose for diabetic complications. Objective: To compare the levels of serum magnesium in type 2 diabetes patients with glycemic control, insulin resistance and lipid profile. Design, setting and patients: 90 type 2 Diabetes patients who are undergoing treatment protocol were followed by a tertiary care hospital and the correlation of serum magnesium levels assessed against indicators of glycemic control and insulin resistance. Main outcome: Since hypomagnesemia is a prime risk factor for the development of micro and macro vascular complications, this study was undertaken to find out the association, if any, between hypomagnesemia, glycemic control, lipid profile and insulin resistance. The results: A plasma Magnesium concentration of 40 (out of 90) type 2 diabetes patients in our study were below the reference range (mean 1.4±0.22 mg %). In patients with hypomagnesemia, the mean Glycated hemoglobin was 9.1±1.4%, which was 130% higher than the mean Glycated hemoglobin value in normomagnesemic patients (6.98±1%) and found significant inverse correlationship between GlycatedHb levels and Serum Magnesium levels at a value of -0.713 with a p value less than 0.01 and also showed significant correlationship with HOM Air values, Fasting blood glucose, and HDL-C levels and TAG levels. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of hypomagnesemia in patients with T2DM reduces insulin sensitivity and may increase the risk of secondary complications. And there was a direct correlation between HDL-C and Magnesium levels; hence it is advisable to periodically monitor plasma Mg++ concentrations in diabetic patients, especially those with other risk factors such as alcoholism, familial history of CVD, etc. to reduce future complications.


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ITEM ANALYSIS OF MCQS’ - MYTHS AND REALITIES WHEN APPLYING THEM AS AN ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR MEDICAL STUDENTS

2016-07-17T23-11-17Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
Priya S. Patil, Manisha R. Dhobale, Nitin R. Mudiraj.
Multiple choice questions [MCQs] form one of the tools for evaluation of medical graduates. The widespread use of MCQs raises the question of their validity and authenticity. The present study was focused on MCQ validation with an attempt to highlight the importance of item analysis and discuss the myths and realities of MCQs. Aim: The aim was to perform Item analysis while probing into myths and realities of MCQ as an assessment tool for first year medical students. A total of hundred students underwent MCQ test as part of their first periodic assessment. Methodology: A total of hundred students underwent MCQ test as part of their first periodic assessment. A pre-validated MCQ test was given to students and a post-validation was done through item analysis. The indices were calculated using Microsoft excel and various indices compared. Results: Inspite of using a well-designed MCQ test validated by senior faculty and colleagues, after item analysis the difficulty index of 65 % items and discrimination index of 75 % items was in the acceptable range. The distractor efficacy showed that 9 out of 120 distractors needed revision. Conclusions: Item analysis must be routinely implemented to validate MCQs. The myths like shortfalls of MCQ framing, only four options in clinical setting or cueing effect are duly considered and the realities like strict and elaborate protocol for MCQ construction, stimulating critical and lateral thinking of students should be implemented. An integrated approach can help to achieve an ideal assessment tool for the benefit of students.


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EFFECTIVENESS OF USING POWER POINT BASED TEACHING VS. BLACK/WHITE BOARD BASED TEACHING AMONG PHYSIOTHERAPY LECTURERS IN LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY - A PILOT STUDY

2016-07-17T23-11-17Z
Source: International Journal of Current Research and Review
T. S. Muthukumar.
Aims: The typical undergraduate and post graduate student of today is accustomed to receiving information on a daily basis in a variety of formats, i.e. multimedia channels. This can lead to teachers to update themselves constantly to enrich the students knowledge. Methodology: Physiotherapy lecturers working in Lovely Professional University were participated in this pilot study and convenient sampling method was incorporated. The participants were asked to answer the questionnaires and the responses were collected by the researcher and depicted in a graph. Results and Conclusion: The overriding conclusion would be that pedagogy must drive educational technology usage rather than the reverse. Since it was a pilot study, the lack of generasibility enables the future research to focus on which instructional devices would be helpful to the physiotherapy teaching community.


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Status dystonicus in two patients with SOX2-anophthalmia syndrome and nonsense mutations

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Effects of valence and arousal on emotional word processing are modulated by concreteness: Behavioral and ERP evidence from a lexical decision task

Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Zhao Yao, Deshui Yu, Lili Wang, Xiangru Zhu, Jingjing Guo, Zhenhong Wang
We investigated whether the effects of valence and arousal on emotional word processing are modulated by concreteness using event-related potentials (ERPs). The stimuli included concrete words (Experiment 1) and abstract words (Experiment 2) that were organized in an orthogonal design, with valence (positive and negative) and arousal (low and high) as factors in a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, the impact of emotion on the effects of concrete words mainly resulted from the contribution of valence. Positive concrete words were processed more quickly than negative words and elicited a reduction of N400 (300–410ms) and enhancement of late positive complex (LPC; 450–750ms), whereas no differences in response times or ERPs were found between high and low levels of arousal. In Experiment 2, the interaction between valence and arousal influenced the impact of emotion on the effects of abstract words. Low-arousal positive words were associated with shorter response times and a reduction of LPC amplitudes compared with high-arousal positive words. Low-arousal negative words were processed more slowly and elicited a reduction of N170 (140–200ms) compared with high-arousal negative words. The present study indicates that word concreteness modulates the contributions of valence and arousal to the effects of emotion, and this modulation occurs during the early perceptual processing stage (N170) and late elaborate processing stage (LPC) for emotional words and at the end of all cognitive processes (i.e., reflected by response times). These findings support an embodied theory of semantic representation and help clarify prior inconsistent findings regarding the ways in which valance and arousal influence different stages of word processing, at least in a lexical decision task.



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Dexmedetomidine acts as an oxidative damage prophylactic in rats exposed to ionizing radiation

To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine on oxidative injury caused by ionizing radiation.

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Risk stratification, perioperative and periprocedural management of the patient receiving anticoagulant therapy

As a result of the aging US population and the subsequent increase in the prevalence of coronary disease and atrial fibrillation, therapeutic use of anticoagulants has increased. Perioperative and periprocedural management of anticoagulated patients has become routine for anesthesiologists, who frequently mediate communication between the prescribing physician and the surgeon and assess the risks of both thromboembolic complications and hemorrhage. Data from randomized clinical trials on perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy are lacking.

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Comparison of esophageal Doppler and plethysmographic variability index to guide intraoperative fluid therapy for low-risk patients undergoing colorectal surgery

This study aims to investigate if there is equivalence in volumes of fluid administered when intravenous fluid therapy is guided by Pleth Variability Index (PVI) compared to the established technology of esophageal Doppler in low-risk patients undergoing major colorectal surgery.

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Systematic Reviews and Clinical Trials in Rehabilitation: Comprehensive Analyses of Publication Trends

Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Tiago S. Jesus
ObjectiveTo analyze publication trends of Clinical Trials (CTs) and Systematic Reviews (SRs) in rehabilitation.DesignPubMed searches were performed with appropriate combinations of Medical Subject Headings. All entries until December 2013, and their yearly distributions since 1981 (when the first rehabilitation SR was identified), were retrieved. After the initial data visualization, data analyses were narrowed to specific time periods. Linear regression techniques analyzed the growth of publications and their relative percentages over time.SettingNot applicable.ParticipantsNot applicable.InterventionsNot applicable.Main Outcome MeasuresNot applicable.ResultsAlthough not observed for SRs, CTs have grown at a much higher rate in rehabilitation than in the broader health/medical field: more than twice the difference, for both time-periods analyzed (1989-2001; 2001-2013). Rehabilitation journals published about 20% or less of the rehabilitation SRs and CTs, and no significant increases were observed over time (p>0.05; 2001-2013). Neurological conditions, particularly cerebrovascular, were the most addressed by rehabilitation SRs & CTs, while differences between neurological and other groups of conditions typically widened over time (e.g. more than doubled between neurological and musculoskeletal conditions in 15 years).ConclusionWhile publications of CTs are increasing at a much higher rate within rehabilitation than within broader healthcare, further research is warranted to explain why this trend is not being followed by SRs, particularly those with meta-analysis. Similarly, research might determine whether the (growing) differences in the publications of rehabilitation SRs & CTs across groups of conditions are justified by clinical or population need.



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Ultrasonographic measures of the acromiohumeral distance and supraspinatus tendon thickness in manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury

Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Amélie Fournier Belley, Dany H. Gagnon, François Routhier, Jean-Sébastien Roy
Objective1) To evaluate the reliability of ultrasonographic (US) measures of acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in shoulder positions linked to wheelchair propulsion in manual wheelchair users (MWU) with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodies; 2) to compare US measures of AHD, supraspinatus tendon thickness and occupation ratio between MWU with SCI with and without shoulder pain (rotator cuff [RC] tendinopathy); and 3) to compare these US measures between MWU with SCI and able-bodies.DesignCross-sectionalSettingTwo rehabilitation centers (Quebec City and Montreal)ParticipantsObjective 1: 16 MWU with SCI and 16 able-bodies; Objectives 2 and 3: 37 MWU with SCI (17 with/20 without RC tendinopathy) and 26 able-bodies.InterventionsNot applicable.Main outcome measureAHD and supraspinatus tendon thickness measured using US-imaging systems, as well as the occupation ratio of the supraspinatus tendon.Results1) Excellent intra- and interrater reliability of AHD was obtained in each arm position (ICC > 0.85); 2) MWU without shoulder pain have thicker tendon than MWU with RC tendinopathy; and 3) a significant Group x Position interaction was found for AHD measures when comparing MWU with SCI to able-bodies (greater AHD at the end of push phase for MWU with SCI). A thicker tendon and a higher occupation ratio were also found in MWU with SCI compared to able-bodies.ConclusionUS is a reliable technology to evaluate AHD in MWUs in shoulder positions linked to wheelchair propulsion. Supraspinatus tendon thickness and occupation ratio of AHD adequately discriminate between MWU with SCI and able-bodies. This shows that these US measurements can be used in future studies on SCI populations to better understand the changes at the shoulder joint in MWUs.



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