Σάββατο, 28 Ιουλίου 2018

Provider Counseling About Secondhand Smoke Exposure for Urban Children With Persistent or Poorly Controlled Asthma

Urban children continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS), and this is particularly concerning for children with asthma. The objective of this study is to describe SHS exposure among urban children with asthma and assess SHS counseling delivered at primary care visits. We interviewed caregivers of 318 children (2–12 years) with persistent asthma at the time of a health care visit and reviewed medical records. We found that one third (32%) of children lived with a caregiver who smoked and that 15% lived with other smokers.

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The Relationship Between Neighborhood Safety and Children's Asthma: An Integrative Review

There is a growing body of research analyzing the relationships between neighborhood safety and children's asthma prevalence and control. There are several inconsistencies in concepts and methods that have led to mixed results. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence analyzing neighborhood safety and childhood asthma and identify nursing research and policy implications.

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Collaborative Care of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An Innovative Partnership to Serve Rural Pediatric Patients

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral health disorder in childhood that causes significant impairments in quality of life, home relationships, and school success. Despite a substantial evidence base and corresponding practice guidelines established by the American Academy of Pediatrics that support use of behavioral therapy to treat ADHD, affected patients infrequently receive therapy. This article will review the causes of underuse of behavioral therapy and methods to overcome these barriers such as integrating behavioral health care, thereby creating a pediatric patient–centered medical home.

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P30. A novel application of the Phase-lag-Index in functional connectivity research

The phase-lag-index (PLI) (Stam et al., 2007) is a commonly used method to quantify functional connectivity (FC) in EEG/MEG data. When calculated for short epochs in the order of several seconds, PLI varies considerably from epoch to epoch. Using resting-state EEG data from 105 healthy subjects, we demonstrate that the pattern of correlations between PLI time-series is characteristic for an individual's brain. In addition to acting as an identifying fingerprint, this pattern is also highly gender-specific and bears characteristics that are shared among people and also between hemispheres.

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Massive hemobilia following plastic stent removal in common bile duct cancer associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (with video)

Abstract

Hemobilia is defined as bleeding into the biliary tract. Herein, we report a very rare case of massive hemobilia following plastic stent (PS) removal in common bile duct (CBD) cancer. A 72-year-old man with primary sclerosing cholangitis had undergone repeated insertion of a PS into the CBD. Biliary tract biopsy was performed based on suspicion of combined CBD cancer. Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the CBD. One month after the biliary tract biopsy, he was admitted for acute cholangitis, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was performed for the exchange of the PS. When one of the two biliary PSs was removed, spurting bleeding from the major papilla began abruptly. The massive bleeding caused the patient to be in a pre-shock state. A retrieval balloon catheter was compressed against the papilla for hemostasis. Although he was treated conservatively, the patient developed a bloody discharge. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed that the pulsatile bleeding beside the PSs started immediately after the removal of the coagula. Emergent contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed right hepatic artery aneurysm across the CBD. Therefore, transarterial embolization was performed. The patient's post-therapeutic course was uneventful. He received chemotherapy, but died about a half year after hemobilia occurred.



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Reply to: Sarcopenia definition in patients with NAFLD



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Gastric Ultrasound for the Regional Anesthesiologist and Pain Specialist

This article in our series on point-of-care ultrasound (US) for the regional anesthesiologist and pain management specialist describes the emerging role of gastric ultrasonography. Although gastric US is a relatively new point-of-care US application in the perioperative setting, its relevance for the regional anesthesiologist and pain specialist is significant as our clinical practice often involves providing deep sedation without a secured airway. Given that pulmonary aspiration is a well-known cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality, the ability to evaluate for NPO (nil per os) status and risk stratify patients scheduled for anesthesia is a powerful skill set. Gastric US can provide valuable insight into the nature and volume of gastric content before performing a block with sedation or inducing anesthesia for an urgent or emergent procedure where NPO status is unknown. Patients with comorbidities that delay gastric emptying, such as diabetic gastroparesis, neuromuscular disorders, morbid obesity, and advanced hepatic or renal disease, may potentially benefit from additional assessment via gastric US before an elective procedure. Although gastric US should not replace strict adherence to current fasting guidelines or be used routinely in situations when clinical risk is clearly high or low, it can be a useful tool to guide clinical decision making when there is uncertainty about gastric contents. In this review, we will cover the relevant scanning technique and the desired views for gastric US. We provide a methodology for interpretation of findings and for guiding medical management for adult patients. We also summarize the current literature on specific patient populations including obstetrics, pediatrics, and severely obese subjects. Accepted for publication April 14, 2018. Address correspondence to: Stephen C. Haskins, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E 70th St, New York, NY 10021 (e-mail: haskinss@hss.edu). The authors declare no conflict of interest. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.rapm.org). Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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