Παρασκευή, 6 Ιουλίου 2018

Transcription factor 21 regulates expression of ERβ and SF-1 via upstream stimulatory factor-2 in endometriotic tissues

Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018

Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms

Author(s): Pei-Li Wu, Yan Zhou, Cheng Zeng, Xin Li, Zhao-Tong Dong, Ying-Fang Zhou, Serdar E. Bulun, Qing Xue

Abstract

Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, encoded by NR5A1) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ, encoded by ESR2), which are highly expressed in endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs), contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis, but the regulation mechanism remains largely unknown. Transcription factor 21 (TCF21) belongs to the helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family characterized by regulating gene expression via binding to E-box element. Here, we attempted to determine the molecular mechanism of TCF21 on SF-1 and ERβ expression in endometriosis. We found that TCF21 expression in ESCs was higher than that in endometrial stromal cells (EMs), and positively correlated with SF-1 and ERβ expression in ESCs. Since the importance of E-box element for NR5A1 promoter activity has been previously reported, we performed site-mutation and luciferase assay, revealing that the E-box sequence in the ESR2 promoter is also a critical element modulating ERβ expression. Upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) is another bHLH factor implicated in transcriptional regulation. Further analyses elucidated that it is not TCF21, but USF2 exhibited higher binding affinities in ESCs to NR5A1 and ESR2 promoters than in EMs. Additionally, TCF21 knockdown significantly decreased the binding activities of USF2 to NR5A1 and ESR2 promoters via disruption of the TCF21-USF2 complex. Meanwhile, manipulating TCF21 expression significantly affected MMP9 and cyclinD1 expression, as wells as proliferation and invasion of ESCs. Moreover, TCF21 depletion in endometriotic xenografts reduced SF-1 and ERβ expression, abrogating ectopic lesion growth in mice. Cumulatively, a critical role of TCF21 in the pathogenesis of endometriosis is demonstrated, suggesting a potential druggable target for future therapy.



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The expression of natriuretic peptide receptors in developing zebrafish embryos

Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018

Source: Gene Expression Patterns

Author(s): Jie Gong, Linlin Chai, Guangmin Xu, You Ni, Dong Liu

Abstract

There are three isoforms of natriuretic peptide (NP) specific cell surface receptor: NP receptor-A (NPRA), receptor-B (NPRB), and receptor-C (NPRC). They are also known as NPR1, NPR2 and NPR3, respectively. NPs and their receptors were revealed to involve in diverse cellular and physiological processes including renal, cardiovascular, neuronal, and immunological aspects. However, the systematic analysis of the expression of these receptors in non-mammalian vertebrates is thus far lacking. In this study, two versions of the npr1 gene (npr1a and npr1b) in zebrafish was identified. Multiple sequences alignment analysis showed that zebrafish NPRs shared high homologies with NPRs of other species and possessed a typical signature domain of NPRs. The results of whole mount in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that at embryonic stages, npr1a was mainly expressed in tectal ventricle, brian, heart and retina, whereas npr1b was broadly present in anterior pronephric duct. Unlike npr1, npr2 mainly expressed in branchial arches and neural tube during embryonic development. However, npr3 was expressed in pronephric ducts and corpuscle of stannius in zebrafish embryos at 72 hpf. In adults, we demonstrated that all the three NP receptors were highly existed in brain and kidney. Overall, these findings will provide an important basis for the functional analysis of NPs and its receptor during embryonic development.



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Pediatric Ambulatory Continuous Peripheral Nerve Blocks

Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Sible Antony, Harshad Gurnaney, Arjunan Ganesh



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Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia for Acute Trauma Patients

Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Ian R. Slade, Ron E. Samet



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What Can Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Learn from “Big Data”?

Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Nabil M. Elkassabany, Stavros G. Memtsoudis, Edward R. Mariano



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Enhanced theta-gamma coupling associated with hippocampal volume increase following high-frequency left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with major depression

Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018

Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology

Author(s): Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Daniel M. Blumberger, Motoaki Nakamura

Abstract

The underlying mechanism of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) effects on cognition has not been fully examined. Previously, we have reported the left hippocampal volume increase and theta-gamma coupling (TGC) enhancement associated with working memory improvement following rTMS in depression. This study was aimed to examine whether there is a structure-function relationship in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by prefrontal rTMS. Thirty-one patients with major depression underwent longitudinal MRI scans and resting-state EEG recordings with the 10–20 system using averaged ear-lobes reference, following 10 sessions of high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Pearson's correlation analyses were applied for the longitudinal changes among the left and right hippocampal volumes as measured by manual volumetry, theta and gamma spectral powers, and TGC as measured by resting-state EEG. The analyses demonstrated that the left hippocampus volume increases correlated with TGC increases at the left central area (r= 0.576, p = 0.001, N = 31), whereas no significant correlations were observed among changes of right hippocampal volume, right central TGC, bilateral gamma or theta powers. These finding suggests structure-function relationship in rTMS-induced neuroplastic changes mediated through the hippocampus and prefrontal network at the stimulated side. Therefore, high-frequency prefrontal rTMS may exert its cognitive effect through the hippocampal structural-functional neuroplasticity.



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Suppression of 12-Hz SSVEPs when viewing familiar faces: An electrophysiological index to detect recognition

Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018

Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology

Author(s): Ming Lui, Kelvin F.H. Lui, Alan C.-N. Wong, J. Peter Rosenfeld

Abstract

Criminal investigation often involves finding out what a suspect knows about people, such as victims and confederates, who are involved in the crime. This study explored the possibility of determining a person's recognition of other individuals by analyzing the steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) triggered by visual oscillations of familiar and unfamiliar faces. In our study, 23 adult (10 men) participants gave subjective familiarity ratings (in a 7-point Likert scale) of >300 celebrities' and strangers' faces. For each participant, ten familiar and ten unfamiliar faces were selected based on his/her ratings. The selected faces were presented at 6 Hz while the participants performed a color change detection task orthogonal to the attributes of faces. The task was designed to maintain participants' visual attention towards the faces throughout the stimulus oscillations. Any difference between conditions would indicate modulation of visual attention by face familiarity. Results showed that the 12-Hz event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs in decibel) at parietal-occipital electrodes were significantly lower when viewing familiar faces compared to unfamiliar faces. In individual level analysis, 18 out of 23 (78%) participants had significantly lower 12-Hz ERSPs at left parietal-occipital ROI in familiar face than unfamiliar face trials. This is the first study to demonstrate that SSVEPs triggered by stimulus oscillations can reveal people's recognition of faces with only 20 trials per condition and 10-s for each trial.



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Accuracy of Photogrammetry for Detecting Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Progression

The gold standard method of monitoring the evolution of scoliosis has been serial standing, posteroanterior, full-length spine radiographs with curvature measurements using the Cobb method. However, over the course of follow-up, patients can receive high radiation doses. Various studies have shown that repeated exposure to radiation in children and adolescents can be harmful to their health.

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Risk factors for nonroutine discharge in adult spinal deformity surgery

Surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) is increasingly common. Although outcomes of ASD surgery have been studied extensively, to our knowledge, no data exist regarding factors predicting nonroutine discharge in this population. Nonroutine discharge is defined as discharge to a health care facility after surgery rather than to home.

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Enhancement and bilateral synchronization of ripples in atypical benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes

Benign epilepsy in childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS), or Rolandic epilepsy is the most common childhood epilepsy syndrome, and it is often described clinically as "benign" drug-sensitive epilepsy (Fejerman, 2008). The seizures occur during sleep in most children. Atypical clinical presentations of BECTS have been reported in some patients (Fejerman, 2009). One such presentation includes frequent drug-resistant seizures (Datta, 2007) that could result in permanent learning and behavioral disabilities (Hahn, 2001; Uliel-Sibony, 2015); this presentation is termed "atypical forms" of BECTS (ABECTS, atypical Rolandic epilepsy; Fejerman 2009).

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Impact of non-brain anatomy and coil orientation on inter- and intra-subject variability in TMS at midline

Publication date: September 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 9

Author(s): Erik G. Lee, Priyam Rastogi, Ravi L. Hadimani, David C. Jiles, Joan A. Camprodon

Abstract
Objective

To investigate inter-subject variability with respect to cerebrospinal fluid thickness and brain-scalp distance, and to investigate intra-subject variability with different coil orientations.

Methods

Simulations of the induced electric field (E-Field) using a figure-8 coil over the vertex were conducted on 50 unique head models and varying orientations on 25 models. Metrics exploring stimulation intensity, spread, and localization were used to describe inter-subject variability and effects of non-brain anatomy.

Results

Both brain-scalp distance and CSF thickness were correlated with weaker stimulation intensity and greater spread. Coil rotations show that for the dorsal portion of the stimulated brain, E-Field intensities are highest when the anterior-posterior axis of the coil is perpendicular to the longitudinal fissure, but highest for the medial portion of the stimulated brain when the coil is oriented parallel to the longitudinal fissure.

Conclusions

Normal anatomical variation in healthy individuals leads to significant differences in the site of TMS, the intensity, and the spread. These variables are generally neglected but could explain significant variability in basic and clinical studies.

Significance

This is the first work to show how brain-scalp distance and cerebrospinal fluid thickness influence focality, and to show the disassociation between dorsal and medial TMS.



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Enhancement and bilateral synchronization of ripples in atypical benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes

Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology

Author(s): Satoru Ikemoto, Shin-ichiro Hamano, Susumu Yokota, Reiko Koichihara, Yuko Hirata, Ryuki Matsuura

Abstract
Objective

To determine whether the characteristics of scalp-recorded high frequency oscillations, especially ripples, can predict the "atypical forms" of benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (ABECTS), in BECTS.

Methods

Seven patients with ABECTS and eighteen patients with BECTS underwent electroencephalography (EEG) in the secondary bilateral synchrony (SBS) and non-SBS periods for ABECTS patients. SBS period is that when more than 50% of the interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are bilaterally synchronized. We determined the IED-ripple co-occurrence rate, performed time frequency analysis, and calculated the asymmetry index (AI).

Results

The IEDs-ripple co-occurrence rate increased in the SBS compared to the non-SBS period. Time frequency analysis showed higher high-frequency activity rate and peak power in the SBS than in the non-SBS period. The AI was lower in ABECTS than BECTS, both in the non-SBS and SBS periods.

Conclusions

Ripples were enhanced in the SBS period of ABECTS, and bilaterally synchronized both in the non-SBS and SBS periods, whereas ripples in BECTS were localized unilaterally.

Significance

Bilaterally synchronized ripples in the non-SBS period of ABECTS may distinguish ABECTS from BECTS in the non-SBS period of IEDs, and may be helpful for early detection of progressive neurophysiological regression leading to early intervention.



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Cerebral blood flow modulations during proactive control in major depressive disorder

Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018

Source: International Journal of Psychophysiology

Author(s): Alexandra Hoffmann, Casandra I. Montoro, Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso, Stefan Duschek

Abstract

In addition to mood disturbance, as well as motivational and somatic symptoms, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently experience impairments in attention and cognitive control. This study investigated cerebral blood flow modulations during proactive control in MDD, which refers to cognitive processes occurring during anticipation of a behaviourally relevant event. Using functional transcranial Doppler sonography, blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral arteries of both hemispheres were recorded in 40 individuals with MDD and 40 healthy participants during a pre-cued mental arithmetic task. The task required addition of one-digit numbers, which were presented 5 s after an acoustic warning signal. Response time on the task was longer in individuals with MDD than in healthy controls. Moreover, individuals with MDD exhibited smaller bilateral blood flow increases between the cuing tone and task presentation. In contrast, no group difference arose for blood flow modulations associated with arithmetic processing. The prolonged response time accords with previous reports of attentional impairments in MDD. As a measure of brain metabolism, cerebral blood flow modulations are indirectly associated with neural activity. Therefore, reduced cerebral blood flow increase during the preparatory period may reflect diminished neural processing related to proactive control in MDD. In contrast, processes associated with the actual execution of the arithmetic task seemed to be unaffected.



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Over 100 years of Krapina: New insights into the Neanderthal thorax from the study of rib cross-sectional morphology

Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018

Source: Journal of Human Evolution

Author(s): Daniel García-Martínez, Davorka Radovčić, Jakov Radovčić, Zachary Cofran, Antonio Rosas, Markus Bastir

Abstract

The Krapina costal sample was studied by Gorjanović-Kramberger in the early twentieth century. He pointed out unique features in the sample such as the rounder rib cross-section, which was recently confirmed in other Neanderthal specimens. Round rib cross-sections are characteristic of Homo ergaster, suggesting this may be plesiomorphic for Pleistocene Homo, but it is unknown whether Homo antecessor also had this rib shape. Furthermore, the influence of allometry on the cross-sectional shape of ribs is still unknown. The large costal sample from Krapina allows us to address these issues. We quantified cross-section morphology at the midshaft throughout a closed curve of one landmark and nine sliding semilandmarks in the Krapina costal remains (n = 7), as well as in other Neanderthals (n = 50), H. antecessor (n = 3) and modern humans, both fossil (n = 12) and recent (n = 160). We used principal components analysis and mean comparisons to explore interspecific differences, regression analysis to investigate allometry, and partial least squares analysis to examine covariation of cross-section shape and overall rib morphology. Neanderthal cross-sections tended to be larger than those of recent humans except for the Krapina and Tabun remains. Regarding shape, inter-group differences were found only in the diaphragmatic thorax, where Neanderthal and H. antecessor ribs were statistically significantly rounder than those of modern humans. Allometry accounted for covariation of size on shape, but the Neandertal and modern human trajectories had different slopes. While our results based on the Krapina costal sample are similar to previous findings, we also make several new insights: 1) the cross-section morphology observed in Neanderthals was probably present in H. antecessor, albeit less marked; 2) the distinct roundness of Neanderthal cross-sections is not related to size; 3) rounder cross-sections are correlated with ribs presenting less curvature in cranial view and a low degree of torsion in recent humans. These results are important for the interpretation of fragmentary Neanderthal costal remains, and the fact that the differences are marked only in the diaphragmatic thorax could have implications for breathing kinematics.



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Combined laparoscopic and perineal approach for the management of recurrent tailgut cyst

Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery, EarlyView.


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Four‐directional approach to the meso‐transverse attachment combined with preoperative radiological vascular simulation facilitates short‐term surgical outcomes in laparoscopic transverse colon cancer surgery

Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery, EarlyView.


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Thoracoscopic resection for mediastinal thymolipoma in a child

Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery, EarlyView.


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Depression, Metabolic Syndrome, and Locus of Control in Arab Americans Living in the DC Metropolitan Area: A Structural Equation Model

Abstract

Arab Americans have high prevalences of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and depression. Depression and external locus of control (LOC) may worsen MetS. We examined the relationship between depression and MetS with a convenience sample of 136 Arab Americans living in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Participants were surveyed with the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control questionnaire and the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Laboratory measurements were collected based on the components of MetS. A structural equation model was used to explore the relationship between MetS and depression through analysis of LOC. MetS was significantly correlated with external LOC (powerful others and chance), and depression was correlated with a weak internal LOC. Future study of the effect of LOC on health outcomes in Arab Americans may be used to mitigate MetS and depression in this population.



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Psychological Distress of Ethnically Diverse Adult Caregivers in the California Health Interview Survey

Abstract

This study examined factors associated with psychological distress for culturally diverse family caregivers using a population-based sample. Data were analyzed from the 6634 caregivers of adults (i.e. elderly as well as non-elderly) who self-reported as non-Hispanic White, Mexican, Chinese, or Vietnamese in the 2009 California Health Interview Survey. Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the potential influence of race/ethnicity, caregiving context, and social contextual variables on psychological distress. Analyses that included moderators showed that while more education was associated with less distress for White caregivers, it was associated with more distress for Vietnamese and Chinese caregivers. Identifying the caregiving and contextual variables associated with psychological distress is critical for tailoring interventions towards those who need the most help—in this case, possibly less educated White caregivers and more educated Asian American caregivers.



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Socio-demographic Moderators of Associations Between Psychological Factors and Latinas’ Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors

Abstract

This study tested whether socio-demographic factors moderated associations between psychological factors and Latinas' breast cancer screening behaviors. 222 churchgoing Latinas (40–65 years) in San Diego, CA completed surveys assessing socio-demographics (e.g., income and acculturation), psychological factors (e.g., perceived barriers to screening), and cancer screening behaviors. Multilevel models examined associations of socio-demographic and psychological factors (and their interactions) with adherence to annual mammography or clinical breast exam (CBE) screening. Although no main effects were found, there were moderation effects. Acculturation moderated associations between perceived barriers to screening and both screening outcomes, with inverse associations only among the high-acculturation group. Education moderated the relationship between perceived barriers to screening and CBE screening, with an inverse association only among the low-education group. Marital status moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and CBE screening, with an inverse association only among single/non-partnered participants. Interventions are needed targeting psychological barriers to breast cancer screening among Latinas.



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Comparing Oral Health Services Use in the Spanish and Immigrant Working Population

Abstract

We aim to analyze oral health services use and related factors in the immigrant working population compared to the Spanish counterparts. Cross-sectional study of working population (n = 8591) that responded Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS), 2011–2012. The association between oral health services use and migration status was estimated using logistic regression. Immigrant men presented a greater probability of oral health service use a year or more prior (aOR 1.63; 95% CI 1.26–2.02), independently of oral health, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics. In immigrant women, greater probability of use of oral health services one year or more prior disappeared after adjusting for the same variables (aOR 1.15; 95% CI 0.91–1.45). Occupational social class and education level could explain better a high percentage of oral health service use one year or more prior in immigrant women but there is a persistent inequality in oral health service use in immigrant men.



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The Individual and Organizational Role of Physicians in Mitigating the Biological, Psychological and Social Health Consequences of Displacement

Abstract

The number of Internally Displaced People is growing globally with a significant number travelling to countries such as Canada. These individuals have unique health care needs that are significantly impacted by several social determinants of health, which provides a challenge to the physician as they must address the biological, psychological and social factors in order to effectively improve the health of this population. The physician must work at the individual, national, and international levels and collaborate with other health care workers in order to effectively address these complex health care issues. Some recent strategies that show promise in targeting these complex care issues include knowledge sharing among medical professionals, specialized treatment approaches including treatment through telemedicine as well as political advocacy. The application of strategies such as these, along with increased awareness and commitment from physicians, will work to improve health care and prevent negative health outcomes in this growing population.



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“People Give Opinions, but the Decision Belongs to the Patient”: Examining Cancer Treatment Decisions Among Latinos/as in Central Florida

Abstract

Latinos/as, the fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States, experience high cancer rates. Factors contributing to treatment decisions among Latinos diagnosed with cancer must be studied. This paper aims to identify treatment decisions among Latinos with cancer and examine factors influencing these decisions. A qualitative exploratory study using semi-structured interviews of 60 Latino/as diagnosed with cancer was conducted. Close-ended responses were analyzed using percentages and frequency distributions, while open-ended responses were analyzed using open coding and thematic categorization. Surgery was the most commonly chosen treatment among participants because it was perceived as providing the highest chance of prolonging life. Only 57% of participants were provided with treatment options. Latinos/as typically prefer modest, paternalistic patient–physician relationships. Therefore, providing culturally appropriate information is valuable. This study underscores the need for health providers to present all available treatment options to enhance cancer treatment outcomes



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Caribbean (English-Speaking) Women in the United States: Cooking for Diabetes Prevention and Management

Abstract

This study surveyed 152 Caribbean–American women about their acculturation levels; their health behaviors; and their perceptions about a website portal for diabetes prevention and management. Participants followed a study link to documents created via SurveyMonkey. The study link included seven edited videos each fewer than 2 min; the videos included ingredients; preparation/cooking instructions; and plating tips for modifying traditional Caribbean meals for diabetes management and prevention. Overall engagement in six healthy living behaviors was moderate Mean = 2.07; Minimum = 1 (Never); Maximum = 3.0 (Always). Self-efficacy for cooking 'healthy' before exploring the website was a mean 3.52 between 40 and 60% confident (SD = 1.509) versus the after Mean of 4.59 closest to 80% confident (SD = 1.154); t = − 10.353, df = 147 (P < 0.001). The results suggest the website did serve as a brief intervention for increasing self-efficacy in cooking meals more consistent with diabetes prevention and management.



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Acculturation Strategies and Symptoms of Depression: The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study

Abstract

Using latent class analysis, we previously identified three acculturation strategies employed by South Asian immigrants in the US. Members of the Separation class showed a preference for South Asian culture over US culture, while members of the Assimilation class showed a preference for US culture, and those in the Integration class showed a similar preference for South Asian and US cultures. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between these acculturation strategies and symptoms of depression, a common yet underdiagnosed and undertreated mental disorder. We used data from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study (n = 856). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2013 in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D Scale. Applying a simple new method to account for uncertainty in class assignment when modeling latent classes as an exposure, we found that respondents in the Separation class had more depressive symptoms than those in the Integration class, but only after taking into account self-reported social support (b = 0.11; p = 0.05). There were no differences in depressive symptoms among those in the Assimilation class vs. those in the Integration class (b = −0.06; p = 0.41). Social support may protect against elevated symptoms of depression in South Asian immigrants with lower levels of integration into US culture.



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Healthy Living Behaviors Among Chinese–American Preschool-Aged Children: Results of a Parent Survey

Abstract

Associations between diet, physical activity, parenting, and acculturation among Chinese-American children are understudied. Parents/caregivers of children attending child-care programs in Boston Chinatown completed a self-administered survey on demographics, child's diet, physical activities, anthropometrics, and parenting practices. Associations were evaluated in multivariable regression analysis, stratified by survey language preference, a proxy for acculturation. Responding Asian families = 132; 86.4% were immigrants; 75.8% completed the Chinese-version survey. Children (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 1.1 years) did not eat vegetables (31.8%), or play actively outside (45.4%) daily, 64.8% watched television/screens daily; 32.6% were overweight/obese (based on parent report). Parenting practices associated with obesity were apparent. Although healthy-living behavioral outcomes were less prevalent among less acculturated parents; multivariable adjustment attenuated the observed significant differences. Findings suggest opportunities for improvement in study children's diet and healthy-living behaviors, and underscore the need for further research on acculturation, and parenting styles in this population.



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General and Ethnic-Biased Bullying Among Latino Students: Exploring Risks of Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Substance Use

Abstract

Using a cross-sectional sample of 534 Latino students from middle and high schools in a large North Carolina school district, we examined the relation of general and ethnic-biased bullying to depression and the indirect pathways through depression to suicidal ideation and substance use outcomes. A structural equation model tested the direct and indirect paths. The final model fit was excellent, χ2(90) = 127.6, p = .0056, RMSEA = 0.028, CFI = 0.974, TLI = 0.961. Ethnic-biased and verbal or relational bullying had a direct effect on depression, but general and physical bullying did not. Indirect effects through depression were found for ethnic-biased and verbal or relational bullying in relation to suicidal ideation, alcohol, and illicit drug use. Child nativity was marginally associated with ethnic-biased bullying, indicating foreign-born students may experience greater ethnic-biased bullying. Implications for future research and bullying prevention are discussed.



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Effects of acute ingestion of whey protein with or without prior aerobic exercise on postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetics

Abstract

Purpose

Acute protein co-ingestion or a single bout of aerobic exercise can attenuate postprandial glycemia, but their combined effect has not been investigated in type 2 diabetics.

Methods

Using a randomised crossover design, male type 2 diabetics (n = 8) [mean (95% CI); age, 55.0 (45.2, 64.8) year; BMI, 33.7 (25.6, 41.8) kg·m− 2; 2 h glucose 14.0 (12.5, 15.5) mM] completed (1) 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (CON); (2) OGTT supplemented with 0.33 g·kg BM− 1 of whey protein concentrate (PRO); or OGTT supplemented with PRO but preceded by a bout of aerobic cycling exercise (PRO + EX). Postprandial venous blood samples were collected for glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon.

Results

Despite a fold-increase of 1.90 (1.26, 2.56; p < 0.05) in postprandial insulin compared to CON, PRO failed to attenuate postprandial glycemia measured by 2 h glucose area under the curve. During PRO + EX, plasma glucose was elevated by 1.51 (0.5, 2.5) mM and 1.3 (0.3, 2.3) mM at 15 and 30 min, respectively, compared to CON, but was lower by 1.60 (0.6, 2.6) mM and 1.5 (0.5, 2.5) mM at 90 and 120 min, respectively (all p < 0.01). The additive effect of exercise and protein ingestion resulted in a fold-increase of 1.67 (1.35, 2.00; p < 0.05) in postprandial glucagon compared to CON.

Conclusion

In type 2 diabetics, prior aerobic exercise altered the humoral response to co-ingestion of whey protein with a carbohydrate load, but neither protein ingestion alone nor when preceded by prior exercise attenuated postprandial glycemia.



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Completeness of a Maternal and Perinatal Mortality Enhanced Surveillance System in Pakistan: Evidence from Capture–Recapture Methods

Abstract

Objectives An enhanced surveillance system that integrated health information systems and extended surveillance to previously uncovered areas to capture all births, perinatal and maternal deaths in a rural district of Pakistan was established in 2015, and this study uses capture–recapture methodology to assess completeness. Methods Births and deaths collected by the survey were matched with the data captured by the enhanced surveillance system. Capture–recapture methodology was used to estimate the total number of births and deaths, measure the degree of underestimation, and adjust mortality rates. Results Of all births, 99% were captured by the enhanced surveillance system. Ninety percent of neonatal deaths and 86% of early neonatal deaths were recorded. The recorded neonatal mortality rate was 40 per 1000 live births (95% CI 35–44), and after adjustment for under-enumeration was 42 per 1000 live births (95% CI 37–46). Recorded rates underestimated neonatal mortality by 5% and perinatal mortality by 7%. Five stillbirths were recorded by the survey and all were matched to recorded stillbirths. The one maternal death recorded by the survey was matched with the maternal death captured by the enhanced surveillance system. The maternal mortality ratio prior to adjustment for under-enumeration was 247 per 100,000 live births (95% CI 147–391), whereas after adjustment it was 246 per 100,000 live births (95% CI 146–389). Conclusion Application of capture–recapture methods to the enhanced surveillance system indicated a high completeness of birth and death recording by the surveillance system.



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Genetics of congenital eye malformations: insights from chick experimental embryology

Abstract

Embryological manipulations in chick embryos have been pivotal in our understanding of many aspects of vertebrate eye formation. This research was particularly important in uncovering the role of tissue interactions as drivers of eye morphogenesis and to dissect the function of critical genes. Here, we have highlighted a few of these past experiments to endorse their value in searching for hitherto unknown causes of rare congenital eye anomalies, such as microphthalmia, anophthalmia and coloboma. We have also highlighted a number of similarities between the chicken and human eye, which might be exploited to address other eye pathologies, including degenerative ocular diseases.



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Validity and reliability of the mixing ability test as masticatory performance outcome in children with spastic cerebral palsy and children with typical development: a pilot study

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Human jaw‐joint hypermobility: diagnosis and biomechanical modelling

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Prevalence of psychosocial impairment in Temporomandibular Disorder patients: a systematic review

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Anxiety and malocclusion are associated with Temporomandibular disorders in adolescents diagnosed by RDC/TMD. A cross sectional study

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Is masticatory performance affected after a unilateral condylar fracture?

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Association between obstructive sleep apnea and alcohol, caffeine and tobacco: a meta‐analysis

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Cross‐cultural differences in types and beliefs about treatment in women with temporomandibular disorder‐pain

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Reliability, validity, and sex differences of a quantitative gag reflex measurement method

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Factors related to dissociation between objective and subjective masticatory function in Japanese community‐dwelling elderly adults

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, EarlyView.


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Oxygen therapy improves cerebral oxygen delivery and neurovascular function in hypoxaemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

Experimental Physiology, EarlyView.


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CTNNAL1 inhibits ozone‐induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in human bronchial epithelial cells

Experimental Physiology, EarlyView.


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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease‐induced autonomic dysfunction may be associated with cerebral blood flow regulation and brain function

Experimental Physiology, EarlyView.


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Sex‐based differences in apnoea of prematurity: A retrospective cohort study

Experimental Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: Building a solid base

Experimental Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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ATP triggers a robust intracellular [Ca2+]‐mediated signalling pathway in human synovial fibroblasts

Experimental Physiology, EarlyView.


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Carotid artery wall mechanics in young males with high cardiorespiratory fitness

Experimental Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Determinants of slowed conduction in premature ventricular beats induced during programmed stimulations in perfused guinea‐pig heart

Experimental Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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The antioxidants neopterin/7,8‐dihydroneopterin: Novel biomarker and muscle protectant in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Experimental Physiology, Volume 103, Issue 7, Page 939-940, 1 July 2018.


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Neopterin/7,8‐dihydroneopterin is elevated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and protects mdx skeletal muscle function

Experimental Physiology, Volume 103, Issue 7, Page 995-1009, 1 July 2018.


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Functional high‐intensity exercise training ameliorates insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in type 2 diabetes

Experimental Physiology, Volume 103, Issue 7, Page 985-994, 1 July 2018.


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Editorial Board

Experimental Physiology, Volume 103, Issue 7, Page 1039-1041, 1 July 2018.


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Venous blood provides lower GLP‐1 concentrations than arterialised blood in the postprandial, but not fasted state: Consequences of sampling methods

Experimental Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Tolerance to a hemorrhagic challenge during heat stress is improved with inspiratory resistance breathing

Experimental Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Prolonged prenatal hypoxia selectively disrupts collecting duct patterning and postnatal function in male mouse offspring

The Journal of Physiology, EarlyView.


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Breaking down CO2: Bicarbonate the other side of central chemosensitivity in RTN neurons

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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The best thing since sliced bread? Optical mapping of transverse cardiac slices in the mouse heart

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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ClC‐3: biophysical properties clarify cellular functions

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Do women experience less diaphragmatic fatigue during inspiratory resistance loading? And if so what might be the implications for their exercise capacity? And for their longevity?

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Maternal obesity has sex dependent effects on insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism and the liver transcriptome in young adult rat offspring

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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An evaluation of preoperative anxiety in Spanish‐speaking and Latino children in the United States

Pediatric Anesthesia, EarlyView.


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Compliance with perioperative prophylaxis guidelines and the use of novel outcome measures

Pediatric Anesthesia, EarlyView.


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Pediatric tracheomalacia and the perioperative anesthetic management of thoracoscopic posterior tracheopexy

Pediatric Anesthesia, EarlyView.


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Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphism affects the outcome of methanol poisoning in exposed humans

Clinical Genetics, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Pallister‐Killian syndrome: Review of fetal phenotype

Clinical Genetics, EarlyView.


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Genome‐wide compound heterozygosity analysis highlighted 4 novel susceptibility loci for congenital heart disease in Chinese population

Clinical Genetics, EarlyView.


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Factors associated with ATXN2 CAG/CAA repeat intergenerational instability in Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

Clinical Genetics, EarlyView.


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The role of spatial texture in visual control of bumblebee learning flights

Abstract

When leaving the nest for the first time, bees and wasps perform elaborate learning flights, during which the location of the nest is memorised. These flights are characterised by a succession of arcs or loops of increasing radius centred around the nest, with an incremental increase in ground speed, which requires precise control of the flight manoeuvres by the insect. Here, we investigated the role of optic flow cues in the control of learning flights by manipulating spatial texture in the ventral and panoramic visual field. We measured height, lateral displacement relative to the nest and ground speed during learning flights in bumblebees when ventral and panoramic optic flow cues were present or minimised, or features of the ground texture varied in size. Our observations show that ventral optic flow cues were required for the smooth execution of learning flights. We also found that bumblebees adjusted their flight height in response to variations of the visual texture on the ground. However, the presence or absence of panoramic optic flow did not have a substantial effect on flight performance. Our findings suggest that bumblebees mainly rely on optic flow information from the ventral visual field to control their learning flights.



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Association Between Neighborhood Cohesion and Cancer Screening Utilization in Chinese American Older Adults

Abstract

This study aims to examine the association between neighborhood cohesion and cancer screening utilization in a community-dwelling Chinese American older population. Data were drawn from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly including 3159 Chinese American older adults aged 60 and above in the greater Chicago area. Cancer screening utilization was assessed by asking whether participants had undergone colon, breast, cervical, or prostate cancer screening. Neighborhood cohesion was measured through six questions. Logistic regression analysis showed that greater neighborhood cohesion was associated with higher likelihood of utilizing a mammogram (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.14–1.52), a Pap test (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.41), but not of a blood stool test (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.98–1.23), a colonoscopy (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94–1.17), and a PSA test (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95–1.34). This study suggests positive associations between neighborhood cohesion and breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among a Chinese American older population.



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