Κυριακή, 18 Μαρτίου 2018

Detoxification of U(VI) by Paecilomyces catenlannulatus investigated by batch, XANES and EXAFS techniques

S0265931X.gif

Publication date: September 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 189
Author(s): Fengbo Li, Xiaoyu Li, Pu Cui
Paecilomyces catenlannulatus (P. catenlannulatus) as a genus of entomogenous fungus presented a variety of surface reactive groups by batch characterizations. The detoxification of U(VI) by P. catenlannulatus was investigated under different water chemistry (pH, incubation time, foreign anions and U(VI) concentration) by batch techniques. Approximately 75% of U(VI) was reduced to U(IV) (i.e., U(IV)O2(s)) by P. catenlannulatus at pH 5.5 and 7 days under glovebox conditions, therefore the formation of precipitates decreased the toxicity of U(VI) for P. catenlannulatus. In addition, phosphate facilitate the U(VI) reduction, whereas carbonate and sulfate inhibited the U(VI) reduction. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) level were stimulated exposure to 1-30 mg/L U(VI), indicating that CAT, SOD and GSH were antagonized for the oxidant stress derived from U(VI) at low concentrations. According to XPS and XANES analysis, the occurrence of U(IV) revealed the reduction of adsorbed U(VI) to U(IV) by P. catenlannulatus. The results of EXAFS analysis indicated that the fitting of U-O and U-U shell for U-loaded P. catenlannulatus was similar to that of U(IV)O2(s)). The formation of U-bearing precipitates decreased the toxicity of U(VI) for P. catenlannulatus. These findings indicated that P. catenlannulatus is capable to detoxify U(VI) by extracellar/intracellar defense systems. Therefore, P. catenlannulatus can be utilized as a promising bioadsorbents for remediation of uranium-contaminated wastewater in environmental cleanup.



from Radiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2FQ30IX
via IFTTT

AMR aims to standardize new cardiac arrest approach

The message now to medical personnel – and the public – is to stay on the scene and focus on high-quality CPR

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2FOUF8n
via IFTTT

Effect of inpatient rehabilitation on activities of daily living in pediatric cancer patients in Japan

Most pediatric cancer patients decline physical performance therapy, resulting in limitations in the activities of daily living. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of rehabilitation in pediatric patients with cancer using the functional independence measure (FIM) score. This retrospective study included 25 inpatient children diagnosed with cancer at a single university hospital from January 2016 to December 2016. All patients underwent rehabilitative intervention during their hospital stay. We investigated the contents of the rehabilitation program and the FIM scores before and after the rehabilitative intervention. The average FIM scores improved in all patients; however, only the total-FIM scores (+4.96 points, P=0.009) and motor-FIM scores (+4.04 points, P=0.005) improved significantly. Conversely, cognitive-FIM score did not significantly improve (+0.92 points, P=0.159). In addition, motor-FIM subgroup scores for locomotion (walk/wheelchair and stairs) were significantly higher (+0.36 points, P=0.039 and +0.64 points, P=0.046, respectively) after rehabilitative intervention, regardless of the length of hospital stay. This study showed that FIM score, particularly motor-FIM score and locomotion subgroup scores, significantly improved owing to participation in inpatient rehabilitation. In conclusion, we found that rehabilitative intervention improved physical activity, especially locomotion. Correspondence to Kazue Taguchi, MD, 3284-1 Kawarabuki, Ageo-shi 362-0022, Saitama-ken, Japan Tel: +81 298 533 795; fax: +81 486 715 771; email: s1630434@u.tsukuba.ac.jp Received January 14, 2018 Accepted February 24, 2018 Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

from Rehabilitation via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2pmuAHP
via IFTTT

High-Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Increases Anabolic Signaling

Purpose Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation settings to increase muscle mass and strength. However, the effects of NMES on muscle growth are not clear and no human studies have compared anabolic signaling between low-frequency (LF-) and high-frequency (HF-) NMES. The purpose of this study was to determine the skeletal muscle anabolic signaling response to an acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES. Methods Eleven young healthy volunteers (6 men; 5 women) received an acute bout of LF- (20 Hz) and HF- (60 Hz) NMES. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle prior to the first NMES treatment and 30-mins following each NMES treatment. Phosphorylation of the following key anabolic signaling proteins was measured by Western blot and proteins are expressed as a ratio of phosphorylated to total: mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70-S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Results Compared to Pre-NMES, phosphorylation of mTOR was upregulated 40.2% for LF-NMES (P = 0.018) and 68.4% for HF-NMES (P 0.05). There were no differences between treatment conditions for 4E-BP1 phosphorylation (P > 0.05). Conclusion An acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES upregulated anabolic signaling with HF-NMES producing a greater anabolic response compared to LF-NMES, suggesting that HF-stimulation may provide a stronger stimulus for processes that initiate muscle hypertrophy. Additionally, the stimulation frequency parameter should be considered by clinicians in the design of optimal NMES treatment protocols. Correspondence to: Joni A. Mettler, PhD, ATC, CSCS, Texas State University, Department of Health and Human Performance, Division of Exercise and Sport Science, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666-4684, Phone: 512-245-9691, Fax: 512-245-8678, Email: jam388@txstate.edu This study was funded by The National Athletic Trainers' Association Research and Education Foundation Grant to JA Mettler (Grant # 14GGP004) and by a College of Education Student Research Grant to DM Magee. The authors report no conflicts of interest. The results of the present study do not constitute endorsement by the American College of Sports Medicine. The results of the study are presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. Accepted for Publication: 6 March 2018 © 2018 American College of Sports Medicine

from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2FK77uj
via IFTTT

Impaired Trunk Flexor Strength, Fatigability, and Steadiness in Postpartum Women

Purpose To determine whether postpartum women (vaginal and Cesarean delivery) have deficits in trunk flexor strength, fatigability and steadiness, compared with nulligravid women, up to 26 weeks postpartum. We hypothesized that postpartum women would be weaker, more fatigable and have greater torque fluctuations than controls, with Cesarean delivery showing greater deficits than vaginal delivery. Methods 22 control women (nulligravid) and 29 postpartum women (20-40 years, 19 who delivered via vaginal birth, 13 via Caesarian section) participated. Postpartum women were tested 8-10 and 24-26 weeks postpartum. Control women were tested 16-18 weeks apart. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) were performed at multiple trunk positions with the trunk flexor muscles. To determine trunk flexor fatigability, subjects performed intermittent isometric contractions at 50% MVC (6-s contraction, 4-s rest) in upright sitting until task failure. An MVC was performed during the fatiguing task (one/min) and at 10 and 20 minutes of recovery. Results At 8 and 26 weeks, postpartum women (groups pooled) were weaker at all trunk angles (38% & 44% respectively, p

from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2tWZ0VB
via IFTTT

Acute High-Intensity Interval Cycling Improves Postprandial Lipid Metabolism

Purpose To examine the effects of 2 exercise regimes on physiological and postprandial lipemic responses. Methods Thirty-six active men (peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak): 46.5 ± 6.4 mL/kg/min) were randomly assigned to a high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), involving 10 × 60 s cycling at 85% VO2peak interspersed with 120 s recovery; a moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE), involving 50 min continuous exercise at 65% VO2peak; and a nonexercise control (Con). In the next morning after evening exercising, fasting blood samples were obtained. Additional blood samples were obtained 1–4 hr after eating a given high-fat meal that based on participants' body mass. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates were measured before and after the meal. Results After exercise, glucose and insulin concentrations decreased by 33% and 70% in the MICE compared with those in the HIIE (P = 0.00–0.03). During the 1–2 hr postprandial periods, the fat oxidation rate increased by 24%–37% in the HIIE compared with that in the MICE and Con (P = 0.01–0.03); however, the carbohydrate oxidation rate was not significantly different among the conditions (P = 0.28). During the postprandial period, insulin (P = 0.02–0.04) and triglyceride (P = 0.02–0.03) concentrations were lower in the HIIE than in the MICE and Con. No difference was observed in free fatty acid (FFA) or the total areas under the curve of triglyceride and FFA among the conditions (P = 0.24–0.98). Conclusion Acute MICE improved glucose and insulin metabolism immediately after exercise. However, HIIE performed in the evening exerts more favorable effects than MICE for decreasing postprandial insulin and triglyceride levels and increasing fat oxidation in the next morning. Corresponding Author: Chia-Lun Lee, Division of Physical and Health Education, Center for General Education, National Sun Yat-sen University, Mailing address: NO. 21-2 Wang-Sheng-Ming Rd., Fengshan Dist, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, R. O. C. Telephone: +886 920165693. Fax numbers: +886 77191435. e-mail: karenlee1129@gmail.com The authors declare no conflicts of interest or source of funding in this study. The results of the present study do not constitute endorsement by the American College of Sports Medicine. The results of the study are presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation, and do not constitute. This study was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST 105-2410-H-110-042). © 2018 American College of Sports Medicine

from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2GFHgkw
via IFTTT

Real-Time Ultrasound-Assisted Thoracic Epidural Placement: A Feasibility Study of a Novel Technique

The placement of thoracic epidural catheters is complicated by the layering of the vertebral lamina. Therefore, traditional blind palpation techniques require insertion of an epidural needle with likely contact of lamina with redirections into the epidural space. We discuss a safe and consistent technique using true real-time ultrasound visualization of the needle with a paramedian sagittal oblique view to improve the consistency of placing an epidural in the thoracic spine for postoperative analgesia. Successful epidural placement was achieved in every patient. All catheters were found to be effective for use in the postoperative phase. Accepted for publication November 20, 2017. Address correspondence to: Amitabh Gulati, MD, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (e-mail: gulatia@mskcc.org). The authors have no sources of funding to declare for this article. This work was presented in part as an abstract at the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine's 42nd Annual Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting; April 6 to 8, 2017; San Francisco, CA. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

from Anaesthesiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2G4Y2LV
via IFTTT