Δευτέρα, 24 Ιουλίου 2017

Potential Causes of Elevated REE following High-Intensity Exercise.

INTRODUCTION: Resting energy expenditure (REE) increases following intense exercise; however, little is known concerning mechanisms. PURPOSE: Determine effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity continuous aerobic exercise (MIC), or high intensity interval exercise (HII) on REE under energy balance conditions. METHODS: Thirty-three untrained premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline, after 8-16 weeks of training, 22 hours following either MIC (50% peak VO2) or HII (84% peak VO2). Participants were in a room calorimeter during and following the exercise challenge. Food intake was adjusted to obtain energy balance across 23 hours. REE was measured after 22 hours following all conditions. Twenty-three hour urine norepinephrine concentration and serum creatine kinase activity (CrKact) were obtained. Muscle biopsies were obtained in a subset of 15 participants to examine muscle mitochondrial state 2, 3, and 4 fat oxidation. RESULTS: REE was increased 22 hours following MIC (64+/-119 kcal) and HII (103+/-137 kcal). Markers of muscle damage (CrKact) increased following HII (9.6+/-25.5 units/liter) and MIC (22.2+/-22.8 units/liter) while sympathetic tone (urine norepinephrine) increased following HII (1.1+/-10.6 ng/mg). Uncoupled phosphorylation (states 2 and 4) fat oxidation were related to REE (respectively r=0.65 and r=0.55); however, neither state 2 or 4 fat oxidation increased following MIC or HII. REE was not increased following 8 weeks of aerobic training when exercise was restrained for 60 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy balance conditions REE increased 22 hours following both moderate intensity and high intensity exercise. Exercise-induced muscle damage/repair and increased sympathetic tone may contribute to increased REE whereas uncoupled phosphorylation does not. These results suggest that moderate to high intensity exercise may be valuable for increasing energy expenditure for at least 22 hours following the exercise. (C) 2017 American College of Sports Medicine

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Cold-induced retrotransposition of fish LINEs

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Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Shue Chen, Mengchao Yu, Xu Chu, Wenhao Li, Xiujuan Yin, Liangbiao Chen
Classes of retrotransposons constitute a large portion of metazoan genome. There have been cases reported that genomic abundance of retrotransposons is correlated with the severity of low environmental temperatures. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such correlation are unknown. We show here by cell transfection assays that retrotransposition of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) from an Antarctic notothenioid fish Dissostichus mawsoni (dmL1) could be activated by low temperature exposure, causing increased dmL1 copies in the host cell genome. The cold-induced dmL1 propagation was demonstrated to be mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/p38 signalling pathway, which is activated by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cold-stressed conditions. Surprisingly, dmL1 transfected cells showed an increase in the number of viable cells after prolonged cold exposures than non-transfected cells. Features of cold inducibility of dmL1 were recapitulated in LINEs of zebrafish origin both in cultured cell lines and tissues, suggesting existence of a common cold-induced LINE amplification in fishes. The findings revealed an important function of LINEs in temperature adaptation and provided insights into the MAPK/p38 stress responsive pathway that shapes LINE composition in fishes facing cold stresses.



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Inter and intraexaminer reliability in identifying and classifying myofascial trigger points in shoulder muscles

Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): José Diego Sales do Nascimento, Francisco Alburquerque-Sendín, Lorena Passos Vigolvino, Wandemberg Fortunato de Oliveira, Catarina de Oliveira Sousa
ObjectiveTo determine inter and intraexaminer reliability of examiners without clinical experience in identifying and classifying MTPs in the shoulder muscles of subjects asymptomatic and symptomatic for unilateral SIS.DesignWithin-day inter and intraexaminer reliability study.SettingPhysical Therapy Department of a University.ParticipantsFifty-two subjects participated in the study, 26 symptomatic (SG) and 26 asymptomatic (AG) for unilateral SIS.InterventionsTwo examiners, without experience for assessment MTPs, independent and blind to the clinical conditions of the subjects, assessed bilaterally the presence of MTPs (present or absent) in six shoulder muscles and classified them (latent or active) on the affected side of the SG. Each examiner performed the same assessment twice in the same day.Main Outcome MeasuresThe reliability was calculated through Percentage Agreement (PA), Prevalence and Bias Adjusted Kappa Statistics (PABAK), and weighted Kappa (IKw).ResultsIntraexaminer reliability in identifying MTPs for the SG and AG was moderate to perfect (PABAK: 0.46-1 and 0.60-1, respectively). Interexaminer reliability was between moderate and almost perfect in the two groups (PABAK: 0.46-0.92), except for the muscles of the SG, which were below these values. With respect to MTP classification, intraexaminer reliability was moderate to high for the most muscles, but interexaminer reliability was moderate for only one muscle (IKw=0.45), and between weak and reasonable for the rest (IKw: 0.06 -0.31).ConclusionsIntraexaminer reliability is acceptable in clinical practice to identify and classify MTPs. However, interexaminer reliability proved to be reliable only to identify MTPs, with the symptomatic side exhibiting lower values of reliability.



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Modification of spastic stretch reflexes at the elbow by flexion synergy expression in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke

Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Jacob G. McPherson, Arno H.A. Stienen, Justin M. Drogos, Julius P.A. Dewald
ObjectiveTo systematically characterize the impact of flexion synergy expression on the manifestation of elbow flexor stretch reflexes post-stroke, and to relate these findings to elbow flexor stretch reflexes in individuals without neurological injury.DesignControlled cohort study.SettingAcademic medical center.ParticipantsTen individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke and a convenience sample of 10 individuals without neurological or musculoskeletal injury.InterventionsParticipants with stroke were interfaced with a robotic device that precisely manipulated flexion synergy expression (by regulating shoulder abduction loading) while it delivered controlled elbow extension perturbations over a wide range of velocities. This device was also used to elicit elbow flexor stretch reflexes during volitional elbow flexor activation, both in the cohort of individuals with stroke and in a control cohort. In both cases, the amplitude of volitional elbow flexor pre-activation was matched to that generated involuntarily during flexion synergy expression.Outcome measuresThe amplitude of short and long latency stretch reflexes in the biceps brachii, assessed by electromyography, and expressed as a function of background muscle activation and stretch velocity.ResultsIncreased shoulder abduction loading potentiated elbow flexor stretch reflexes via flexion synergy expression in the paretic arm. Compared to stretch reflexes in individuals without neurological injury, paretic reflexes were larger at rest but were approximately equal to control muscles at matched levels of pre-activation.ConclusionsBecause flexion synergy expression modifies stretch reflexes in involved muscles, interventions that reduce flexion synergy expression may confer the added benefit of reducing spasticity during functional use of the arm.



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Robotic Gait Training For Indiviuals With Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis

Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Igor da Silveira Carvalho, Sérgio Medeiros Pinto, Daniel das Virgens Chagas, Jomilto Luiz Praxedes dos Santos, Tainá de Sousa Oliveira, Luiz Alberto Batista
ObjectiveTo identify the effects of robotic gait training practices in individuals with cerebral palsy.Data SourcesThe search was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE (Excerpta Medical), MEDLINE (OvidSP), CDSR (Cochrane database of systematic reviews), Web of Science, Scopus, Compendex, IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, Academic Search Premier, and PEDro.Study SelectionStudies were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) they investigated the effects of robotic gait training, (2) they involved patients with cerebral palsy, and (3) they enrolled patients classified between levels I and IV using the Gross Motor Function Classification System.Data ExtractionThe information was extracted from the selected articles using the descriptive-analytical method. The "Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies" was used to quantitate the presence of critical components in the articles. To perform the meta-analysis, the effects of the intervention were quantified by effect size (Cohen's d).Data SynthesisOf the 133 identified studies, 10 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed positive effects on gait speed (0.21 [-0.09, 0.51]), endurance (0.21 [-0.06, 0.49]), and gross motor function in dimension D (0.18 [-0.10, 0.45]) and dimension E (0.12 [- 0.15, 0.40]).ConclusionThe results obtained suggest that this training benefits people with cerebral palsy, specifically by increasing walking speed and endurance and improving gross motor functions. For future studies, we suggest investigating device configuration parameters and conducting a large number of randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and individuals with homogeneous impairment.



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Prevalence of a New Variant OXA-204 and OXA-48 Carbapenemases Plasmids Encoded in Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates in Tunisia

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Whole-Genome Sequencing and Concordance Between Antimicrobial Susceptibility Genotypes and Phenotypes of Bacterial Isolates Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

Extended laboratory culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing timelines hinder rapid species identification and susceptibility profiling of bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease, the most prevalent cause of cattle mortality in the United States. Whole genome sequencing offers a culture-independent alternative to current bacterial identification methods but requires a library of bacterial reference genomes for comparison. To contribute new bacterial genome assemblies and evaluate genetic diversity and variation in antimicrobial resistance genotypes, whole-genome sequencing was performed on bovine respiratory disease associated bacterial isolates (Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida) from dairy and beef cattle. One hundred genomically distinct assemblies were added to NCBI, doubling the available genomic sequences for these four species. Computer-based methods identified 11 predicted antimicrobial resistance genes in three species, with none being detected in M. bovis. While computer-based analysis can identify antibiotic resistance genes within whole genome sequences (genotype), it may not predict the actual antimicrobial resistance observed in a living organism (phenotype). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 64 H. somni, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida isolates had an overall concordance rate between genotype and phenotypic resistance to the associated class of antimicrobials of 72.7% (P < 0.001), showing substantial discordance. Concordance rates varied greatly among different antimicrobial, antibiotic resistance gene, and bacterial species combinations. This suggests that antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes are needed to complement genomically predicted antibiotic resistance gene genotypes to better understand how the presence of antibiotic resistance genes within a given bacterial species could potentially impact optimal bovine respiratory disease treatment and morbidity/mortality outcomes.



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Evolutionary Dynamics of Male Reproductive Genes inthe Drosophila virilis Subgroup

Postcopulatory sexual selection (PCSS) is a potent evolutionary force that can drive rapid changes of reproductive genes within species, and thus has the potential to generate reproductive incompatibilities between species. Male seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are major players in postmating interactions, and are important targets of PCSS in males. The virilis subgroup of Drosophila exhibits strong interspecific gametic incompatibilities, and can serve as a model to study the genetic basis of PCSS and gametic isolation. However, reproductive genes in this group have not been characterized. Here we utilize short-read RNA sequencing of male reproductive organs to examine the evolutionary dynamics of reproductive genes in members of the virilis subgroup: D. americana, D. lummei, D. novamexicana, and D. virilis. We find that the majority of male reproductive transcripts are testes-biased, accounting for ~15% of all annotated genes. Ejaculatory bulb-biased transcripts largely code for lipid metabolic enzymes, and contain orthologs of the D. melnaogaster ejaculatory bulb protein, Peb-me, which is involved in mating-plug formation. In addition, we identify 71 candidate SFPs, and show that this gene set has the highest rate of nonsynonymous codon substitution relative to testes- and ejaculatory bulb-biased genes. Furthermore, we identify orthologs of 35 D. melanogaster SFPs that have conserved accessory gland expression in the virilis group. Finally, we show that several of the SFPs that have the highest rate of nonsynonymous codon substitution reside on chromosomal regions which contributes to paternal gametic incompatibility between species. Our results show that SFPs rapidly diversify in the virilis group, and suggest that they likely play a role in PCSS and/or gametic isolation.



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Sequence-Based Mapping and Genome Editing Reveal Mutations in Stickleback Hps5 Cause Oculocutaneous Albinism and the casper Phenotype

Here we present and characterize the spontaneous X-linked recessive mutation casper, which causes oculocutaneous albinism in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). In humans, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome results in pigmentation defects due to disrupted formation of the melanin-containing lysosomal-related organelle (LRO), the melanosome. casper mutants display not only reduced pigmentation of melanosomes in melanophores, but also reductions in the iridescent silver color from iridophores, while the yellow pigmentation from xanthophores appears unaffected. We mapped casper using high-throughput sequencing of genomic DNA from bulked casper mutants to a region of the stickleback X chromosome (chromosome 19) near the stickleback ortholog of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 (Hps5). casper mutants have an insertion of a single nucleotide in the 6th exon of Hsp5, predicted to generate an early frameshift. Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 induced lesions in Hsp5 and phenocopied the casper mutation. Injecting single or paired Hps5 guide RNAs revealed higher incidences of genomic deletions from paired guide RNAs compared to single gRNAs. Stickleback Hps5 provides a genetic system where a hemizygous locus in XY males and a diploid locus in XX females can be used to generate an easily scored visible phenotype, facilitating quantitative studies of different genome editing approaches. Lastly, we show the ability to better visualize patterns of fluorescent transgenic reporters in Hps5 mutant fish. Thus, Hps5 mutations present an opportunity to study pigmented LROs in the emerging stickleback model system, as well as a tool to aid in assaying genome editing and visualizing enhancer activity in transgenic fish.



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A Large Deletion in the NSDHL Gene in Labrador Retrievers with a Congenital Cornification Disorder

In heterozygous females affected by an X-linked skin disorder, lesions often appear in a characteristic pattern, the so-called Blaschko's lines. We investigated a female Labrador Retriever and her crossbred daughter, which both showed similar clinical lesions that followed Blaschko's lines. The two male littermates of the affected daughter had died at birth suggesting a monogenic X-chromosomal semi-dominant mode of inheritance. Whole genome sequencing of the affected daughter and subsequent automated variant filtering with respect to 188 non-affected control dogs of different breeds revealed 332 heterozygous variants on the X-chromosome private to the affected dog. None of these variants was protein-changing. By visual inspection of candidate genes located on the X-chromosome, we identified a large deletion in the NSDHL gene, encoding NAD(P) dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like, a 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. The deletion spanned more than 14 kb and included the last three exons of the NSDHL gene. By PCR and fragment length analysis, we confirmed the presence of the variant in both affected dogs, and its absence in 50 control Labrador Retrievers. Variants in the NSDHL gene cause CHILD syndrome in humans and the bare patches (Bpa) and striated (Str) phenotypes in mice. Taken together, our genetic data and the known role of NSDHL in X-linked skin disorders strongly suggest that the identified structural variant in the NSDHL gene is causative for the phenotype in the two affected dogs.



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EMT-B or Paramedic - Seneca EMS

EMT-B, EMT-Advanced, and Paramedic positions available. Full time and part time. Contact Seneca EMS for more info. Call 412-781-8596 or visit Senecaems.org to fill out an application.

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Flexibility assessment of the unfused thoracic segments above the ‘potential upper instrumented vertebra’ using the supine side bending radiographs in lenke 5 and 6 curves for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

Selection of UIV for Lenke 5 and 6 curves remains debatable, and several authors had described different selection strategies.

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Evaluation of a PEEK titanium composite interbody spacer in an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model: a biomechanical, micro-computed tomography, and histologic analyses.

The most commonly used materials used for interbody cages are titanium metal and polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Both of these materials have demonstrated good biocompatibility. A major disadvantage associated with solid titanium cages is their radiopacity, limiting post-operative monitoring of spinal fusion via standard imaging modalities. However, PEEK is radiolucent, allowing for temporal assessment of the fusion mass by clinicians. On the other hand, PEEK is hydrophobic, which can limit bony in-growth.

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Clinical and demographic predictors of response to rTMS treatment in unipolar and bipolar depressive disorders

Depression is estimated to be the second most disabling condition by 2020 (Murray et al., 1997). More than 300 million people of all ages suffer from depression making it the leading cause of disability worldwide (World Health Organization, 2017). Unipolar depressive disorder (UDD) is associated with a variety of personal, cognitive, emotional, social and even economic impairments (Davidson et al., 2002; Marazziti et al., 2010; Shiozawa et al., 2015). Bipolar depressive disorder (BDD) is a recurrent, chronic and severe disease with significant impact on quality of life and considerable distress for social contacts and the society in general (Shiozawa et al., 2015).

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Physician Substitute - Octapharma Plasma

We are seeking a Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) to join our growing biopharmaceutical company and assist in opening our newest Donor Center. At Octapharma Plasma you can channel your passion for helping others into a medical career that is fast-paced and personally and professionally rewarding. Recent medically trained graduates as well as experienced healthcare professionals are welcome to apply. We ...

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Physcician Substitute - Octapharma Plasma

Want to be a part of something exciting" Help Octapharma Plasma open our next Donor Center! At Octapharma Plasma you can channel your passion for helping others into a medical career that is fast-paced and personally and professionally rewarding. We are seeking a Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) to join our growing biopharmaceutical company and assist in opening our newest Donor Center. At Octapharma ...

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Paramedic / Critical Care EMT - Finger Lakes Health

Finger Lakes Health has an opening for a Full Time and Casual status (Casual is a couple shifts/week) Paramedic at Soldiers & Sailors Memorial Hospital in Penn Yan, NY, as part of their Medic 55 Program. Requirements: NYS Certification as EMT-Paramedic or EMT- Critical Care BLS/ALS, ACLS, PALS, BTLS required within six months. NYS Driver License clear of violations in past five years. High school ...

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EMT Basic Full Time and Per Diem - Finger Lakes Health

Finger Lakes Health currently has an opening for Full Time and Casual (as needed) status EMT - Basics. This position will work out of the Penn Yan Ambulance Corp, but be employed by Finger Lakes Health. Must be willing to work all shifts, depending on department need. Requirements Education: Minimum: High School diploma or equivalent and Basic EMT training. License/Certifications: Current NYS DOH certified ...

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Woul`d you like a 50% reduction of Heroin users ..?

hqdefault.jpg

What realy happened when Portugal decriminalised all illegal drugs in July 2001 ..?And... How do y o u think a nation with 5% of the World`s population ( -330.000000 People ) , -hold 25% of the World`s Prison-Population In they`r Prison`s ...-A nation that ruins any chance of a normal life, a job, -a Future,,, -When they`r prisoners Come`s O u t ..? What will the F u t u r e of that nation be like ..? ExEMTNor

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Woul`d you like a 50% reduction of Heroin users ..?

hqdefault.jpg

What realy happened when Portugal decriminalised all illegal drugs in July 2001 ..?And... How do y o u think a nation with 5% of the World`s population ( -330.000000 People ) , -hold 25% of the World`s Prison-Population In they`r Prison`s ...-A nation that ruins any chance of a normal life, a job, -a Future,,, -When they`r prisoners Come`s O u t ..? What will the F u t u r e of that nation be like ..? ExEMTNor

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Woul`d you like a 50% reduction of Heroin users ..?

hqdefault.jpg

What realy happened when Portugal decriminalised all illegal drugs in July 2001 ..?And... How do y o u think a nation with 5% of the World`s population ( -330.000000 People ) , -hold 25% of the World`s Prison-Population In they`r Prison`s ...-A nation that ruins any chance of a normal life, a job, -a Future,,, -When they`r prisoners Come`s O u t ..? What will the F u t u r e of that nation be like ..? ExEMTNor

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Woul`d you like a 50% reduction of Heroin users ..?

hqdefault.jpg

What realy happened when Portugal decriminalised all illegal drugs in July 2001 ..?And... How do y o u think a nation with 5% of the World`s population ( -330.000000 People ) , -hold 25% of the World`s Prison-Population In they`r Prison`s ...-A nation that ruins any chance of a normal life, a job, -a Future,,, -When they`r prisoners Come`s O u t ..? What will the F u t u r e of that nation be like ..? ExEMTNor

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The weakening effect of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor AUDA on febrile response to lipopolysaccharide and turpentine in rat

Abstract

A still growing body of evidence suggests the importance of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the regulation of inflammatory response; therefore, drugs that stabilize their levels by targeting the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme responsible for their metabolism, are currently under investigation. The effect of sEH inhibitors on molecular components of fever mechanism, i.e., on synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines or prostaglandins, has been repeatedly proven; however, the hypothesis that sEH inhibitors affect febrile response has never been tested. The aim of this study was to examine if sEH inhibition affects core body temperature (Tb) as well as Tb changes during febrile response to infectious (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) or non-infectious (turpentine; TRP) stimuli. Male Wistar rats were implanted intra-abdominally with miniature biotelemeters to monitor Tb. A potent sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) was suspended in olive oil and administrated into animals in the intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of 15 mg/kg, which, as we showed, has no significant influence on normal Tb. We have found that AUDA injected 3 h after LPS (50 μg/kg i.p.) significantly weakened febrile rise of Tb. Moreover, injection of sEH inhibitor 7 h after turpentine (administrated subcutaneously in a dose of 100 μL/rat) markedly reduced the peak period of aseptic fever. Obtained results provide first experimental evidence that sEH inhibitors possess anti-pyretic properties. Therefore, medicines targeting sEH enzymatic activity should be considered as a complement to the arsenal of topical medications used to treat fever especially in clinical situations when non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are ineffective.



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Characterization of the first-order visual interneurons in the visual system of the bumblebee ( Bombus terrestris )

Abstract

The bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) has become a common model animal in the study of various aspects of vision and visually guided behavior. Although the bumblebee visual system has been studied to some extent, little is known about the functional role of the first visual neuropil, the lamina. In this work, we provide an anatomical and electrophysiological description of the first-order visual interneurons, lamina monopolar cells (LMCs), of the bumblebee. Using intracellular recording coupled with dye injection, we found that bumblebee LMCs morphologically resemble those found in the honeybee, although only the LMC type L1 cells could be morphologically matched directly between the species. LMCs could also be classified on the basis of their light response properties as spiking or non-spiking. We also show that some bumblebee LMCs can produce spikes during responses to stimulation with naturalistic light contrasts, a property unusual for these neurons.



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Advanced Tech III – Emergency - Florida Hospital

Department Profile: Our Emergency Department is located in one of the fastest-growing communities in Osceola County, close to Walt Disney World entertainment complex and local attractions. The unit consists of 35 monitored beds, two trauma rooms, dedicated pediatric rooms, and is a certified stroke center. We see over 48,000 patients each year, serving all age groups with the best in community-based ...

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Advanced Tech II - Florida Hospital

Department Profile: Our Emergency Department is located in one of the fastest-growing communities in Osceola County, close to Walt Disney World entertainment complex and local attractions. The unit consists of 35 monitored beds, two trauma rooms, dedicated pediatric rooms, and is a certified stroke center. We see over 48,000 patients each year, serving all age groups with the best in community-based ...

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EMS guidance and wisdom from Ben Franklin

From perhaps America's most beloved of the founding fathers, Ben Franklin's timeless wisdom is as relevant to emergency responders today as when he started publishing "Poor Richard's Almanack" more than 280 years ago. While many are aware that Franklin founded the Union Fire Company, America's first organized fire department, fewer people know that Franklin also cofounded ...

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Advanced Tech II – Emergency - Florida Hospital

The Advanced Technician II performs patient care under the direction of and as assigned by the Charge nurse, registered nurse and/or physician or their designee. Performs general clinical, non-clinical and clerical services necessary to expedite the efficient functioning of the nursing unit consistent with the philosophy, goals, policies and procedures. Utilizes age-specific competencies in the care ...

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Unilateral Vestibular Schwannoma and Meningiomas in a Patient with PIK3CA-Related Segmental Overgrowth: Co-occurrence of Mosaicism for Two Rare Disorders

ABSTRACT

A 28-year-old female with PIK3CA-related segmental overgrowth presented with headaches. She also had a unilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS), as well as three small (<2 cm) meningiomas, which according to the Manchester consensus diagnostic criteria for neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is sufficient for a clinical diagnosis. Analysis of blood revealed a mosaic PIK3CA c.2740G>A (p.Gly914Arg) mutation, confirming the diagnosis of PIK3CA-related overgrowth, but no mutations in NF2 were detected. Although VS has not previously been reported in PIK3CA-related segmental overgrowth, meningiomas have, raising the question of whether this patient's VS and meningiomas represent coincidental NF2 or phenotypic extension of her overgrowth syndrome. Genetic analysis of the VS revealed a heterozygous NF2 mutation c.784C>T (p.Arg262Ter) and loss of a portion of 22q, including NF2, SMARCB1, and LZTR1 genes. These results suggest that the patient has two different mosaic disorders, NF2 and PIK3CA-related overgrowth. The PIK3CA mutation was also present in the VS. Confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of mosaic NF2 in this patient has implications for monitoring and highlights the possibility of co-occurrence of mosaicism for multiple rare disorders in a single patient.

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Molecular analysis of the VS suggests that the patient has two different mosaic disorders, PROS and NF2.



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Circulating leukocytes perpetuate stroke-induced aortic dysfunction

Abstract

Post-stroke inflammation has been linked to poor stroke outcomes. The vascular endothelium senses and responds to circulating factors, in particular inflammatory cytokines. Although stroke associated local cerebrovascular dysfunction is well reported, the effects of a stroke on conduit artery function are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that stroke patients' serum triggers leukocyte-dependent aortic endothelial dysfunction that is associated with elevated cytokines levels. Total leukocytes were isolated from healthy individuals and cells were incubated in control and stroke patients' serum for 6 h. The quantity of cytokines in media was determined using an immunoassay. Vascular reactivity was determined by the rat aortic rings that were co-cultured with/without leukocytes and stimulated with control and stroke patient serum samples. Endothelial-dependent dilation was significantly impaired in aortic rings co-cultured with leukocytes plus stroke patients' serum (50 ± 30% vs. 85 ± 13%, < 0.05) vs. control patients' serum. On the other hand, no difference was observed in aortic function stimulated with control and stroke serum without total leukocytes. Similarly, total leukocyte-derived cytokine levels were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner with stroke serum stimulation (P < 0.05). These observations support the concept that the increased response of leukocytes drives the development of stroke associated vascular endothelial dysfunction. As such, pharmacologically targeting the source of inflammatory cytokines may alleviate stroke associated peripheral vascular dysfunction.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Exteroceptive stimuli override interoceptive state in reaction time control

Abstract

The processing of reaction time (RT) stimulus is modulated by its timing relative to the cardiac cycle. RT stimulus processing is also influenced by task-irrelevant stimuli: a sensory stimulus speeds RT when it accompanies a cue to react in another sensory modality. Different theories have been proposed to explain this accessory stimulus effect (ASE). However, it is unclear whether the ASE interacts with the cardiac timing effect. In the present study, the relationship of the ASE, cardiac timing, and stimulus valence was examined. Fifty-two subjects performed 400 trials of a simple RT task. Images of neutral and fear faces served as visual accessory stimuli; the RT stimulus was a 75 dB tone. Electrocardiography was recorded. Visual and auditory stimuli were presented at either cardiac systole or diastole. The stimulus onset asynchrony between visual and auditory stimuli was either 0 or 75 ms. Repeated measures ANOVAs showed that cardiac timing modulated RT, but only when accessory stimuli were absent. RT was shorter when the accessory stimulus preceded the imperative stimulus with respect to simultaneous presentation. The ASE was not influenced by visual stimulus valence or cardiac timing. Results indicate that the ASE overrides cardiac timing effects, suggesting a dynamic balance between exteroceptive stimuli and interoceptive states, and highlight the importance of embodied information processing.



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Statewide Policy Change in Pediatric Dental Care, and the Impact on Pediatric Dental and Physician Visits

Abstract

Introduction In 2007, the California signed legislation mandating a dental visit for all children entering kindergarten or first grade; no such mandate was made for physician visits. This study examines the impact of this policy change on the risk factors associated with obtaining pediatric dental and physician health care visits. Methods Every 2 years, California Health Interview Survey conducts a statewide survey on a representative community sample. This cross-sectional study took advantage of these data to conduct a "natural experiment" assessing the impact of this policy change on both pediatric physician and dental care visits in the past year. Samples included surveys of adults and children (ages 5–11) on years 2005 (n = 5096), 2007 (n = 4324) and 2009 (n = 4100). Results Although few changes in risk factors were noted in pediatric physician visits, a gradual decrease in risk factors was found in pediatric dental visits from 2005 to 2009. Report of no dental visit was less likely for: younger children (OR -0.81, CI 0.75–0.88), insured children (OR 0.34, CI 0.22–0.53), and children who had a physician's visit last year (OR 0.37, CI 0.25–0.53) in 2005. By 2007, absence of insurance was the only risk factor related to having no dental visit (OR 0.34, CI 0.19–0.61). By 2009, no a priori measured risk factors were associated with not having a dental visit for children aged 5–11 years. Conclusions A statewide policy mandating pediatric dental visits appears to have reduced disparities. A policy for medical care may contribute to similar benefits.



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Decline in cellular function of aged mouse c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells

Abstract

Therapeutic use of c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) is being evaluated for regenerative therapy in older patients with ischemic heart failure. Our understanding of the biology of these CPCs has however, largely come from studies of young cells and animal models. In the present study we examined characteristics of CPCs isolated from young (3 months) and aged (24 month) mice that could underlie the diverse outcomes reported for CPC-based therapeutics. We observed morphological differences and altered senescence indicated by increased senescence associated markers β-galactosidase and p16 mRNA in aged CPCs. The aged CPCs also proliferated more slowly than their young counterpart and expressed lower levels of the stemness marker LIN28. We subsequently treated the cells with Dex, routinely used to induce commitment in CPCs, for 7 days and analysed expression of cardiac lineage marker genes. While MEF2C, GATA4, GATA6 and PECAM mRNAs were significantly upregulated in response to Dex treatment in young CPCs, their expression was not increased in aged CPCs. Interestingly, Dex treatment of aged CPCs also failed to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of the mitochondrial proteins Complex III and IV, consistent with a defect in mitochondria complex assembly in the aged CPCs. Dex treated aged CPCs also had impaired ability to upregulate expression of paracrine factor genes and the conditioned media from these cells had reduced ability to induce angiogenesis in vitro. These findings could impact the design of future CPC-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of older patients suffering from cardiac injury.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Involvement of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Abstract

Background and aims

The risk factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have not been fully clarified. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g) has been considered to be a confounding risk factor for systemic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the effect of P.g infection on risk of progression to NASH.

Methods

(1) Serum IgG antibody titers against P.g fimbriae (fimA) in 200 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients were measured by ELISA and compared with histological findings. (2) C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) with or without P.g-odontogenic infection and analyzed histologically. Mouse livers were analyzed using CE–TOFMS and LC–TOFMS.

Results

(1) A significant correlation between fibrosis progression and antibody titers against P.g possessing fimA type 4 was identified (P = 0.0081). Multivariate analysis identified older age and type 4 P.g-positivity as risk factors for advanced fibrosis. (2) Fibrosis and steatosis were more severe in HFD P.g(+) mice compared with HFD P.g(−) mice. In metabolome analysis, fatty acid metabolism was significantly disrupted with HFD in P.g-infected mouse livers. Monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios were significantly higher in the HFD P.g(+) group than in the HFD P.g(−) group (P < 0.05). Moreover, expression levels of SCD1 and ELOVL6 were significantly reduced.

Conclusions

These results suggest that P.g infection is an important risk factor for pathological progression in NAFLD. Increase in the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio may be an important change that facilitates progression of NAFLD.



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Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids ameliorates hypoalbuminemia, prevents sarcopenia, and reduces fat accumulation in the skeletal muscles of patients with liver cirrhosis

Abstract

Background

Liver cirrhosis induces marked metabolic disorders, protein-energy malnutrition, and sarcopenia. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on systemic glucose metabolism, skeletal muscle, and prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis.

Methods

Japanese patients with liver cirrhosis (n = 21) were enrolled into a longitudinal study in which their diets were supplemented with BCAAs. We evaluated glucose metabolism and analyzed the skeletal muscle area index (SAI) and intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC) using computed tomography.

Results

After 48 weeks of supplementation with BCAAs, there were no changes in glucose metabolism and skeletal muscle findings. In patients with ameliorated hypoalbuminemia, IMAC was significantly decreased and SAI was preserved concomitant with decreasing 90- and 120-min post-challenge plasma glucose levels (P < 0.01 each). In patients without increased albumin levels, IMAC was significantly increased and the SAI was significantly decreased (P < 0.01 each). Liver-related event-free survival rates for 72 months were 63.6% in patients with decreased IMAC and 20.0% in patients with increased IMAC.

Conclusions

Amelioration of hypoalbuminemia associated with BCAA supplementation correlated with decreased fat accumulation in skeletal muscle, maintenance of skeletal muscle mass, and improved glucose sensitivity, all factors which may contribute to improving the survival of patients with liver cirrhosis.



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Effect of scheduled second-look endoscopy on peptic ulcer bleeding: A prospective randomized multicenter trial

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

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GlaxoSmithKline's new CEO prepares to trim drug pipeline

Reuters Health News

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Evaluation of gastric microcirculation by laser speckle contrast imaging during esophagectomy

Journal of the American College of Surgeons

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Adult weight gain linked to major chronic diseases

Reuters Health News

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Relationship between ABO blood group and clinicopathological factors and their effect on the survival of Japanese patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Surgery Today

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Bowel damage in patients with long-term Crohn's disease, assessed by magnetic resonance enterography and the Lemann Index

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Incidence, predictors and outcomes of acute-on-chronic liver failure in outpatients with cirrhosis

Journal of Hepatology

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Long-term protection after hepatitis B vaccination in people living with HIV

Vaccine

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Midline stoma via the umbilicus versus traditional diverting loop ileostomy: A retrospective comparative study

Indian Journal of Surgery

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Oral glucocorticoid use and osteonecrosis in children and adults with chronic inflammatory diseases: A population-based cohort study

BMJ Open

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Randomized clinical trial of Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score-based management of patients with suspected appendicitis

British Journal of Surgery

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Effects of all-oral anti-viral therapy on HVPG and systemic hemodynamics in patients with hepatitis C virus-associated cirrhosis

Gastroenterology

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White House developing comprehensive biosecurity strategy - official

Reuters Health News

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Children’s International Polyposis (CHIP) study: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of celecoxib in children with familial adenomatous polyposis

Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology

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A new intraductal radiofrequency ablation device for inoperable biliopancreatic tumors complicated by obstructive jaundice: The IGNITE-1 study

Endoscopy

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Mixture model analysis identifies irritable bowel syndrome subgroups characterised by specific profiles of gastrointestinal, extraintestinal somatic and psychological symptoms

Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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Safety of laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer when performed by trainee surgeons with little experience in performing open gastrectomy

Surgery Today

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Effect of home-based exercise intervention on fasting insulin and adipocytokines in colorectal cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

Metabolism

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Inclusion of a genetic risk score into a validated risk prediction model for colorectal cancer in Japanese men improves performance

Cancer Prevention Research

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Genetic polymorphisms predict response to anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in Crohn’s disease

World Journal of Gastroenterology

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Depletion of Pax7+ satellite cells does not affect diaphragm adaptations to running in young or aged mice

Abstract

Satellite cell contribution to un-stressed diaphragm is higher compared to hind limb muscles, which is likely attributable to constant activation of this muscle to drive ventilation. Whether satellite cell depletion negatively impacts diaphragm quantitative and qualitative characteristics under stressed conditions in young and aged mice is unknown. We therefore challenged the diaphragm with prolonged running activity in the presence and absence of Pax7+ satellite cells in young and aged mice using an inducible Pax7CreER-R26RDTA model. Mice were vehicle (Veh, satellite cell-replete) or tamoxifen (Tam, satellite cell-depleted) treated at 4 months of age, and were allowed to run voluntarily at 6 months (young) and 22 months (aged). Age-matched, cage-dwelling, Veh- and Tam-treated mice without wheel access served as activity controls. Diaphragm muscles were analysed from young (8 month) and aged (24 month) mice. Satellite cell depletion did not alter diaphragm mean fibre cross sectional area, fibre type distribution, or extracellular matrix content in young or old mice, regardless of running activity. Resting in vivo diaphragm function was also unaffected by satellite cell depletion. Myonuclear density was maintained in young satellite cell-depleted mice regardless of running, but was modestly reduced in aged sedentary (-7%) and running (-19%) mice without satellite cells (P < 0.05). Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we detected higher Pax3 mRNA+ cell density in both young and aged satellite cell-depleted diaphragm muscle (P < 0.05), which may compensate for the loss of Pax7+ satellite cells.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Dissecting evolution and disease using comparative vertebrate genomics

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.51

Authors: Jennifer R. S. Meadows & Kerstin Lindblad-Toh



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Alternative splicing: A thermometer controlling gene expression

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.61

Author: Linda Koch



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Genome organization: Tracking chromosomal conformation through the cell cycle

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.62

Author: Carolina Perdigoto



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Addition to the Special Issue on the CTP network consisting of reviews and original papers emerging from the CTPIOD meeting (Contribution To Progress in Obesity and Diabetes Research) 2016



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