Σάββατο, 13 Οκτωβρίου 2018

Agaricus bisporus supplementation reduces high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and fatty liver development

Abstract

Obesity is a global epidemic characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by important complications such as nonalcoholic liver steatosis. Beneficial antiobesogenic effects have been described for some mushrooms. The current study aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of Agaricus bisporus (AB) supplementation against the metabolic alterations induced by high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 weeks with one of the following diets: (1) control diet (n = 7), (2) HFD (n = 7), (3) HFD supplemented with 5% AB (n = 9), and (4) HFD supplemented with 10% AB (n = 9). A pair-fed group was also included for the 10% AB group (n = 6). The impact of AB supplementation on food intake, body weight gain, and liver and fat pad weights was examined. Biochemical, histological, and molecular parameters were also analyzed. Dietary supplementation with 10% AB reduced the HFD-induced increase in body, epididymal, and mesenteric fat weights (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). Supplementation with AB also reduced liver damage in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001). This effect was confirmed by histological analysis that showed that liver steatosis was markedly reduced in mice fed with AB. The beneficial properties of 10% AB supplementation appear to be mediated through a decrease in food intake and via stimulation of mesenteric and hepatic free-fatty acid beta-oxidation, along with a decrease in epidydimal and hepatic expression of CD36. In conclusion, supplementation with AB prevents excessive body weight gain and liver steatosis induced by HFD consumption.



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Mycophenolate mofetil treatment in patients with autoimmune hepatitis failing standard therapy with prednisolone and azathioprine

Data on rescue treatment of autoimmune hepatitis in patients that fail standard treatment are sparse.

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COLO-R Ectal Endoscopic Full-thickness Resection (EFTR) with the over-the-scope device (FTRD®): A multicenter Italian experience

Endoscopic full-thickness resection(EFTR) with FTRD® in colo-rectum may be useful for several indications.The aim was to assess its efficacy and safety.

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The Burden of Digestive Disease across Europe: Facts and Policies.

The past decade has witnessed a significant increase in the incidence of GI diseases across Europe. There are clear differences in outcomes for patients in Europe based on geographical and economic differences, and there is a worrying inequality in the provision of healthcare across the continent. Recent demographic studies have highlighted the heavy burden of GI disease across Europe. There is increasing demand for endoscopic procedures which are becoming increasingly more complex and demand further expertise and training.

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Cost analysis and outcome of endoscopic submucosal dissection for colorectal lesions in an outpatient setting

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), a minimally invasive treatment for early gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, is considered challenging and risky in the colorectum. As such, most patients undergoing ESD are hospitalized due to the perceived increased risk of adverse events. The aim of this study was to compare the costs, safety and efficacy of colorectal-ESD in an outpatient vs inpatient setting in a tertiary level center.

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Outcomes of first-line endoscopic management for patients with sigmoid volvulus

Sigmoid volvulus is a common cause of colonic obstruction in old and frail patients. Its standard management includes the endoscopic detorsion of the colonic loop, followed by an elective sigmoidectomy to prevent recurrence. However, these patients are often poor candidates for surgery.

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Pre-surgery age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index is associated with worse outcomes in acute cholecystitis

Beneficial effects of cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis (AC) might be weakened by complications. The age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) assesses disease relevance in the prediction of one-year mortality.

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ASGE high-risk criteria for choledocholithiasis − are they applicable in cholecystectomized patients?

The guidelines by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) suggest that in patients with gallbladder in situ, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) should be performed in the presence of high-risk criteria for choledocholithiasis, after biochemical tests and abdominal ultrasound. There are no specific recommendations for cholecystectomized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of ASGE criteria for ERCP in cholecystectomized patients with suspected choledocholithiasis.

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P148 Gluten free diet and cardiovascular risk



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P144 Atorvastatin vs pravastatin: which choice in familial hypercholesterolemic children?



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P111 A case of persistent hypertransaminasemia



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Editorial Board

Publication date: September 2018

Source: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 19, Issue 3

Author(s):



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Hand grip diversity and frequency during the use of Lower Palaeolithic stone cutting-tools

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Journal of Human Evolution

Author(s): Alastair Key, Stephen R. Merritt, Tracy L. Kivell

Abstract

The suite of anatomical features contributing to the unique gripping capabilities of the modern human hand evolved alongside the proliferation of Lower Palaeolithic flaked tool technologies across the Old World. Experimental studies investigating their potential co-evolution suggest that the use of flakes, handaxes, and other stone tools is facilitated by manipulative capabilities consistent with the evolutionary trajectory of the hominin hand during this period. Grip analyses have provided important contributions to this understanding. To date, however, there has been no large-scale investigation of grip diversity during flaked stone-tool use, empirical comparative analyses of grip use frequencies, or examination of ergonomic relationships between grip choice and stone tool type and form.

Here, we conduct four experimental studies, using replica Lower Palaeolithic stone tools in a series of actualistic and laboratory-based contexts, to record grip type and frequency of grip use during 1067 stone tool-use events by 123 individuals. Using detailed morphometric data recorded from each tool, we demonstrate how grip choice varies according to the type and form of stone tool used, and how these relationships differ between tool-use contexts. We identify 29 grip types across all tool-use events, with significant differences recorded in their frequency of use dependent on tool type, tool form, and the context of use. Despite the influence of these three factors, there is consistency in the frequent use of a limited number (≤4) of grip types within each experiment and the consistent and seemingly forceful recruitment of the thumb and index finger. Accordingly, we argue that there are deep-rooted, ergonomically-related, regularities in how stone tools are gripped during their use, that these regularities may have been present during the use of stone tools by Plio-Pleistocene hominins, and any subsequent selective pressures would likely have been focused on the first and second digit.



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Preoperative Patient Evaluation: Practicing Evidence-Based, Cost-Effective Medicine

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Zdravka Zafirova, Richard D. Urman



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Preoperative Assessment of the Pregnant Patient Undergoing Nonobstetric Surgery

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Michael P. Webb, Erik M. Helander, Ashley R. Meyn, Trevor Flynn, Richard D. Urman, Alan D. Kaye



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Stratification and Risk Reduction of Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury: An Update

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Sheela Pai Cole



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Perioperative Surgical Home Models

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Thomas R. Vetter



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Hematologic Disorders

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Germán Echeverry, Allison Dalton



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Management of Challenging Pharmacologic Issues in Chronic Pain and Substance Abuse Disorders

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Elyse M. Cornett, Rebecca Budish, Dustin Latimer, Brendon Hart, Richard D. Urman, Alan David Kaye



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Preoperative Laboratory Testing

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Angela F. Edwards, Daniel J. Forest



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Genomics Testing and Personalized Medicine in the Preoperative Setting

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Rodney A. Gabriel, Brittany N. Burton, Richard D. Urman, Ruth S. Waterman



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Preoperative Evaluation: Estimation of Pulmonary Risk Including Obstructive Sleep Apnea Impact

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Yamini Subramani, Mahesh Nagappa, Jean Wong, Talha Mubashir, Frances Chung



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Preoperative Management of the Geriatric Patient: Frailty and Cognitive Impairment Assessment

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Allison Dalton, Zdravka Zafirova



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Optimizing Preoperative Anemia to Improve Patient Outcomes

Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018

Source: Anesthesiology Clinics

Author(s): Brittany N. Burton, Alison M. A'Court, Ethan Y. Brovman, Michael J. Scott, Richard D. Urman, Rodney A. Gabriel



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Genome-wide association study of primary open-angle glaucoma in continental and admixed African populations

Abstract

Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex disease with a major genetic contribution. Its prevalence varies greatly among ethnic groups, and is up to five times more frequent in black African populations compared to Europeans. So far, worldwide efforts to elucidate the genetic complexity of POAG in African populations has been limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 1113 POAG cases and 1826 controls from Tanzanian, South African and African American study samples. Apart from confirming evidence of association at TXNRD2 (rs16984299; OR[T] 1.20; P = 0.003), we found that a genetic risk score combining the effects of the 15 previously reported POAG loci was significantly associated with POAG in our samples (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.26–1.93; P = 4.79 × 10−5). By genome-wide association testing we identified a novel candidate locus, rs141186647, harboring EXOC4 (OR[A] 0.48; P = 3.75 × 10−8), a gene transcribing a component of the exocyst complex involved in vesicle transport. The low frequency and high degree of genetic heterogeneity at this region hampered validation of this finding in predominantly West-African replication sets. Our results suggest that established genetic risk factors play a role in African POAG, however, they do not explain the higher disease load. The high heterogeneity within Africans remains a challenge to identify the genetic commonalities for POAG in this ethnicity, and demands studies of extremely large size.



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Personal responsibility modulates neural representations of anticipatory and experienced pain

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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Serelaxin attenuates renal inflammation and fibrosis in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy

Experimental Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Characterising the plasma metabolome during 14 days live high, train low simulated altitude: A metabolomic approach

Experimental Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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The association between a mixing ability test and patient reported chewing ability in patients treated for oral malignancies

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Glycinergic neurotransmission in the RVLM controls the time course of baroreflex‐mediated sympathoinhibition

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Dynamic structural rearrangements and functional regulation of voltage‐sensing phosphatase

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Effect of inbreeding on intellectual disability revisited by Trio sequencing

Clinical Genetics, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Effects of Joint Kinetics on Energy Cost during Repeated Vertical Jumping

Purpose The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lower limb joint kinetics on energy cost during jumping. Methods Eight male middle and long-distance runners volunteered for the study. The subjects were asked to repeat vertical jumps at a frequency of 2 Hz for 3-min on a force platform in three different surface inclination conditions: Incline (+8°), Level (0°), and Decline (−8°). Sagittal plane kinematics were obtained using a high-speed video camera. Simultaneously, ground reaction forces and electromyography (EMG) of the lower limb muscles were recorded. Energy cost was calculated using steady-state oxygen uptake, respiratory ratio, and vertical distance of the body. Results In all conditions, energy cost correlated positively with total mechanical work of the knee joint (r = 0.636, p

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Exercise Training Increases Metaboreflex Control in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Introduction/Purpose We demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have reduced muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Additionally, exercise training increased muscle metaboreflex control in heart failure patients. Objective We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would increase muscle metaboreflex control of MSNA in patients with OSA. Methods Forty-one patients with OSA were randomized into the following two groups: (1) nontrained (OSANT, n=21) and (2) trained (OSAT, n=20). MSNA was assessed by microneurography technique, muscle blood flow (FBF) by venous occlusion plethysmography, heart rate by electrocardiography, and blood pressure (BP) with an automated oscillometric device. All physiological variables were simultaneously assessed at rest, during isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction, and during posthandgrip muscle ischemia (PHMI). Muscle metaboreflex sensitivity was calculated as the difference in MSNA between PHMI and the rest period. Patients in the OSAT group underwent seventy-two sessions of moderate exercise training, whereas patients in the OSANT group were clinical follow-up for six months. Results The OSANT and OSAT groups were similar in anthropometric, neurovascular, hemodynamic and sleep parameters. Exercise training reduced the baseline MSNA (34±2 vs. 25±2 burst/min, P

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