Πέμπτη, 13 Δεκεμβρίου 2018

Pulmonary Hypertension During Pregnancy in New York State, 2003–2014


Objectives This study examined the prevalence and temporal trends in (a) pulmonary hypertension (PH) during pregnancy and (b) mortality and morbidity during pregnancy with and without PH. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of the 2003–2014 New York State Inpatient Database. PH was categorized as primary or secondary and pregnancy as loss or termination of pregnancy, preterm birth, or term birth. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of maternal morbidity was used, including 17 diagnoses and 5 procedures. Changes were assessed using Cochran-Armitage trend tests. Results Of 2,940,868 pregnancy-related discharges, 746 indicated a diagnosis of PH (25/100,000; 95% CI 24–27). PH was secondary in 677/746 (91%) discharges and 488/746 were term births (65%). Prevalence of secondary PH increased from 17 to 30/100,000 between 2003– 2004 and 2013–2014 (+ 69%; P < 0.001), with an increase in the prevalence of heart valve disease, obesity, and systemic hypertension. Primary PH decreased 81% (P = 0.002). Term-birth PH discharges increased from 13 to 22/100,000 between 2003–2004 and 2013–2014 (+ 66%; P = 0.003), without change in preterm births and loss or termination of pregnancies. No change in morbidity in PH discharges was observed between 2003–2004 and 2013–2014, contrasting with a 64% increase in discharges without PH. Conclusions for Practice Prevalence of secondary PH during pregnancy markedly increased since 2003, underscoring the importance of screening for PH, especially in women with heart valve disease, obesity, or systemic hypertension.

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Journal of Current Research in Scientific Medicine (J Curr Res Sci Med) 2018 | July-December | Volume 4 | Issue 2


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A cross talk between clinics and laboratory Highly accessed articlep. 73
Somanath Padhi, Rajlaxmi Sarangi
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Diabetes mellitus: Can retinopathy be far behind? Highly accessed articlep. 78
Renuka Srinivasan
Diabetic retinopathy (DR), also known as diabetic eye disease, is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus and most common cause of low vision and blindness in India. It is a progressive condition with microvascular alterations that lead to retinal ischemia and macular edema. A number of recent advances have emerged in the diagnosis and management of DR. These advances could provide the means to develop major public health strategies to prevent DR and better management of diabetic retinopathy.
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A study of blood lead levels in young myocardial infarction patients Highly accessed articlep. 81
Ramesh Ayil Nagarajan, Sudhagar Mookkappan, Mark Christopher Arokiaraj, Aneesh Basheer, Nayyar Iqbal
Background: The toxicity due to lead is a widely researched sphere of public interest. Positive associations have been identified between lead exposure and coronary heart disease and cardiac rhythm disturbance. This study has been undertaken in general population to determine whether the blood lead level has any role in cardiovascular disease. Aims and Objectives: To estimate the blood levels in young patients with Myocardial Infarction and compare with the older patients. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 patients with Myocardial Infarction [MI] admitted in a private medical college over a Study Period of 12 months categorized into 2 groups of 50 each based on age <45 yrs and >45 yrs. Materials and Methods: Patients with ECG changes suggestive of Myocardial Infarction and elevated CKMB and Troponin I were included and patients with other than the conventional risk factors were excluded. Patients were further investigated for complete blood count, fasting lipid profile, serum electrolytes, 2D echocardiograph, CK-MB, Troponin I and blood lead levels. Results: The prevalence of MI was 94% and 8% in men and women of the younger group whereas 74% in men and slightly higher percentage of 26% in women of the older group. The mean blood lead levels was 8.392 mg/dl with a standard deviation of 4.5 mg/dl among younger patients as compared to mean of 15.048 mg/dl with standard deviation of 2.5 mg/dl indicating a significant increase in blood lead levels as the age progresses, though the lead levels were in normal range. Conclusion:The study revealed a significant correlation of serum lead concentration with progression of age, though no such correlation was found with Myocardial Infarction. However further studies with healthy participants, larger sample size and data in regards to specific occupation, life style and geographic location can yield significant results to attribute serum lead as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease.
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The incidence and prevalence of adverse drug reactions among medical inpatients in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospitalp. 86
Peter Ehizokhale Akhideno, Olumuyiwa John Fasipe, Ambrose Ohumagho Isah
Aim: Evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and pattern of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with the extent to which they influence cost of healthcare is often informative and useful in patients' management, policymaking and safety considerations. Methods: The patients admitted into the internal medicine wards of a university teaching hospital, South-South Nigeria over a 9-month period from December 2013 to August 2014 were prospectively recruited for the study and followed up till discharge. Results: Five hundred and seven patients were evaluated during the study, out of which 269 (53.1%) of them were males and 238 (46.9%) were females. The mean age of the study population was 48.9 ± 17.8 years (median of 46 years). ADRs had an incidence of 6.5%, while its prevalence rate was 10.1%. The cost of treating ADR was ₦ 161668.00 ($1243.60), equivalent to 1.9% of the total cost of all medications used by patients during admission. The case fatality rate for ADRs was 7.8%, while ADR-related mortality rate was 0.8%. The most frequently affected body systems were the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal system corresponding to insulin use (causing neuroglycopenic symptoms) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use (causing NSAID-induced gastroenteritis/GIT bleeding) respectively. Conclusions: The incidence and prevalence of ADRs were clinically significant among these medical inpatients. In this study, ADRs increase patients morbidity, mortality, cost of health care, and duration of hospital stay as it has been shown by previous studies. Insulin caused the highest number of ADRs, suggesting the need for individual diabetic patients to acquire and learn the appropriate regular use of glucometers.
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Impact of taking thyroxine with herbal brews Highly accessed articlep. 94
George Thomas, Anulekha Mary John, Jibily Joy, Sherin Sarah Mathew, Alice David
Background/Objectives: Herbal brews other than tea/coffee are becoming popular. We observed that these interfered with absorption of thyroxine. Since no prior studies have examined this, we sought to estimate this interaction effect, if any. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among outpatients of a tertiary care hospital in India. Patients on thyroxine replacement were interviewed regarding the drink used with thyroxine. Various herbal brews used were compared against plain water. Thyroid-stimulating hormone was measured and compared. Results: Total of 121 patients fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 69 (57.0%) patients among them took thyroxine with a herbal brew. Various herbal products included cutch-tree (Karingali) 26 (37.7%), herbal mixture (Dahashamini) 28 (40.6%), and others 15 (21.7%). Risk of not achieving euthyroidism with any herbal brew was 7.6 times high (odds ratio [OR] 7·6 with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3·1–18·5) as against plain water and was the highest for cutch, OR 12.4 with 95% CI: 4.0–38.0. Conclusions: Several patients take thyroxine with water brewed with herbal products. Effectiveness of thyroxine was greatly reduced when taken with herbal brews.
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Comparison of four different methods of smear preparation for Gram staining of positively flagged automated blood culture bottlesp. 98
Jyoti Nain, R Deepashree, Pratibha Tamang, Prasanna Bhat, Suman Prakash, R Sneha, T Kalpana, G Anitha, Apurba Sankar Sastry
Introduction: Gram staining of smears prepared from positively flagged blood culture bottles plays a vital role because its accurate interpretation helps the clinicians to modify empirical therapy as well as to perform the direct susceptibility test, which reduces the turnaround time by 24 h to initiate pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy. However, the interpretation of direct Gram stain from blood culture bottles has always been at risk of errors in interpreting. Aim: The present study was conducted to find the agreement between the blood culture broth Gram stain finding of four different methods (conventional, water wash, blood film, and drop and rest) of smear preparation with the culture smear Gram stain result and also to compare the quantity of charcoal and resin particles present in the Gram stained smears made from four different smear preparation methods. Method and Result: Smears were made from 500 positively flagged automated blood culture bottles using the four different methods and then compared for agreement with the culture smear Gram stain using kappa statistics and were found to be maximum for the blood film method (0.637), followed by drop and rest (0.570), water-wash (0.496), and conventional method (0.475). The 3+ grading for resin/charcoal was found in 184 (36.80%) smears, 169 (33.80%), 93 (18.60%), and 26 (5.20%) smears prepared by water-wash, conventional, drop and rest, and blood film method, respectively. The interference caused by resin/charcoal was maximum when smears were prepared by the conventional method resulting in high inaccurate interpretation. Conclusion: In this study, the agreement between direct smear preparation methods from positively flagged blood culture broth with the culture smear Gram stain was found to be maximum for the blood film method, followed by drop and rest, waterwash, and conventional method.It was also observed that the least amount of resin/charcoal was encountered when the direct smears were prepared using the blood film method.Hence, we found that the blood film method helps in interpreting the Gram stained smears from positively flagged blood culture broth more accurately compared to other methods.
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Effect of regular treatment, follow-up, and lifestyle practices in diabetic patients with ocular manifestations attending a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, Indiap. 104
Nivedha S Raman, Amod Hansdak
Background: The last few decades have witnessed the growth of diabetes mellitus which is affecting all sections of the society. Complications of diabetes and its management present a still further challenge to health care providers. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, India, to find out the treatment and follow-up of patients with diabetes mellitus and also to estimate ocular manifestations among the study subjects. Results: Regular treatment was found among 80% while regular follow-up was seen in 55.7% of the diabetic patients. Two-thirds of the patients were on oral hypoglycemic agents only. 18.6% of the patients tested their blood glucose levels once a month. Visit to an ophthalmologist was made in the last 12 months by 32.9% of them. Ocular manifestations were present in both vegetarians 80% and non-vegetarians 76% respectively. Diabetics practicing sedentary lifestyle had more ocular manifestations 87% as compared to 62.5% in those who did not exercise. Ocular manifestation was also higher among those with elevated blood glucose levels 74.4% in comparison to 61.3% among those with normal blood glucose levels.Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of regular treatment and follow-up by patients with diabetes in relation to development of ocular manifestations. Exercise in diabetes is a key factor in delaying complications such as retinopathy.
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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndromep. 109
Neha Sivaguru, KM Indira, K Pradeep, L Gopinath, Nayyar Iqbal
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical and radiographical syndrome of varying etiologies. It is characterized by headache, confusion, seizures, visual loss, and raised blood pressure along with magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities. It is associated with a number of conditions such as hypertension, eclampsia, vasculitis, chemotherapeutic drugs, and postpartum state. We report the case of a 28-year-old female who developed PRES on her 8th day of postpartum along with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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A case of successful management of perioperative pulmonary embolismp. 112
Sivakumar Segaran, BT Arish, Athmanathan Mohan, Vikasini Jayaraman, Abinaya Ramachandran
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively common complication after major orthopedic surgeries with a high mortality rate. We present a case of L4–L5 disc prolapse with radiculopathy posted for spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery who developed PE perioperatively. It was diagnosed initially with point-of-care echocardiography and confirmed with computed tomography pulmonary angiography. The patient was thrombolyzed with streptokinase, following which she developed bleeding from the surgical site which was managed conservatively with blood transfusions. The patient recovered well and discharged after a week. The management of PE tests the skills of the anesthetist with respect to detection and rapid hemodynamic management.
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Bilateral absence of third and fourth lumbricals: A case report with clinico-evolutionary insightp. 116
NA Priyadharshini, V Dinesh Kumar, R Rajprasath
Lumbricals are wormlike, intrinsic muscle of the hand. During routine dissection of a male cadaver of age approximately ranging between 50 and 55 years, the absence of third and fourth lumbricals on both the palm was observed. First and second lumbricals showed no anatomical variation. Other muscles of hypothenar eminence supplied by deep branch of ulnar nerve which also supplies the third and fourth lumbricals were normal. Lumbricals are principle extensors of interphalangeal joint, and its role in flexion of metacarpophalangeal joint is meager. Variability in the presence of medial two lumbricals has evolutionary correlation and also shows its minimal role in the extension of interphalangeal joint of its respective digits. Henceforth, knowledge of absence of lumbricals is crucial for surgeons while planning for hand surgery.
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A case of perioperative myocardial infarction leading to asystole: An anesthesiologist's nightmarep. 119
Sivakumar Segaran, Mamie Zachariah Ninan, RV Ranjan, Leenu Grace Ninan, Vikasini Raman
Perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) in patients without a prior history of coronary artery disease is quite rare. Diagnosing PMI is also quite challenging because of a myriad of events mimicking MI during the perioperative period. we are reporting of PMI leading to cardiac arrest which was successfully resuscitated with the help of a multidisciplinary team. Cardiologist opinion was obtained, and angiogram was done which showed block in left anterior descending artery for which he was stented with drug-eluting stent and discharged a week after with full neurological recovery. The mechanism for triggering PMI in our case is quite inconclusive.
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Potential factors influencing the effectiveness of feedback in medical educationp. 122
Saurabh Rambiharilal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
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Expertise reversal effect: What every faculty need to know while designing a lecture?p. 124
V Dinesh Kumar
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Making poster presentations more effective: Closing the gap between expectation and realityp. 126
V Dinesh Kumar
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Reply to "Letter to editor" written in response to "Perspectives on poster as a presentation mode in conferences"p. 128
Himel Mondal, Shaikat Mondal
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Saudi Surgical Journal (Saudi Surg J) 2018 | October-December | Volume 6 | Issue 4


Cone-beam computed tomography versus orthopantomography in sinus lift procedures: Two-dimensional versus three-dimensional imagingp. 113
S Manoj Kumar, Hazza Al Hobeira, Mohammad D Aljanakh, Sameer Shaikh, Kurian Ponnuse, Muthusamy Deivanayagi
Context: The present study was undertaken to do a comparative evaluation of the role of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging and orthopantomography (OPG) for preoperative implant planning in combination with sinus grafting procedures to assess sinus anatomy and morphology and the existing bone height in three-dimensions (3D). Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess sinus anatomy and morphology and the existing bone height in all the 3D. Materials and Methods: Pre- and postoperative assessment of maxillary sinuses was done in 17 patients who underwent implant therapy in combination with sinus augmentation procedures using CBCT and OPG. These patients were subjected to orthopantomographs and CBCT imaging both preoperatively and postoperatively. CBCT imaging helped decide the type of sinus augmentation procedure best suited for the patients as per the individual needs and depending on the residual alveolar bone height, timing of implant placement, sinus morphology, anticipation of complication, and comparative analysis between pre- and postprocedural gain in vertical alveolar bone height and increase in bone density. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using paired and unpaired t-tests. Results: In the majority of cases, there was a concordance between the treatment types based on pre- and postoperative CBCT scans. The assessment of sinus morphology revealed a significantly higher detection rate of aberrations in the form of sinus mucosal hypertrophy and septae on CBCT which were imperceptible on routine radiographs. The most appealing result was that vertical alveolar bone height could be measured precisely, and there was a significant increase in surgical confidence and a significantly better prediction of complications when using CBCT imaging. Conclusions: A preoperative planning based on CBCT imaging seems to improve sinus diagnostics and helps execute a better treatment plan. Furthermore, it is a good tool for the comparison of vertical alveolar bone height pre- and postoperatively following sinus augmentation procedures using various graft materials.
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Correlations between parathyroid hormone level, adenoma size, and serum calcium level in patients with primary hyperparathyroidismp. 122
Jubran Al Faifi
Aim: The main goal of this study is to determine the association of preoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels with parathyroid gland adenoma sizes and serum calcium levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism caused by single-gland adenoma. Methods: We included all patients with single parathyroid gland adenoma who were admitted to and underwent parathyroidectomy at Security Forces Hospital in Riyadh during a period of 10 years from January 1, 2000 to October 30, 2011. PTH level and serum corrected calcium were recorded 1 day before surgery. Adenoma size was recorded from pathology reports for all patients. Results: In 35 cases of parathyroid adenoma including 12 males (34.3%) and 23 females (65.7%) with an average age of 48.94 years (±13.52), the average PTH level 1 day preoperatively was 769.94 pg/mL (±793.27), the average largest dimension (LD) of parathyroid adenoma was 2.18 cm (±1.38), and the average calcium level 1 day preoperatively was 2.71 mmol/L (±0.3). The mean PTH level in males was 1098.5 pg/mL compared to 598.5 pg/mL in females (P =0.068), mean LD of parathyroid adenoma in males was 2.34 cm versus 2.09 cm in females (P = 0.72), and mean calcium level in males was 2.70 mmol/L compared to 2.72 mmol/L in females (P = 0.46). A positive correlation was found between PTH level and adenoma size, with a correlation coefficient of 0.29 (P = 0.095). The correlation between PTH level and calcium level was negative, with a correlation coefficient of −0.033 (P = 0.85). Negative correlation was also found between adenoma size and calcium level, with a correlation coefficient of −0.033 (P = 0.85). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, preoperative PTH level or serum calcium level cannot be used to predict adenoma size. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.
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Functional outcome of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in Saudi patients at Western Regionp. 127
Hatim Mohammed A. AlShareef, Abdullah H AlZahrani, Shaima Sabar, Ahmed A Alharbi, Hajar Mohammed A. Halawani, Basem A Althinayyan, Bader K Alsheikh, Asim Aldaheri
Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an integral stabilizing structure of the knee. Rupture of the ACL impairs the stability of the knee leading to difficulty with athletic performance and increasing the risk of subsequent meniscal injury. It accounts for 50% of all knee ligaments injuries. ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is the gold-standard treatment to restore the stability of the knee and improve the function. We aimed to assess the functional outcomes of the ACLR in Western area of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four patients who had ACLR between 2014 and 2016 in King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, had participated in this study by filling a self-administer questionnaire. Oxford Knee Score consisting of 12 questions is a valid and sensitive tool to assess the function and pain after ACLR. Results: One hundred and three male (99%) and one female (1%) were included in the study with a mean age of 34.92 (standard deviation [SD] of 8.3) years and mean body mass index of 27.69 (SD of 4.74) kg/m2. Sixty-five of them had results suggestive of satisfactory joint function (61.9%), 32 had results suggestive of mild-to-moderate knee pain (30.5%), 6 of had moderate-to-severe knee pain (5.7%), and only one had a result of severe knee pain. The most common difficulties claimed by the participants, rated 1 or 2 in the score are: persistent pain (16 out of 104, 15.4%), pain with kneeling (14 out of 104, 13.5%), usual daily chores (10 out of 104, 9.6%), and knee pain at night (9 out of 104, 8.6%).Conclusion: Majority of the participants were satisfied with the ACLR representing more than 60% of patients. On the other hand, out of 104 participants, only one had the worst outcome representing < 1% of the sample size.
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Pain-free liver retraction: A simple technical innovationp. 132
JS Rajkumar, Anirudh Rajkumar, Hema Tadimari, Dharmendra Kollapalayam Raman, S Akbar, V Sai Vishnupriya
Aim: To present an innovative pain –free liver retraction. Introduction: Retraction of the left lobe of the liver is a vital step in most of the upper gastrointestinal laparoscopic surgeries. For these procedures, a subxiphoid port, 5 or 10 mm, is used to insert a liver retractor to keep the left lobe of the liver out of the operative field. We describe a simple, but effective and economical alternative technique, using the core shaft of the dismantlable laparoscopic hand instruments. Patients and methods: Over a 3-month period, all upper gastrointestinal laparoscopic surgeries, were done with the liver retraction performed with the core shaft of the dismantlable laparoscopic instrument. There were 41 surgeries in all, which were mainly bariatric surgeries, antireflux surgeries, and Heller's myotomy. The endpoint of the study was to evaluate how useful this modified liver retraction was as a technique, and failure of the retractor was defined as a need to convert into a 5-mm fan liver retractor. Results: Of the 41 patients operated in a 3-month period, only in two cases, both undergoing RYGB, who had enlarged fatty liver, a 5-mm metallic fan retractor was found to be necessary to complete the proposed surgery, with a conversion ratio of 4.9%. Conclusion:The two mm 'insert', the shaft of the dismantlable laparoscopic hand instruments is a safe and effective option for liver retraction in most of the upper GI laparoscopic surgeries.
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Assessing postsurgery body mass index reduction and identifying factors associated with greater body mass index reduction in a sample of obese patients who underwent weight-loss surgery in Saudi Arabiap. 136
Anwar E Ahmed, Wala R Alanazi, Rayan A Ahmed, Wijdan AlJohi, Doaa A Al Buraikan, Budor A Al Rasheed, Bashayr I Al Muqbil, Amen A Bawazir, Ali M Al Shehri, Hamdan Al-Jahdali
Background: Although evidence exists that bariatric surgery can provide substantial weight loss and body mass index (BMI) reduction. However, there is a limited data about this topic among the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess postsurgery BMI and identify factors associated with greater BMI reduction. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 318 obese patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in the period between January 1, 2001 and March 31, 2017. The outcome assessed was a reduction in BMI within 12 months after surgery, and a reduction of ≥20, indicating a greater BMI loss. Results: Patients with BMI value >40 had markedly decreased from 81.5% at the baseline to 25.6% at 12 months. Greater BMI loss occurred in 12.03% of the patients. Mixed-model and Tukey multiple comparison tests show a great decrease in BMI over time, but no significant differences in BMI between surgery types: LSG and RYGB. According to bivariate logistic analysis, greater BMI reduction was noted in the male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.493, P = 0.017) and patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (OR = 3.130, P = 0.029). A multivariate logistic analysis showed that young age (adjusted OR = 3.755, P = 0.028) and OSA (adjusted OR = 5.034, P = 0.023) were associated with a greater BMI reduction at 12-month postsurgery. Conclusions: The study has shown that bariatric surgery led to a significant reduction in BMI, which may result in resolving a number of obesity-related comorbidities. Being young and OSA were associated with significant reduction. The procedure types, RYGB and LSG, yielded similar reduction in BMI. It is important to evaluate baseline data as it may influence BMI reduction and aid management.
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Factors influencing decision of medical students in choosing a surgical specialty: A cross-sectional studyp. 141
Hesham Fouad Barradah, Mohammed Ridha Algethami, Jehad Basem Bambi, Mazin Abdul Manan Alsayed, Nabeel Ghazwan Mahmalji, Mahmoud Fakiha, Hisham Rizk
Introduction: It has been noticed that the surgical field has been facing shortage in the workforce in many countries. This study aimed to take a closer look on the possible factors influencing medical students' decision in choosing surgical specialty. These factors include the gender, nationality, living conditions, the effect of the mentors during medical school years, and satisfaction with the training programs. We aim to assess different factors that affect the decision-making of medical students in Saudi Arabia when choosing a surgical specialty. Methodology: (a) A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah. Participants were from King Abdulaziz university medical students, from preclinical years (2nd and 3rd), and clinical years (4th, 5th, and 6th). Students from other colleges and universities were excluded from the study. A questionnaire utilizing the fivepoint Likert Scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) was used when asking students about their opinion in choosing a surgical career. Results: A total of 329 medical students completed the questionnaire. Significant demographical differences were found regarding housing and physical training (P = 0.006 and P = 0.004). Fifty-two (15.8%) and 61 (18.2%) participants showed interest in general surgery and cardiothoracic surgery, respectively. Females were mostly interested in cardiothoracic surgery (18.9%), with significant difference (P = 0.007). Conclusion: The majority of medical students are willing to pursue a surgical career and most of them believe that overseas have a good surgical training program. Based on our result, we recommend that more lectures, campaigns, and workshops should target medical students to increase their knowledge about these potential factors that could alter their decision when choosing a surgical career.
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Bizarre presentation of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome mimicking rectal malignancy with impending bowel obstructionp. 146
Khaled Elsayed Elshaar, Laila H AbuAleid, Nabil T Mikhail
Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare benign and chronic rectal disease that has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations with variable endoscopic findings. It mostly occurs between 20 and 29 years of ages and gives a significant female preponderance. A 23-year-old female presented with 2 years history of constipation and bleeding per rectum, with a recent complaint of tenesmus, inability to defecate along with abdominal distention, and vomiting. She was on mesalazine as advised by the gastroenterologist, without improvement. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) abdomen showed circumferential poorly enhancing 8 cm rectal mass starting 10 cm from the anal verge with multiple mesorectal lymphadenopathy. Colonoscopy showed hard, ulcerating rectal mass obstructing the lumen, highly suspicious for malignancy. Endoscopic biopsy showed the features suggesting SRUS. However, as the patient had impending colonic obstruction along with the doubtful presence of underlying malignancy, we prepared her for exploratory laparotomy, which revealed a hard midrectum 5 cm × 5 cm × 6 cm mass, so low anterior resection had done with stapled colorectal anastomosis. Paraffin section proved the diagnosis of SRUS. SRUS should always be considered in young patients with malignant-mimicking rectal mass. A differential diagnosis of SRUS should always be kept in mind for mural thickening of the rectum on CT. However, it is important not to miss a diagnosis of rectal cancer over the diagnosis of SRUS.
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Synchronous laparoscopic cholecystectomy and mesh repair of incarcerated femoral hernia: Is it feasible?p. 151
M Ezzedien Rabie, Abdelelah Hummadi, Mohammad Osama
Cholecystectomy and hernia repair are common surgical procedures. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for managing gallstone disease, the situation is not similar for laparoscopic hernia repair, as the debate between the laparoscopic and open approaches continues. However, laparoscopic femoral hernia repair has been recommended by some, especially in females. In this report, we describe the clinical course of a 53-year-old female with chronic calcular cholecystitis, who presented with incarcerated femoral hernia. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and mesh repair of her femoral hernia. The challenge, in this case, was the application of a mesh after cholecystectomy and in the presence of hernia incarceration, with both posing a potential risk of mesh infection. However, with proper precautions to avoid bile spillage and suction irrigation to clean the hernia operative site, together with the administration of an antibiotic coverage, a successful outcome was obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first report on simultaneous laparoscopic cholecystectomy and incarcerated femoral hernia repair.
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Primary mucinous eccrine adenocarcinoma of anterior chest wallp. 156
M Ramula, M Mohan Raj, R Ram Prasath
Mucinous eccrine carcinoma is a very rare cutaneous malignancy, rarely documented in literature (0.05%.) It is commonly found in lower extremities. It is a tumor of old age. Diagnosis is mainly by histopathological report, as clinical diagnosis is very difficult. A 60-year-old female residing nearby village presented with lump left breast of 6 months. A solitary lump left breast was present over nipple areola with no regional lymph nodes. Mucinous eccrine tumors are common in the 6th decade with male: female ratio 2:1. They present as nodular cutaneous swelling with no distinct clinical features, making it difficult to diagnose preoperatively. They metastasize to regional lymph nodes, lungs, liver, and bones. Five-year survival rate is 59% without metastasis. It comes down by 9% with lymph node involvement. Surgery is the principal mode of treatment; Histopathological examination confirms the diagnosis and since the cells are rich in glycogen they stain with PAS. Difficult to distinguish except by Hisochemistry from adnexal tumors. Immunohistochemistry aids in confirming the diagnosis. Primary mucinous adenoma with reported incidence of 0.05% is one of the rarest tumors. Immunohistochemistry complement in confirming the diagnosis. Wide excision is the treatment of choice. Close follow-up is essential.
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