Παρασκευή, 22 Ιουνίου 2018

Single puncture versus standard double needle arthrocentesis for the management of temporomandibular joint disorders: A systematic review

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, EarlyView.


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Cotton Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA2) Genes Promote Root Growth and Confers Drought Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins play key roles in plant drought tolerance. In this study, 157, 85 and 89 candidate LEA2 proteins were identified in G. hirsutum, G. arboreum and G. raimondii respectively. LEA2 genes were classified into 6 groups, designated as group 1 to 6. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed orthologous gene pairs within the cotton genome. The cotton specific LEA2 motifs identified were E, R and D in addition to Y, K and S motifs. The genes were distributed on all chromosomes. LEA2s were found to be highly enriched in non-polar, aliphatic amino acid residues, with leucine being the highest, 9.1% in proportion. The miRNA, ghr-miR827a/b/c/d and ghr-miR164 targeted many genes are known to be drought stress responsive. Various stress-responsive regulatory elements, ABA-responsive element (ABRE), Drought-responsive Element (DRE/CRT), MYBS and low-temperature-responsive element (LTRE) were detected. Most genes were highly expressed in leaves and roots, being the primary organs greatly affected by water deficit. The expression levels were much higher in G. tomentosum as opposed to G. hirsutum. The tolerant genotype had higher capacity to induce more of LEA2 genes. Over expression of the transformed gene Cot_AD24498 showed that the LEA2 genes are involved in promoting root growth and in turn confers drought stress tolerance. We therefore infer that Cot_AD24498, CotAD_20020, CotAD_21924 and CotAD_59405 could be the candidate genes with profound functions under drought stress in upland cotton among the LEA2 genes. The transformed Arabidopsis plants showed higher tolerance levels to drought stress compared to the wild types. There was significant increase in antioxidants, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) accumulation, increased root length and significant reduction in oxidants, Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the leaves of transformed lines under drought stress condition. This study provides comprehensive analysis of LEA2 proteins in cotton thus forms primary foundation for breeders to utilize these genes in developing drought tolerant genotypes.



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ovoD Co-selection: A Method for Enriching CRISPR/Cas9-Edited Alleles in Drosophila

Screening for successful CRISPR/Cas9 editing events remains a time consuming technical bottleneck in the field of Drosophila genome editing. This step can be particularly laborious for events that do not cause a visible phenotype, or those which occur at relatively low frequency. A promising strategy to enrich for desired CRISPR events is to co-select for an independent CRISPR event that produces an easily detectable phenotype. Here, we describe a simple negative co-selection strategy involving CRISPR-editing of a dominant female sterile allele, ovoD1. In this system ("ovoDco-selection"), the only functional germ cells in injected females are those that have been edited at the ovoD1locus, and thus all offspring of these flies have undergone editing of at least one locus. We demonstrate that ovoDco-selection can be used to enrich for knock-out mutagenesis via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), and for knock-in alleles via homology-directed repair (HDR). Altogether, our results demonstrate that ovoD co-selection reduces the amount of screening necessary to isolate desired CRISPR events in Drosophila.



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Systematic review of cognitive event related potentials in euthymic bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by recurring manic or hypomanic episodes and additional depressive episodes usually separated by periods of euthymic mood (APA 2013). Mood changes in BD are known to negatively impact cognitive performance, with evidence of cognitive abnormalities becoming more severe during manic and depressive episodes (Ferrier et al., 1999; Clark et al., 2002; Martinez-Aran et al., 2004). Disturbances in cognition affect social and occupational functioning of individuals (Green 2006; Malhi et al., 2007), with improvement in the quality of life and clinical symptoms associated with increased cognitive skills (Campanella 2013).

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Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for GABAergic modulation through transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a relatively new technique (Ventureyra 2000), which was developed to pose an alternative to direct or invasive vagus nerve stimulation (iVNS) for the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy, depression and other disorders (Hein et al. 2013; Lehtimäki et al. 2013; Bauer et al. 2016). In contrast to iVNS, where a stimulation lead is surgically wrapped around the vagus nerve in the neck, tVNS can be applied to different locations of the outer ear innervated by the auricular branch of the vagus nerve, mostly the cymba conchae or the tragus through electrodes attached to the skin (Kraus et al.

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Somatosensory temporal discrimination in Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and essential tremor: pathophysiological and clinical implications

The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) measures a subject's ability to discriminate sensory stimuli in the temporal domain (Artieda et al. 1992; Conte et al. 2010; Tinazzi et al. 2013). Several studies have investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying the STDT in healthy subjects (Conte et al. 2012; Conte et al. 2017a; Lee et al. 2017; Leodori et al. 2017; Rocchi et al. 2016). Findings from neurophysiological studies based on transcranial magnetic stimulation suggest that the STDT strongly relies on inhibitory interneurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) (Antelmi et al.

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MEG revealed new functional hub of atypical brain network in autism spectrum disorders

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with continuous disturbance of cognitive flexibility and social communication, restricted, repetitive patterns of interests and behavior (O'Connor, 2012; Schelinski et al., 2016). Emerging evidence has been almost proving the idea that ASD is a condition of altered brain functional connectivity, especially in resting-state. Previous brain connectivity studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in young adults with ASD showed reduction of resting-state connectivity at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the anterior hub of the default-mode network (DMN), and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), the posterior hub of the DMN (Kennedy and Courchesne, 2008, Di Martino et al, 2009).

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Gene expression profile of Dclk1+ cells in intestinal tumors

Accumulating evidence has shown the existence of tumor stem cells with therapeutic potential. Previously, we reported that doublecortin like kinase 1 (Dclk1) marks tumor stem cells but not normal stem cells in the intestine of ApcMin/+ mice, and that Dclk1- and Lgr5-double positive tumor cells are the tumor stem cells of intestinal tumors.

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Clinical efficacy of the Toll-like receptor 9 agonist cobitolimod using patient-reported-outcomes defined clinical endpoints in patients with ulcerative colitis

The Toll-like-receptor 9 (TLR-9) agonist cobitolimod (DIMS0150, Kappaproct®) is a promising therapeutic option for ulcerative colitis (UC) patients.

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Mindfulness-Based Interventions among Adolescents with Chronic Diseases in Clinical Settings: A Systematic Review

We aimed to determine the benefits/efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) implemented among adolescents with chronic diseases in clinical settings.

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Using Google to Survey PNPs About Agricultural Safety

Youth and children in agriculture are highly vulnerable to the health hazards associated with agricultural work and the rural environment.

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Factors Associated with Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Adolescents

Guided by cognitive theory, this study tested an explanatory model for adolescents' beliefs, feelings, and healthy lifestyle behaviors and sex differences in these relationships.

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation in hereditary ataxias: Diagnostic utility, pathophysiological insight and treatment

Publication date: August 2018
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 129, Issue 8
Author(s): Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Ulf Ziemann
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a valuable technique to assess and modulate human brain function in normal and pathological conditions. This critical review surveys the contributions of TMS to the diagnosis, insight into pathophysiology and treatment of genetically confirmed hereditary ataxias, a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that can affect motor cortex and the corticospinal tract. Most studies were conducted on small sample sizes and focused on diagnostic approaches. The available data demonstrate early involvement of the corticospinal tract and motor cortex circuitry, and support the possible efficacy of cerebellar repetitive TMS (rTMS) as therapeutic approach. Further TMS-based studies are warranted, to establish biomarkers for early diagnosis and disease monitoring, explore the involvement of the cerebello-dentato-thalamo-cortical projection, study the effects of rTMS-induced plasticity, and utilize rTMS for treatment.



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Analysis of sensory system aspects of postural stability during quiet standing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze quite standing postural stability of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in respect to three sensory systems (visual, vestibular, and somatosensory).

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Anesthetic management without perioperative platelet transfusion for cervical laminectomy and laminoplasty in a case of May–Hegglin anomaly

Abstract

May–Hegglin anomaly (MHA) is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder characterized by giant platelets and inclusion bodies in granulocytes, and thrombocytopenia. There is no consensus on the perioperative management of this disorder. We report a case involving a patient with MHA who was perioperatively managed without platelet transfusion for cervical laminectomy and laminoplasty. In our case, the platelet count was measured to be 0.6 × 104/µL using an automatic blood cell counter. Peripheral blood smear and genetic test analyses were performed, leading to a definitive diagnosis of MHA. However, clot retraction, serotonin release, and platelet aggregation were normal. Total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil, in combination with intermittent injection of fentanyl, was administered. The total blood loss volume was 300 mL, and perioperative course was uneventful. Visual platelet count and platelet function were preserved in this case, although platelet or red blood cell transfusion was not performed. No bleeding tendency was observed during perioperative management.



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Retraction Note to: Monitoring of vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block at the sternocleidomastoid muscle in anesthetized patients

The Editor-in-Chief has retracted this article [1] because the three studies included in the meta-analysis [2,3 and 4] (cited as references 16, 17 and 18) have been retracted due to concerns regarding the data, which has rendered the results of this meta-analysis invalid.



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Information/Education Pages (I/EPs)

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Publication date: July 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 99, Issue 7





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Editorial Board

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Publication date: July 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 99, Issue 7





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Table of Contents

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Publication date: July 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 99, Issue 7





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Response From the Editors

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Publication date: July 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 99, Issue 7
Author(s): Leighton Chan, Allen W. Heinemann, Helen Hoenig




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Editors' Selections From This Issue: Volume 99 / Number 7 / July 2018

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Publication date: July 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 99, Issue 7





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Masthead

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Publication date: July 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 99, Issue 7





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Complementary Medicine in Parkinson Disease: Once Again, Surprisingly Effective

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Publication date: July 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 99, Issue 7
Author(s): Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Ana Claudia Fiorini, Carla A. Scorza, Josef Finsterer




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Interpreting the Results in Terms of Clinical Significance: Comment on “Shoe Orthotics for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial”

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Publication date: July 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 99, Issue 7
Author(s): Mikhail Saltychev, Petri Virolainen




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Living Well After Traumatic Brain Injury

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 99, Issue 7
Author(s): Lenore Hawley, Tessa Hart, Wendy Waldman, Mel Glenn, Flora Hammond, Kristen Dams-O'Connor




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Care Should Be Exercised When Titling Articles So as to Not Mislead Readers

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Publication date: July 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 99, Issue 7
Author(s): Sarah Callahan




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Training-Induced Changes in Mitochondrial Content and Respiratory Function in Human Skeletal Muscle

Abstract

A sedentary lifestyle has been linked to a number of metabolic disorders that have been associated with sub-optimal mitochondrial characteristics and an increased risk of premature death. Endurance training can induce an increase in mitochondrial content and/or mitochondrial functional qualities, which are associated with improved health and well-being and longer life expectancy. It is therefore important to better define how manipulating key parameters of an endurance training intervention can influence the content and functionality of the mitochondrial pool. This review focuses on mitochondrial changes taking place following a series of exercise sessions (training-induced mitochondrial adaptations), providing an in-depth analysis of the effects of exercise intensity and training volume on changes in mitochondrial protein synthesis, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial respiratory function. We provide evidence that manipulation of different exercise training variables promotes specific and diverse mitochondrial adaptations. Specifically, we report that training volume may be a critical factor affecting changes in mitochondrial content, whereas relative exercise intensity is an important determinant of changes in mitochondrial respiratory function. As a consequence, a dissociation between training-induced changes in mitochondrial content and mitochondrial respiratory function is often observed. We also provide evidence that exercise-induced changes are not necessarily predictive of training-induced adaptations, we propose possible explanations for the above discrepancies and suggestions for future research.



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Vulnerable Women’s Perceptions of Individual Versus Group Prenatal Care: Results of a Cross-Sectional Survey

Abstract

Introduction Vulnerable pregnant women (e.g. women with low socio-economic status or recent immigrants) are less likely to receive adequate prenatal care or to attend perinatal education classes. CenteringPregnancy (CP) is a model of group prenatal care which combines assessment, education and support. This study aimed to assess patient experience among vulnerable women in group prenatal care compared to individual care. Methods Women participating in CP at a community-based health centre in urban Alberta were eligible to participate. A convenience sample of women who received individual care at a low-risk maternity clinic served as comparison. Women were asked a series of questions on their prenatal care experience. Demographic and patient responses were compared using Chi square, fisher's exact and t tests. Results Forty-five women accessing CP and 92 women accessing individual care participated. Women in CP were younger, more likely to be single and having their first baby than women in individual care. Women in CP were significantly more likely to report having received enough information on exercise during pregnancy (92 vs. 66%, p = 0.002), breastfeeding (95 vs. 70%, p = 0.002) and baby care (95 vs. 67%, p = 0.001). Women in CP were more likely to report that they felt their prenatal care providers were interested in how the pregnancy was affecting their life (100 vs. 93%, p ≤ 0.001). Discussion Group prenatal care provides a positive experience and improved information exchange among vulnerable populations. Programs interested in engaging, educating and empowering vulnerable pregnant women may benefit from implementation of group care.



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Prospecting for pluripotency

Prospecting for pluripotency

Prospecting for pluripotency, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0030-1

Unlike most organisms, planaria maintain pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) beyond embryogenesis. A new study reports the prospective identification and isolation of a neoblast subpopulation containing adult PSCs, characterization of which should help uncover the mechanisms underlying pluripotency and tissue regeneration.

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Prospecting for pluripotency



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Temporal dissociation between muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics: influences of perfusion dynamics and arteriovenous oxygen concentration differences in muscles and lungs

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study was to test whether or not the arteriovenous oxygen concentration difference (avDO2) kinetics at the pulmonary (avDO2pulm) and muscle (avDO2musc) levels is significantly different during dynamic exercise.

Methods

A re-analysis involving six publications dealing with kinetic analysis was utilized with an overall sample size of 69 participants. All studies comprised an identical pseudorandom binary sequence work rate (WR) protocol—WR changes between 30 and 80 W—to analyze the kinetic responses of pulmonary ( \(\dot {V}_2}{\text{pulm}}\) ) and muscle ( \(\dot {V}_2}{\text{musc}}\) ) oxygen uptake kinetics as well as those of avDO2pulm and avDO2musc.

Results

A significant difference between \(\dot {V}_2}{\text{musc}}\) (0.395 ± 0.079) and \(\dot {V}_2}{\text{pulm}}\) kinetics (0.330 ± 0.078) was observed (p < 0.001), where the variables showed a significant relationship (rSP = 0.744, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between avDO2musc (0.446 ± 0.077) and avDO2pulm kinetics (0.451 ± 0.075), which are highly correlated (r = 0.929, p < 0.001).

Conclusion

It is suggested that neither avDO2pulm nor avDO2musc kinetic responses seem to be responsible for the differences between estimated \(\dot {V}_2}{\text{musc}}\) and measured \(\dot {V}_2}{\text{pulm}}\) kinetics. Obviously, the conflation of avDO2 and perfusion ( \({\dot {Q}}\) ) at different points in time and at different physiological levels drive potential differences in \(\dot {V}_2}{\text{pulm}}\) and \(\dot {V}_2}{\text{musc}}\) kinetics. Therefore, \({\dot {Q}}\) should, in general, be considered whenever oxygen uptake kinetics are analyzed or discussed.



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Gene profiling involved in fate determination of salivary gland type in mouse embryogenesis

Abstract

Salivary gland (SG) development involves dynamic epithelial-mesenchymal interactions resulting in the formation of highly branched epithelial structures that produce and secrete saliva. The SG epithelium differentiates into saliva-producing terminal buds, i.e., acini, and transporting ducts. Most studies on the salivary gland have focused on branching morphogenesis; however, acinar cell differentiation underlying the determination of serous or mucous salivary glands is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify the mesenchymal signaling molecules involved in the epithelial differentiation of the salivary gland type as serous or mucous. Salivary glands undergoing stage-specific development, including the parotid gland (PG) and the sublingual gland (SLG) at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) were dissected. The glands were treated with dispase II to separate the epithelium and the mesenchyme. RNA from mesenchyme was processed for microarray analysis. Thereafter, microarray data were analyzed to identify putative candidate molecules involved in salivary gland differentiation and confirmed via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The microarray analysis revealed the expression of 31,873 genes in the PG and SLG mesenchyme. Of the expressed genes 21,026 genes were found to be equally expressed (Fold change 1.000) in both PG and SLG mesenchyme. The numbers of genes expressed over onefold in the PG and SLG mesenchyme were found to be 5247 and 5600 respectively. On limiting the fold-change cut off value over 1.5 folds, only 214 and 137 genes were expressed over 1.5 folds in the PG and the SLG mesenchyme respectively. Our findings suggest that differential expression patterns of the mesenchymal signaling molecules are involved in fate determination of the salivary acinar cell types during mouse embryogenesis. In the near future, functional evaluation of the candidate genes will be performed using gain- and loss-of-function mutation studies during in vitro organ cultivation.



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Early phase adaptations in muscle strength and hypertrophy as a result of low-intensity blood flow restriction resistance training

Abstract

Purpose

Low-intensity venous blood flow restriction (vBFR) resistance training has been shown to promote increases in muscle strength and size. Eccentric-only muscle actions are typically a more potent stimulus to increase muscle strength and size than concentric-only muscle actions performed at the same relative intensities. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the time-course of changes in muscle strength, hypertrophy, and neuromuscular adaptations following 4 weeks of unilateral forearm flexion low-intensity eccentric vBFR (Ecc-vBFR) vs. low-intensity concentric vBFR (Con-vBFR) resistance training performed at the same relative intensity.

Methods

Thirty-six women were randomly assigned to either Ecc-vBFR (n = 12), Con-vBFR (n = 12) or control (no intervention, n = 12) group. Ecc-vBFR trained at 30% of eccentric peak torque and Con-vBFR trained at 30% of concentric peak torque. All training and testing procedures were performed at an isokinetic velocity of 120° s ¹.

Results

Muscle strength increased similarly from 0 to 2 and 4 weeks of training as a result of Ecc-vBFR (13.9 and 35.0%) and Con-vBFR (13.4 and 31.2%), but there were no changes in muscle strength for the control group. Muscle thickness increased similarly from 0 to 2 and 4 weeks of training as a result of Ecc-vBFR (11.4 and 12.8%) and Con-vBFR (9.1 and 9.9%), but there were no changes for the control group. In addition, there were no changes in any of the neuromuscular responses.

Conclusions

The Ecc-vBFR and Con-vBFR low-intensity training induced comparable increases in muscle strength and size. The increases in muscle strength, however, were not associated with neuromuscular adaptations.



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Copyright

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4





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Contributors

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4





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Contents

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4





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CME Accrediation Page

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4





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Forthcoming Issues

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4





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Multi-Energy CT: The New Frontier in Imaging

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4
Author(s): Savvas Nicolaou, Mohammed F. Mohammed




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Multienergy Computed Tomography: A New Horizon in Computed Tomographic Imaging

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4
Author(s): Savvas Nicolaou, Mohammed F. Mohammed




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Dual-Energy Computed Tomography

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4
Author(s): Alec J. Megibow, Avinash Kambadakone, Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan

Teaser

Dual energy computed tomography has been available for more than 10 years; however, it is currently on the cusp of widespread clinical use. The way dual energy data are acquired and assembled must be appreciated at the clinical level so that the various reconstruction types can extend its diagnostic power. The type of scanner that is present in a given practice dictates the way in which the dual energy data can be presented and used. This article compares and contrasts how dual source, rapid kV switching, and spectral technologies acquire and present dual energy reconstructions to practicing radiologists.


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Dual-Energy Computed Tomography in Cardiothoracic Vascular Imaging

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4
Author(s): Domenico De Santis, Marwen Eid, Carlo N. De Cecco, Brian E. Jacobs, Moritz H. Albrecht, Akos Varga-Szemes, Christian Tesche, Damiano Caruso, Andrea Laghi, Uwe Joseph Schoepf

Teaser

Dual energy computed tomography is becoming increasingly widespread in clinical practice. It can expand on the traditional density-based data achievable with single energy computed tomography by adding novel applications to help reach a more accurate diagnosis. The implementation of this technology in cardiothoracic vascular imaging allows for improved image contrast, metal artifact reduction, generation of virtual unenhanced images, virtual calcium subtraction techniques, cardiac and pulmonary perfusion evaluation, and plaque characterization. The improved diagnostic performance afforded by dual energy computed tomography is not associated with an increased radiation dose. This review provides an overview of dual energy computed tomography cardiothoracic vascular applications.


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Role of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography in Thoracic Oncology

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4
Author(s): Erika G. Odisio, Mylene T. Truong, Cihan Duran, Patricia M. de Groot, Myrna C. Godoy

Teaser

Dual-energy CT (DECT) is an emerging technology that has potential to enhance diagnostic performance and radiologists' confidence in the evaluation of thoracic malignancies. DECT clinical applications include characterization of solitary pulmonary nodule, lung masses and mediastinal tumors. DECT-derived iodine uptake quantification may assist in characterization of tumor differentiation and gene expression. The use DECT in oncology has potential to improve lung cancer staging, therapy planning, and assessment of response to therapy as well as detection of incidental pulmonary embolism.


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Practical Applications of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography in the Acute Abdomen

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4
Author(s): Mohammed F. Mohammed, Khaled Y. Elbanna, Abdelazim M.E. Mohammed, Nicolas Murray, Fahad Azzumea, Ghassan Almazied, Savvas Nicolaou

Teaser

With new developments in workflow automation, as well as technological advances enabling faster imaging with improved image quality and dose profile, dual-energy computed tomography is being used more often in the imaging of the acutely ill and injured patient. Its ability to identify iodine, differentiate it from hematoma or calcification, and improve contrast resolution has proven invaluable in the assessment of organ perfusion, organ injury, and inflammation.


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The Role of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography in Assessment of Abdominal Oncology and Beyond

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4
Author(s): Desiree E. Morgan

Teaser

The added value and strength of dual energy computed tomography for the evaluation of oncologic patients revolve around the use of lower energy reconstructed images and iodine material density images. Lower keV simulated monoenergetic images optimize soft tissue tumor to nontumoral attenuation differences and increase contrast to noise ratios to improve lesion detection. Iodine material density images or maps are helpful from a qualitative standpoint for image interpretation because they result in improved detection and characterization of tumors and lymph node involvement, and from a quantitative assessment by enabling interrogation of specific properties of tissues to predict and assess therapeutic response.


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Advanced Musculoskeletal Applications of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4
Author(s): William D. Wong, Samad Shah, Nicolas Murray, Frances Walstra, Faisal Khosa, Savvas Nicolaou

Teaser

Dual-energy CT (DECT) is a rapidly growing tool in musculoskeletal radiology. It has been validated as an accurate imaging modality for the assessment of gout and bone marrow edema. DECT can be used to reduce metal artifacts. A few studies have shown its ability to calculate bone mineral density and examine pathologic states in tendons and ligaments. Its capacity for material separation suggests its emergence as a technique for arthrography, and for the evaluation of intervertebral discs and other inflammatory arthropathies.


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Dual-Energy Computed Tomography

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4
Author(s): Anushri Parakh, Francesco Macri, Dushyant Sahani

Teaser

Evolution in computed tomography technology and image reconstruction have significantly changed practice. Dual energy computed tomography is being increasingly adopted owing to benefits of material separation, quantification, and improved contrast-to-noise ratio. The radiation dose can match that from single energy computed tomography. Spectral information derived from a polychromatic x-ray beam at different energies yields in image reconstructions that reduce the number of phases in a multiphasic examination and decrease the absolute amount of contrast media. This increased analytical and image processing capability provides new avenues for addressing radiation dose and iodine exposure concerns.


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Pearls, Pitfalls, and Problems in Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Imaging of the Body

Publication date: July 2018
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 56, Issue 4
Author(s): Jeremy R. Wortman, Aaron D. Sodickson

Teaser

Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an exciting technology that is increasing in routine use and has the potential for significant clinical impact. With the advancement of DECT, it is important for radiologists to be aware of potential challenges with DECT acquisition and postprocessing, and to have a basic knowledge of unique artifacts and diagnostic pitfalls that can occur when interpreting DECT scans and DECT postprocessed images. This article serves as a practical overview of potential problems and diagnostic pitfalls associated with DECT, and steps that can be taken to avoid them.


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Construction and application of oligo-based FISH karyotype of Haynaldia villosa

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Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Sun Haojie, Song Jingjing, Lei Jia, Song Xinying, Dai Keli, Xiao Jin, Yuan Chunxia, An Shengmin, Wang Haiyan, Wang Xiue




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