Τρίτη, 16 Οκτωβρίου 2018

Genetic Contributions to Ectopic Sperm Cell Migration in Caenorhabditis Nematodes

Reproductive barriers involving gametic incompatibilities can act to enhance population divergence and promote the persistence of species boundaries. Observing gametic interactions in internal fertilizing organisms, however, presents a considerable practical challenge to characterizing mechanisms of such gametic isolation. Here we exploit the transparency of Caenorhabditis nematodes to investigate gametic isolation mediated by sperm that can migrate to ectopic locations, with this sperm invasion capable of inducing female sterility and premature death. As a step toward identifying genetic factors and mechanisms associated with female susceptibility to sperm invasion, we characterized a panel of 25 C. elegans genetic mutants to test for effects on the incidence and severity of sperm invasion in both conspecific and inter-species matings. We found genetic perturbations to contribute to distinct patterns of susceptibility that identify ovulation dynamics and sperm guidance cues as modulators of ectopic sperm migration incidence and severity. Genotypes confer distinctive phenotypic sensitivities to the sperm from conspecific C. elegans males versus heterospecific C. nigoni males, implicating evolution of functional divergence in the history of these species for components of sperm-reproductive tract interactions. Sexually-antagonistic co-evolution within species that drives divergent trait and molecular evolution between species provides a working model to explain mismatched species-specific gametic interactions that promote or mitigate ectopic sperm migration.



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Overview of Prevalence, Characteristics, Risk Factors, Resistance, and Virulence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Saudi Arabia

Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.


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Cradlepoint LTE network solutions certified FirstNet Ready™ — delivering secure and resilient branch, mobile, and IoT connectivity to first responder organizations

Cradlepoint's new FirstNet Ready™ MC400 Modem Module for compatible IBR and AER Series 4G LTE Router solutions receives FirstNet certification and approval LAS VEGAS — Cradlepoint, the global leader in cloud-delivered 4G and 5G wireless network edge solutions, today announced, at the annual Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials International (APCO) show in Las...

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UVA Health System deploys always-connected telemedicine toolkits in ambulances for faster stroke care

Sponsored by Cradlepoint University of Virginia Health System deploys iTREAT (Improving Treatment with Rapid Evaluation of Acute Stroke via Mobile Telemedicine) telemedicine toolkits in ambulances for stroke victims. With constant connectivity being an essential part of this innovative tool, UVA Health System chose Cradlepoint's ruggedized in-vehicle routing solutions with integrated 4G LTE...

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Education can reduce health differences related to genetic risk of obesity [Economic Sciences]

This work investigates whether genetic makeup moderates the effects of education on health. Low statistical power and endogenous measures of environment have been obstacles to the credible estimation of such gene-by-environment interactions. We overcome these obstacles by combining a natural experiment that generated variation in secondary education with polygenic scores...

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Is There a Link Between Childhood Family Violence and Adult Health? Understanding Family Violence Amongst South Asian American Women

Abstract

The devastating effects of experiencing violence in childhood has been particularly difficult to assess among South Asians (SA) living in the U.S. due to a lack of race specific data. A cross-sectional quantitative study of 535 SA adult women living in the U.S. was conducted to better understand the relationship between childhood exposure to violence and health behaviors in adulthood. Measures included socio-demographics, exposure to violence as a child via witnessing parental violence, and experience of childhood violence, adult IPV, suicide ideation and attempt, and body esteem and subjective well-being in adulthood. Significant associations were found between childhood verbal abuse and body esteem and subjective well-being in adulthood; childhood physical abuse and subjective well-being in adulthood; and having a battered mother and subjective well-being in adulthood. To date, this is the first study to examine childhood violence and its relationship to adult IPV and health among SA women in the U.S.



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My 'why': How the first responder community helped me heal

After losing her sister six years ago, EMS1, FireRescue1 Associate Editor Sarah Calams explains how she was able to heal by working closely with the first responder community

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Mass. island residents raising money for AEDs

Plum Island residents are aiming to make their isolated island safer by raising money to install two AEDs and train community members on how to use them

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9 issues stroke systems of care must address to improve outcomes

EMS triage and destination, emergency department, transfer and stroke team protocols are essential to rapid definitive treatment for ischemic stroke

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Ad libitum Mediterranean and low-fat diets both significantly reduce hepatic steatosis: A randomized controlled trial

Hepatology

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Altered bile acid profile associates with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease—An emerging role for gut microbiome

Alzheimer's & Dementia

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Fecal calprotectin is not a clinically useful marker for the prediction of the early nonresponse to exclusive enteral nutrition in pediatric patients with Crohn disease

European Journal of Pediatrics

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Sequential H. pylori eradication and radiation therapy with reduced dose compared to standard dose for gastric MALT lymphoma stages IE & II1E: a prospective randomized trial

Abstract

Background

In Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) positive stage I gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma, eradication is the accepted first-line therapy. The role of eradication therapy in lymphoma > stage IE is still unclear. However, about 20% of patients show persistent lymphoma following successful eradication or primary H. pylori-negative lymphoma. A prospective study for salvage radiation therapy with standard 36 Gy in comparison to a reduced dose of 25.2 Gy is still missing.

Methods

A prospective, multicentre study investigated the efficacy of eradication in H. pylori-positive gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma stages IE and II1E (HELYX I). Refractory lymphoma or H. pylori-negative patients were treated in a prospective, randomised, multicentre, phase II study to receive either 25.2 Gy or 36 Gy radiotherapy (HELYX II).

Results

102 patients (3 drop outs) were included in HELYX I: 75/99 (75.8%) showed complete remission after a median of 2.8 months. 18 (18.2%) had partial remission (PR) and 6 (6.0%) no change (NC). 29 patients (7 drop outs) were randomized in HELYX II (7 primarily H. pylori-negative, 15 patients from HELYX I with refractory disease after eradication). All patients achieved stable CR irrespective of radiation dose. Both presence of the t(11,18) translocation (OR 9.0, p = 0.01) and monoclonality of the tumour cells (OR 6.3, p = 0.006) were predictors for persistant lymphoma after eradication therapy.

Conclusions

Most H. pylori-positive low grade gastric MALT lymphoma stage IE and II1E respond with stable CR after eradication therapy. In patients with refractory disease or H. pylori negative low grade gastric MALT lymphoma a dosage-reduced radiation therapy with 25.2 Gy is an effective standard dose in stage IE and II1E.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00154440.



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Cup Feeding as a Supplemental, Alternative Feeding Method for Preterm Breastfed Infants: An Integrative Review

Abstract

Background The benefits of human milk for the preterm infant are well established. Preterm infants have lower breastfeeding rates and often face breastfeeding challenges. It is important that feeding practices for preterm infants optimize their chances of breastfeeding. Objective The purpose of this integrated review is to synthesize and critically analyze research related to the safety and efficacy of cup feeding as an alternative, supplemental feeding method for breastfed infants. Data Sources The electronic data bases of PubMed, CINAHL and were used to identify studies published in English from 1998- 2017. Design Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 articles were initially assessed. After further screening 19 articles were included in the full review and of these 5 more were excluded. Lastly, an in-depth review of these 14 studies resulted in 2 more exclusions, for a total of 12 studies that met full inclusion and exclusion criteria. Review Methods Studies were examined for information on safety and efficacy of cup feeding as an alternative, supplemental feeding method for preterm breastfed infants. Studies were grouped into categories of outcomes that included (a) safety and physiologic properties; (b) breastfeeding outcomes. Results Use of cup feeding resulted in more stable heart rate and oxygen saturation than bottle feeding with similar weight gain. Additionally, breastfeeding rates were higher at discharge with continued higher rates at 3 and 6 months post-discharge for cup fed infants. Conclusions Premature infants face more breastfeeding obstacles than term infants. The potential for cup feeding as an alternative to bottle-feeding for breast fed preterm infants is positively supported by these results It is fundamentally important for NICU professionals to establish a protocol, education and training for the potential use of this feeding method for this vulnerable population.



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Publisher Correction: Towards quantitative and multiplexed in vivo functional cancer genomics

Publisher Correction: Towards quantitative and multiplexed in vivo functional cancer genomics

Publisher Correction: Towards quantitative and multiplexed in vivo functional cancer genomics, Published online: 16 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41576-018-0062-6

Publisher Correction: Towards quantitative and multiplexed in vivo functional cancer genomics

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Evaluation of ecological half-life of dose rate based on airborne radiation monitoring following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Author(s): Yukihisa Sanada, Yoshimi Urabe, Miyuki Sasaki, Kotaro Ochi, Tatsuo Torii

Abstract

Airborne radiation monitoring was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of radionuclides emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident throughout Japan. Carrying out airborne radiation monitoring using manned and unmanned helicopters, the we have developed and established an analysis method concurrently with the development of this monitoring method. In particular, because the background radiation level differs greatly between East and West regions of Japan, we have developed a discrimination method for natural radionuclide and cosmic rays using the gamma energy spectra. The reliability of the airborne radiation monitoring data was validated through comparison with large amounts of ground measurement data. The ecological half-lives of short and long components for decline of the ambient dose equivalent (air dose rate) were 0.61 years and 57 years, respectively, based on the results of air dose rate of airborne radiation monitoring using manned helicopter. These results indicate the importance of airborne monitoring to evaluate and predict the radiation exposure of residents.

Graphical abstract

Image 1



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Characterizing regional-scale temporal evolution of air dose rates after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Author(s): Haruko M. Wainwright, Akiyuki Seki, Satoshi Mikami, Kimiaki Saito

Abstract

In this study, we quantify the temporal changes of air dose rates in the regional scale around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, and predict the spatial distribution of air dose rates in the future. We first apply the Bayesian geostatistical method developed by Wainwright et al. (2017) to integrate multiscale datasets including ground-based walk and car surveys, and airborne surveys, all of which have different scales, resolutions, spatial coverage, and accuracy. This method is based on geostatistics to represent spatial heterogeneous structures, and also on Bayesian hierarchical models to integrate multiscale, multi-type datasets in a consistent manner. We apply this method to the datasets from three years: 2014 to 2016. The temporal changes among the three integrated maps enables us to characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of radiation air dose rates. The data-driven ecological decay model is then coupled with the integrated map to predict future dose rates. Results show that the air dose rates are decreasing consistently across the region. While slower in the forested region, the decrease is particularly significant in the town area. The decontamination has contributed to significant reduction of air dose rates. By 2026, the air dose rates will continue to decrease, and the area above 3.8 μSv/h will be almost fully contained within the non-residential forested zone.



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Publisher Correction: Towards quantitative and multiplexed in vivo functional cancer genomics



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On exercise thermoregulation in females: interaction of endogenous and exogenous ovarian hormones

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Tbx18 sets the pace

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Intercellular Ca2+ signalling in the adult mouse cochlea

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Expression of Concern

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 596, Issue 20, Page 5063-5064, 15 October 2018.


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Issue Information

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 596, Issue 20, Page 4803-4804, 15 October 2018.


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5’-flanking variants of equine casein genes ( CSN1S1 , CSN1S2 , CSN2 , CSN3 ) and their relationship with gene expression and milk composition

Abstract

Genes encoding casein proteins are important candidates for milk composition traits in mammals. In the case of the domestic horse, our knowledge of casein genes is limited mainly to coding sequence variants. This study involved screening for polymorphism in 5'-flanking regions of four genes encoding equine caseins (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3) and making a preliminary assessment of their effect on the gene expression (on the mRNA and protein levels) and milk composition traits in selected horse breeds. Altogether, 23 polymorphisms (21 described previously SNPs and two novel InDels) were found in the studied sequences, the majority of which are common in various horse breeds. Statistical analysis revealed that some are putatively associated with gene expression or milk composition — for example, the c.-2047_-2048insAT polymorphism (CSN1S1) turns out to be related to the total milk protein content in Polish Primitive Horse (p < 0.05), whereas c.-2105C>G SNP (CSN2) is related to beta-casein relative mRNA level and milk lactose concentration in the Polish Coldblood Horse breed (p < 0.05). We have also found significant effects of horse breed and lactation time-point on gene expression and mare's milk composition. Our study indicates that the 5'-regulatory regions of genes encoding casein proteins are interesting targets for functional studies of their expression and the composition traits of mare's milk.



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