Πέμπτη, 25 Οκτωβρίου 2018

Total tooth loss without denture wear is a risk indicator for difficulty eating among older adults with intellectual disabilities

Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Variations in adrenal gland medulla and dopamine effects induced by the lack of Irs2

Abstract

The adrenomedullary chromaffin cells' hormonal pathway has been related to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. In mice, the deletion of insulin receptor substrate type 2 (Irs2) causes peripheral insulin resistance and reduction in β-cell mass, leading to overt diabetes, with gender differences on adrenergic signaling. To further unravel the relevance of Irs2 on glycemic control, we analyzed in adult Irs2 deficient (Irs2−/−) mice, of both sexes but still normoglycemic, dopamine effects on insulin secretion and glycerol release, as well as their adrenal medulla by an immunohistochemical and morphologic approach. In isolated islets, 10 μM dopamine significantly inhibited insulin release in wild-type (WT) and female Irs2−/− mice; however, male Irs2−/− islets were insensitive to that catecholamine. Similarly, on isolated adipocytes, gender differences were observed between WT and Irs2−/− mice in basal and evoked glycerol release with crescent concentrations of dopamine. By immunohistochemistry, reactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in female mice was significantly higher in the adrenal medulla of Irs2−/− compared to WT; although no differences for TH-immunopositivity were observed between the male groups of mice. However, compared to their corresponding WT animals, adrenomedullary chromaffin cells of Irs2−/− mice showed a significant decrease in the cellular and nuclear areas, and even in their percentage of apoptosis. Therefore, our observations suggest that, together with gender differences on dopamine responses in Irs2−/− mice, disturbances in adrenomedullary chromaffin cells could be related to deficiency of Irs2. Accordingly, Irs2 could be necessary for adequate glucose homeostasis and maintenance of the population of the adrenomedullary chromaffin cells.



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Comparative Genomics of Aspergillus flavus S and L Morphotypes Yield Insights into Niche Adaptation

Aspergillus flavus, the primary causal agent for aflatoxin contamination on crops, consists of isolates with two distinct morphologies: isolates of the S morphotype produce numerous small sclerotia and lower numbers of conidia while isolates of the L morphotype produce fewer large sclerotia and abundant conidia. The morphotypes also differ in aflatoxin production with S isolates consistently producing high concentrations of aflatoxin, whereas L isolates range from atoxigenic to highly toxigenic. The production of abundant sclerotia by the S morphotype suggests adaptation for long-term survival in the soil, whereas the production of abundant conidia by the L morphotype suggests adaptation for aerial dispersal to the phyllosphere. To identify genomic changes that support differential niche adaption, the sequences of three S and three L morphotype isolates were compared. Differences in genome structure and gene content were identified between the morphotypes. A >530 kb inversion between the morphotypes affect a secondary metabolite gene cluster and a cutinase gene. The morphotypes also differed in proteins predicted to be involved in carbon/nitrogen metabolism, iron acquisition, antimicrobial defense, and evasion of host immunity. The S morphotype genomes contained more intact secondary metabolite clusters indicating there is higher selection pressure to maintain secondary metabolism in the soil and that is not limited to aflatoxin production. The L morphotype genomes were enriched in amino acid transporters, suggesting efficient nitrogen transport may be critical in the nutrient limited phyllosphere. These findings indicate the genomes of the two morphotypes differ beyond developmental genes and have diverged as they adapted to their respective niches.



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Sodium butyrate induces autophagy in colorectal cancer cells through LKB1/AMPK signaling

Abstract

Butyrate is produced by the fermentation of undigested dietary fibers and acts as the promising candidate for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism underlying sodium butyrate (NaB)-induced autophagy in colorectal cancer is not yet completely understood. The expressions of LC3-II protein and mRNA were detected by western blot and quantitative RT-PCR in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines HCT-116 and HT-29, respectively. Autolysosome formation was observed by transmission electron microscope. AMPK and LKB1 were inhibited by chemical inhibitor or siRNAs and confirmed by western blot. NaB elevated the protein and mRNA expressions of LC3 in a dose-dependent manner. NaB treatment increased the formation of autolysosome and expression of phosphorylated liver kinase B1 (LKB1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Treatment with compound C (an inhibitor of AMPK) and siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPK and LKB1 significantly attenuated NaB-induced autophagy in CRC cells. Collectively, these findings indicated that LKB1 and AMPK are critical for NaB-mediated autophagy and may act as the novel targets for colorectal cancer therapy in the future.



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The Impact of Stenosis and Translation on Spinal Cord Injuries in Traumatic Cervical Facet Dislocations

: Although facet dislocations account for only 6% of cervical trauma, the consequences are often devastating. Cervical facet dislocations are associated with a disproportionate amount of spinal cord injuries; however, neurologic examination of patients is often difficult, as patients commonly present with reduced levels of consciousness. There are limited studies that have investigated the impact of spinal canal diameter and translation on neurologic injury following facet dislocations.

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Cardiac mitochondrial respiration following a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

Abstract

Low-carbohydrate diets are considered to be an effective approach to weight loss and have, subsequently, grown in popularity. Despite the apparent health benefits that these diets may provide for insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, their implications on cardiomyocyte oxidative capacity have yet to be investigated. To evaluate the adaptations induced by a 6-week low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet on mitochondrial respiration, two groups of male mice were investigated: Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice on a LCHF diet (L-DIET) and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice on a regular rodent diet (CON). Heart tissue was extracted and used for high-resolution respirometry (HRR), while immunoblotting was performed to quantify mitochondrial density and complexes. The results demonstrate increased expression of all five mitochondrial subunits in the L-DIET group compared to control condition. Furthermore, HRR revealed increased efficiency of substrate consumption, implying augmented oxidative capacity in the L-DIET group. These findings further support the notion that cardiomyocytes prefer lipids as a primary fuel source, by demonstrating that the shift in metabolism caused by a LCHF diet facilitates such an environment. This provides important information regarding the effects of a LCHF on cardiomyocytes, especially when considering free radical production and heart dysfunction.



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Developmental maturation of activity‐induced K+ and pH transients and the associated extracellular space dynamics in the rat hippocampus

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Should future paramedics be required to obtain associate degrees?

Our co-hosts tackle the topic of paramedic education and how it would affect the EMS industry

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Operational Definitions and Estimates of Return-to-Work after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018

Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Author(s): Patrick Duong, Katrine Sauvé-Schenk, Mary Y. Egan, Matthew J. Meyer, Tricia Morrison

ABSTRACT
Objective

To examine operational definitions of return-to-work (RTW) after stroke and provide more precise estimates of RTW through meta-analysis.

Data Sources

A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS (2005 to March 26, 2018). The search strategy involved expansion of medical subjective headings using terms related to 'stroke' and 'work'. The reference lists of review articles and included studies where checked for additional relevant studies.

Study Selection

Studies were included if they 1) quantitatively analyzed RTW outcomes or factors associated with RTW, 2) reported RTW outcomes for participants employed prior to stroke, and 3) were written in English or French. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts. Of 7265 articles initially identified, 55 studies were included.

Data Extraction

Data was extracted and study quality was assessed by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer.

Data Synthesis

Explicit and implicit operational definitions of RTW were determined and categorized. Ranges of RTW estimates were presented for study and participant characteristics. Pooled summary estimates were calculated for comparable studies by follow-up time post-stroke: 55.7% at one year (95% CI, 51.3% to 60.0%) and 67.4% at two years (95% CI, 60.4% to 74.4%). Similar summary estimates were noted when only population-based studies were considered: 56.7% at one year (95% CI, 48.3% to 65.1%) and 66.7% at two years (95% CI, 60.2% to 73.2%).

Conclusions

Operational definitions varied across studies and were often not explicitly reported. To promote comparability of RTW outcomes in future studies, we recommend working towards a universal operational definition and consistent follow-up times. The more precise estimates calculated in this review could be used as benchmarks for healthcare and social service providers.



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Postural and metabolic benefits of using a forearm support walker in older adults with impairments

Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018

Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Author(s): Chandrasekaran Jayaraman, Chaitanya Krishna Mummididetty, Alexandra Loesch, Sandi Kaur, Shenan Hoppe-Ludwig, Manfred Staat, Arun Jayaraman

Abstract
Objective

To investigate the postural and metabolic benefits a walker with adjustable elbow support (LifeWalker (LW)) can provide for ambulation in population with impairment. The clinical outcomes from the elbow support walker will be compared with standard rollator (SR) and participants predicate device (PD).

Design

Case-crossover study design

Setting

Clinical laboratory

Participants

Individuals aged between 18 and 85 years using a rollator walker as primary mode of assistance and certified as medically stable by their primary physician. 30 participants (80% female (n=24)) recruited from a convenient sample provided voluntary consent and completed the study.

Intervention

Not applicable

Main outcome Measure(s)

The trunk anterior posterior sway (during the 10 m walk test), oxygen consumption (during the 6 minute walk test), the mean forearm load off loaded to the elbow support as percentage of body weight and mean peak hand grip load (during the 25 m walk) were measured.

Results

Ambulating with a LifeWalker led to, (i) reduced trunk sway in the anterior-posterior direction [(ZLW Vs. PD = -2.34, p = .018); (ZLW Vs. SR = -3.461, p = .001)], (ii) reduced erector spinae muscle activation at the left lumbar L3 level [(ZLW Vs. PD = -2.71, P = .007); (ZLW Vs. SR = -1.71, P = .09)], and (iii) improved gait efficiency [(ZLW Vs. PD = -2.66, P = .008) O2-cost; (ZLW Vs. SR = -2.66, P = .008) O2-cost]. Participants offloaded between 39%-46% of their body weight through the elbow support armrest while ambulating with the LifeWalker. Irrespective of the walker used, participants exerted ∼5% to 6% of their body weight in gripping the walker handles during walking.

Conclusions

Using the forearm support-based LifeWalker led to, upright body posture, offloaded portions of body weight from the lower extremity and improved gait efficiency during ambulation in comparison to the Standard Rollator and the participants own predicate Device. Further studies focusing on population specific benefits is recommended.



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Texas city approves first responders’ use of drones

Tyler officials voted to allow Phirst Technologies to test its automated drone first response system

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State EMS Training Administrator - Vermont Department of Health

The Vermont Department of Health is looking for a creative and energetic person to lead EMS education in our state. This unique opportunity combines a diverse yet nimble EMS system with an administration enthusiastic in the pursuit of excellence. Job Description: Training and coordinating work at a professional level involving the development, implementation and evaluation of a system of training for ...

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Is Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Use Increasing? Assessing Trends Among U.S. College Women, 2008–2013

Abstract

Objective To assess LARC use trends among college women (18–24 years) and identify groups that have increased LARC use. Methods Data were extracted from the National College Health Assessment-II (NCHA-II) fall 2008–2013 surveys. Logistic regression statistics were used to assess LARC use. Results Although LARC use increased from 2008 to 2013 (aOR = 2.62; 95% CI 2.23–3.07), less than half of the sample (44%) reported using contraception at last vaginal sex. Only 2.5% of college women in this study reported using a LARC method; of LARC users, 90% reported using an intrauterine device. Nearly all sociodemographic factors were significantly associated with increases in LARC use including: age, sexual orientation, and insurance status. Conclusions LARC use significantly increased among college women. However, less effective methods such as condoms and short-acting reversible contraceptives are used more frequently. Promoting LARC use for women who desire to effectively prevent pregnancy can reduce unintended pregnancy and improve health outcomes for women while in college. Future work should examine the importance of individual and lifestyle factors that influence college women's decision to choose a LARC method and seek to eliminate barriers to college women choosing a contraceptive method they believe works best for them.



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Counseling and Knowledge of Danger Signs of Pregnancy Complications in Haiti, Malawi, and Senegal

Abstract

Objectives Providing counseling on danger signs of pregnancy complications as part of visits for antenatal care (ANC) can raise expecting women's awareness so that if danger signs occur they can seek assistance in time. The study examines the level of agreement in counseling on danger signs between observation of the provider during the ANC visit and the client's report in the exit interview, and the association of this agreement with the client's level of knowledge on danger signs. Methods The analysis used data from service provision and assessment (SPA) surveys in Haiti, Malawi, and Senegal. Agreement between the observation and client's report was measured by Cohen's kappa and percent agreement. Regressions were performed on the number of danger signs the client knew, with the level of agreement on the counseling on danger signs as the main independent variable. Results The study found little agreement between the observation of counseling and the client's report that the counseling occurred, despite the fact that the exit interview with the client was performed immediately following the ANC visit with the provider. The level of positive agreement between observation and client's report was 17% in Haiti, 33% in Malawi, and 23% in Senegal. Clients' overall knowledge of danger signs was low; in all three countries the mean number of danger signs known was 1.5 or less. The regression analysis found that, in order to show a significant increase in knowledge of danger signs, it was important for the client to report that it took place. Conclusions Ideally, there should be 100% positive agreement that counseling occurred. To achieve this level requires raising both the level of counseling on danger signs of pregnancy complications and its quality. While challenges exist, providing counseling that is more client-centered and focuses on the client's needs could improve quality and thus could increase the client's knowledge of danger signs.



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Evaluation of particulate 137Cs discharge from a mountainous forested catchment using reservoir sediments and sinking particles

Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018

Source: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity

Author(s): Hironori Funaki, Kazuya Yoshimura, Kazuyuki Sakuma, Shatei Iri, Yoshihiro Oda

Abstract

The time and size dependencies of particulate 137Cs concentrations in a reservoir were investigated to evaluate the dynamics of 137Cs pollution from a mountainous forested catchment. Sediment and sinking particle samples were collected using a vibracorer and a sediment trap at the Ogaki Dam Reservoir in Fukushima, which is located in the heavily contaminated area that formed as a result of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident of 2011. The inventory of 137Cs discharged into the reservoir during the post-accident period (965 days) was estimated to be approximately 3.0 × 1012–3.9 × 1012 Bq, which is equivalent to 1.1%–1.4% of the initial estimated catchment inventory. The particulate 137Cs concentration showed a decline with time, but the exponent value between the specific surface area and the 137Cs concentration for the fine-sized (<63 μm) particle fraction remained almost constant from the immediate aftermath of the accident. These quantitative findings obtained by reconstructing the contamination history of particulate 137Cs in reservoir sediments and sinking particles have important implications for the evaluation of 137Cs dynamics in mountainous forested catchments.



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The effects of metabolic status on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-related outcomes, beyond the presence of obesity

Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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Association of psoriasis with inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

JAMA Dermatology

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Non-invasive brain stimulation in the modulation of cerebral blood flow after stroke: a systematic review of Transcranial Doppler studies

Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology

Author(s): Pooja C Iyer, Sangeetha Madhavan

Abstract
Objective

Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), such as repetitive TMS (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), are promising neuromodulatory priming techniques to promote task-specific functional recovery after stroke. Despite promising results, clinical application of NIBS has been limited by high inter-individual variability. We propose that there is a possible influence of neuromodulation on cerebral blood flow (CBF), as neurons are spatially and temporally related to blood vessels. Transcranial Doppler (TCD), a clinically available non-invasive diagnostic tool, allows for evaluation of CBF velocity (CBFv). However, little is known about the role of neuromodulation on CBFv.

Methods

A systematic review of literature to understand the effects of NIBS on CBFv using TCD in stroke was conducted.

Results

Twelve studies fit our inclusion criteria and are included in this review. Our review suggested that CBFv and/or vasomotor reactivity maybe influenced by rTMS dosage (intensity and frequency) and the type of tDCS electrode montage.

Conclusion

There is limited evidence regarding the effects of NIBS on cerebral hemodynamics using TCD and the usefulness of TCD to capture changes in CBFv after NIBS is not evident from this review. We highlight the variability in the experimental protocols, differences in the applied neurostimulation protocols and discuss open questions that remain regarding CBF and neuromodulation.

Significance

TCD, a clinically accessible tool, may potentially be useful to understand the interaction between cortical neuromodulation and CBFv.



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Approaches to Sleep in Severely Brain Damaged Patients – Further comments and replies to Kotchoubey & Pavlov

Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology

Author(s): M. Wislowska, C. Blume, M. Angerer, T. Wielek, M. Schabus



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Heart rate variability in neonatal patients with seizures

Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology

Author(s): Rosario Statello, Luca Carnevali, Davide Alinovi, Francesco Pisani, Andrea Sgoifo

Abstract
Objective

Seizures are frequently observed in neurological conditions affecting newborns. Since autonomic alterations are commonly associated with neonatal seizures (NS), we investigated the utility of heart rate variability (HRV) indexes of cardiac autonomic regulation for NS detection.

Methods

HRV analysis was conducted on ECG tracings recorded during video-EEG monitoring in newborns with NS and matched-controls. The effects of gestational age on HRV were also evaluated.

Results

Newborns with NS showed lower resting state HRV compared to controls. Moreover, seizure episodes were characterized by a short-lasting increase in vagal indexes of HRV. Pre-term newborns with NS had a lower HRV than full-term at rest. In pre-term newborns, no changes in HRV were observed before and during NS. On the contrary, full-term newborns showed signifcantly higher HRV before and during NS compared to the respective baseline values.

Conclusion

Our data point to resting autonomic impairment in newborns with NS. In addition, an increment in HRV has been observed during NS only in full term newborns.

Significance

Although these findings do not allow validation of HRV measures for NS prediction and detection, they suggest that a putative protective vagal mechanism might be adopted when an advanced maturation of autonomic nervous system is achieved.



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Machine learning versus human expertise: the case of sleep stage classification in Disorders of Consciousness. Response to Wislowska et al

Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology

Author(s): Boris Kotchoubey, Yuri G. Pavlov



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Delirium is not associated with altered hub flexibility of the posterior cingulate cortex

Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology

Author(s): S.J.T. van Montfort, T. Numan, E. Dellen, S. Kyeong, L. Douw, J.J. Kim



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Penfield’s stimulation for direct cortical motor mapping: An outdated technique?

Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018

Source: Clinical Neurophysiology

Author(s): Francesco Sala



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Laparoscopic excision of an acquired ureteral diverticulum: A case report

Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery, EarlyView.


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Novel KAT6B proximal familial variant expands genotypic and phenotypic spectrum

Clinical Genetics, EarlyView.


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Should heart rate variability be “corrected” for heart rate? Biological, quantitative, and interpretive considerations

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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Covert singing in anticipatory auditory imagery

Psychophysiology, EarlyView.


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A jolt to the field: A self‐generating and self‐propagating ephaptically‐mediated slow spontaneous network activity pattern in the hippocampus

The Journal of Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Sarcolemmal membrane excitability during repeated intermittent maximal voluntary contractions

Experimental Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.


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Evaluation of the venous drainage pattern of the splenic flexure by preoperative three‐dimensional computed tomography

Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery, EarlyView.


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