Δευτέρα, 26 Μαρτίου 2018

COMPLETE HETEROTOPIC PANCREAS



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Gene expression-phenotype associations in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis

Gene expression patterns have not been extensively examined in the context of clinical features of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).

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P.05.16 ENDOCUFF VISION-ASSISTED RESECTION FOR “DIFFICULT” COLONIC LESIONS. EFFICACY AND SAFETY IN A PILOT RANDOMIZED STUDY



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Rapid exhaustion of auditory neural conduction in a prototypical mitochondrial disease, Friedreich ataxia

The importance of neural processing of temporal cues by the auditory system has been stressed by the discovery of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorders (ANSD) (Starr et al., 1996; Rance and Starr, 2015), in which disrupted auditory-nerve conduction leads to a characteristic pattern of hearing disorder. One striking complaint of ANSD patients is the presence of impaired speech understanding out of proportion with what the auditory sensitivity would predict, particularly in the presence of noise (Kraus et al., 2000; Zeng and Liu, 2006).

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Phantom somatosensory evoked potentials following selective intraneural electrical stimulation in two amputees

Following a limb amputation and consequent truncation of nerves, some of the nerve fibers originally directed to the lost part of the body suffer from retrograde Wallerian degeneration. However, a significant part of them survive in the residual portion of the nerve (Navarro et al., 2007). Due to the development of neural interfaces for the peripheral nervous system, i.e. intraneural multichannel electrodes (Navarro et al., 2005), it was recently demonstrated that it is possible to induct meaningful sensations (Dhillon et al., 2005) in the phantom hand of amputees by stimulating the surviving fibers through these interfaces.

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Relationships among perceived functional capacity, self-efficacy, and disability after dysvascular amputation

Prosthesis rehabilitation after dysvascular transtibial amputation (TTA) is focused on optimizing functional capacity with limited emphasis on promoting health self-efficacy. Self-efficacy interventions decrease disability for people living with chronic disease, but the influence of self-efficacy on disability is unknown for people with dysvascular TTA.

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COMPLETE HETEROTOPIC PANCREAS



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Gene expression-phenotype associations in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis

Gene expression patterns have not been extensively examined in the context of clinical features of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).

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P.05.16 ENDOCUFF VISION-ASSISTED RESECTION FOR “DIFFICULT” COLONIC LESIONS. EFFICACY AND SAFETY IN A PILOT RANDOMIZED STUDY



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Be prepared for any mass casualty incident with AmbuBus

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Quickly and easily retrofit buses and other vehicles of opportunity into mass casualty transport and evacuation vehicles. The AmbuBus Kit from First Line Technology is an effective and efficient solution for all of your mass casualty transport needs.

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High Abnormal Rate in the Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Test in Acute Onset Myasthenia Gravis

Liik and Punga (2016) reported > 10% decremental response in the repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) in 1 of 9 patients in the acute onset (AO) group (duration < 4 weeks) of generalized myasthenia gravis (MG). This finding is rather unexpected and contradictory to our common experience of a high rate of abnormal RNS findings in AO MG patients. Because this issue has not been adequately addressed in the literature, we are reporting our findings on this issue.

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Relationship between age and nerve dimensions in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Do we know the reality?

We have read with attention and interest the manuscript by Fabrizi and colleagues, entitled "The spectrum of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease due to myelin protein zero: An electrodiagnostic, nerve ultrasound and histological study" (Fabrizi et al., 2018). The authors explored, in a wide way, the characteristics of patients affected by myelin protein zero (MPZ)-related Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. They assessed the patients considering clinical examination, nerve conduction study, ultrasound and, in a patient subgroup, biopsy.

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Reply to “High Abnormal Rate in the Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Test in Acute Onset Myasthenia Gravis”

The Letter to the Editor by Lee and Oh in the current issue of Clinical Neurophysiology shows that the decrement was abnormal in the majority of cases with acute onset (AO) myasthenia gravis (MG), derived from the MG database in Alabama between 1987-2014 (Lee and Oh, 2018). This is in contrast to our previous study (Liik and Punga, 2016), which demonstrated a low prevalence of decrement in AO MG patients (< 4 weeks from symptom onset).

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Long-term outcomes of combined endoscopic resection and chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with submucosal invasion



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P.05.15 BALANCED DIET IS AS EFFECTIVE AS LOW FODMAPS AND GLUTEN FREE ONE IN IMPROVING HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN IBS PATIENTS



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P.09.18 DIETARY INTAKE IN PATIENTS WITH NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS: QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION



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Long-term outcomes of combined endoscopic resection and chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with submucosal invasion



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P.05.15 BALANCED DIET IS AS EFFECTIVE AS LOW FODMAPS AND GLUTEN FREE ONE IN IMPROVING HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN IBS PATIENTS



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P.09.18 DIETARY INTAKE IN PATIENTS WITH NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS: QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION



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Be prepared for any mass casualty incident with AmbuBus

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Quickly and easily retrofit buses and other vehicles of opportunity into mass casualty transport and evacuation vehicles. The AmbuBus Kit from First Line Technology is an effective and efficient solution for all of your mass casualty transport needs.

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Be prepared for any mass casualty incident with AmbuBus

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Quickly and easily retrofit buses and other vehicles of opportunity into mass casualty transport and evacuation vehicles. The AmbuBus Kit from First Line Technology is an effective and efficient solution for all of your mass casualty transport needs.

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Be prepared for any mass casualty incident with AmbuBus

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Quickly and easily retrofit buses and other vehicles of opportunity into mass casualty transport and evacuation vehicles. The AmbuBus Kit from First Line Technology is an effective and efficient solution for all of your mass casualty transport needs.

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Firemedic - City of Seminole

**FIREMEDIC (Firefighter/Paramedic):** The City of Seminole Fire Rescue Department is seeking qualified candidates for the position of Firefighter/Paramedic working 24/48 hour shift work. The starting salary is $45,500.00/year and a competitive benefits package is provided. At time of oral interview, applicant must possess valid Florida Paramedic certification or be actively enrolled in a Florida Paramedic ...

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fMRI Visualization of Functional Patterns of Neural Networks during the Performance of Cyclic Finger Movements: Age-Related Peculiarities

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we visualized patterns of activity of neural macronetworks in healthy humans during the performance of cyclic finger movements and studied agerelated peculiarities of these patterns. Three age groups of subjects (7 to 86 years old) were examined. The paradigm of activation corresponded to simple repeated test movements of touching of the fingerpads of the forefinger and thumb of the right hand. We analyzed patterns of activation, deactivation, and functional connectivity of the brain sensorimotor, default, and frontoparietal networks. Schemes of activation of zones of the primary and associative sensorimotor cortex related to the test task performance by subjects of different ages were rather similar to each other. Concurrently with the processes of activation of the sensorimotor network, we observed partial deactivation of certain nodi of the default mode network and formation of functional connectivity between some such nodi. The obtained data confirm the statement that the default mode network is heterogeneous; different parts of this network can simultaneously demonstrate desynchronization and autonomic functioning. There are reasons to believe that, in the junior age, the functional connectivity of zones corresponding to the default mode network had been formed incompletely. We found the functional connectivity of the frontoparietal neural network consisting of parts of the parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices of both cerebral hemispheres. In elderly subjects, the functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the left hemisphere and other parts of the frontoparietal neural network is weakened.



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Effects of Implantation of Cryopreserved Placental Explants on the Behavioral Indices and Morphological Characteristics of the Cerebral Structures in Senescent Mice

The effects of implantation of cryopreserved placental explants (CPEs) on the behavioral phenomena were studied in adult young (6 months old) and in senescent (presenile ontogenetic period, 12 months old) mice; morphological characteristics of the cerebral structures were also examined in these animals. Implantation of CPEs significantly influenced the behavioral indices and adaptational capacities of senescent mice; the direction of such effects was sex-dependent. In male mice, manifestations of deadaptation (decreases in the mobility and exploration habits and an increase in anxiety) were observed, while in females the behavioral manifestations were opposite (positive). Implantation of CPEs led to partial smoothing of negative shifts in the morphological characteristics in the motor cortex and hippocampus of senescent mice. Therefore, CPEs can serve as a source of natural compounds and cell elements providing the activation of neurogenesis, formation of new neurons, and their proliferation in key structures of the brain. In prospect, CPE-based therapeutic agents can be used for the correction of age-related dysfunctions of the CNS.



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Correction to: Postvaccination Accumulation of the Influenza Virus Antigen in the Rat Choroid Plexus

Abstract

The names of the authors were indicated incorrectly (wrong using of diacritical marks). The names of the authors should be written and read as follows:

I. Maslovarić, A. Stojković, D. Kosanović, D. Marković, V. Ilić, and K. Jovanova-Nešić



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Intracellular Calcium Fluxes in Excitable Cells

The estimation of not only concentrations of different intracellular ions (calcium in particular), but also of the dynamics of changes in these parameters, is one of the most important tasks in today cell biology. The measurements of calcium concentrations in the cell and even in its separate organelles are possible with the use of several experimental approaches (electron microscopy, electrophysiological techniques, fluorescent/optic methods, and others). Calcium is present in the cell in free (ionized) and bound states. Local rapid changes in the Ca2+ level in definite cell sites are individual quanta of an integral oscillatory calcium signal determining numerous cell functions. Separation of calcium fluxes in different cell compartments and evaluation of the role of calcium receptors and channels in the plasma membrane and membranes of the intracellular organelles allows experimenters to begin estimation of contributions of the respective events to the regulation of physiological functions of the cell, e.g., of synaptic plasticity of the neuron. This review describes some methodic approaches for the measurements of concentrations of calcium and characteristics of its fluxes; this makes it possible to characterize separate components of calcium signaling and to determine the roles of these components in the regulation of different functions of excitable cells.



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Effects of Memantine on Behavioral Indices of Rats in the Open Field

Effects of course (5 days) peroral introductions of memantine on behavioral indices of rafts in the open field test were examined. Ten animals were divided into two groups, control and experimental; rats of the latter group obtained five everyday introductions of 20 mg/kg memantine hydrochloride. Animals of the experimental group demonstrated more intense orientational/research activity (number of rearings) and significantly greater number of goings to the arena center. The dynamics of nearly all indices shown by rats of the two groups were dissimilar; memantine noticeably modified the structure of grooming behavior. Behavioral patterns in the open field allow one to conclude that memantine induces significant decreases in the levels of anxiety and fear. In general, effects of this agent can be characterized as adaptational/stimulatory ones. [1, 2]



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Effects of Aging and Noise Exposure on Auditory Brainstem Responses and Number of Presynaptic Ribbons in Inner Hair Cells of C57BL/6J Mice

C57BL/6J mice develop age-related hearing loss (HL) early in life. The influence of aging and noise exposure on the number of presynaptic structures in inner hair cells of C57BL/6J mice has not been studied. We monitored auditory brainstem responses, ABRs, in C57BL/6J mice over time and assessed changes in the number of inner hair cell presynaptic ribbons. Multifaceted verification of the effects of aging and noise exposure on hearing in the C57BL/6J strain was performed. The HL was additively increased by noise exposure in 5-week-old mice. The earliest change observed was a decrease in the amplitude of the ABR first wave. Hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons were also lost. Immunohistochemistry and high-resolution confocal microscopy revealed decreased numbers of CtBP2-positive structures in the inner hair cells localized in other than those in the low-frequency region of the cochlea. On the other hand, the influence of acute noise exposure on the inner hair cell ribbons was observed only within the highest-frequency area.



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Cognitive Event-Related Potentials (P300) and Cognitive Impairment in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressing disorder characterized by muscle wasting and weakness due to the absence or alteration of the function of dystrophin that protects muscle cells from mechanical stress induced by a movement during contraction. The function of dystrophin isoforms expressed in the brain is not fully understood, but the presence of non-progressing cognitive impairment (including disorders of learning and memory) is a common feature in patients with DMD. To establish correlation between the cognitive event-related potential P300 and psychological evaluation with an intelligence test based on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in patients with DMD and a control group, the respective tests were performed in 31 patients with DMD and 30 controls. The mean age of the group with DMD was 9.35 ± 2.88 years, while that in control children was 9.43 ± 2.69 years (P = 0.89). The IQ was 90.77 ± 12.62 in the DMD group and 106.77 ± 9.62 in the controls (P < 0.0001). The amplitude of the cognitive potential P300 in leads Fz, Cz, and Pz showed no statistically significant differences between the groups. Thus, parameters of the P300 potential and cognitive assessment showed nearly no relationship in patients with DMD vs. controls.



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State of Synaptic Inhibition in Smooth Muscles of the Colon of Individuals of Different Ages

We examined the state of synaptic inhibition in smooth muscles (SMs) of the intestinal tract with special attention to the gender and age aspects. One hundred thirty-seven samples of the SMs taken from the circular layer of the colon wall of 22 women of different age (group IF, younger than 35 years, group IIF, 36–55 years, group IIIF, 56–74 years, and group IVF, 75 years and more) and 24 men (group IM, younger than 35 years, group IIM, 36–60 years, group IIIM, 61–74 years, and group IVM, 75 years and more). The state of synaptic inhibition was estimated according to values of the amplitude/kinetic parameters of inhibitory synaptic potentials (ISPs) in SM strips taken from different visually normal parts of the colon in the course of surgical interventions; the respective sites were at a distance of at least 10 cm form a pathologically modified zone of the colon. Parametric and nonparametric approaches were used in detailed statistical analysis of these parameters. No statistically significant differences were found between most amplitude/kinetic parameters of ISPs in the colonic SMs of women and men within all age groups and between these parameters in different age groups of women and men. Such results confirm the statement that, in humans, the efficacy of inhibitory synaptic transmission to SMs of the colon is mostly preserved during the entire lifespan, even against the background of age-related involution changes in the organism.



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Nootropic and Antihypoxic Properties of Novel Derivatives of 1,2-Dihydro-3H-1,4-Benzodiazepin-2-one

Among eight recently synthesized 3-phthalimidoacyloxy- and phthalimidoacyloxyethoxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-ones, three compounds that enhanced the indices of cognitive functions in albino rats by 24-43%, as compared with those in control animals, were found. In the Morris water maze test, these agents used in doses of 10 mg/kg positively influenced the index of long-term memory in contrast to the hormone leptin (10 nM) that enhanced the index of short-term memory but did not influence long-term memory. Pyracetam enhanced the indices of both short-term memory and long-term memory, but only in a much greater dose (400 mg/kg). Injections of the above-mentioned three tested compounds into rats resulted in a decrease in the power of the delta EEG rhythm and also in rises in the powers of theta and (especially) beta oscillations. All eight tested compounds (in doses 10 mg/kg) demonstrated clearly pronounced antihypoxic effects under conditions of acute hypoxia in a closed space test in experiments on mice. Two compounds showed the maximum efficiency; those increased the survival time of mice by 76% and 50%, respectively, as compared with the control. Therefore, the eight tested compounds demonstrate, along with high antihypoxic efficiency, a specific aspect of pharmacological activity somewhat unusual for benzodiazepins; these compounds improve the long-term memory and learning capability and exert specific effects on the EEG characteristics. These compounds are characterized by low toxicity; their LD50 exceeds 550 mg/kg.



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Correction to: Effects of Beta-Adrenergic Blockade on Diabetes-Induced Neurobehavioral Alterations in Mice

Abstract

The author's name G. F. Ibironnke shoul be read as G. F. Ibironke



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Cerebral Structures Responsible for the Formation of Autonomic Reflexes Related to Realization of Motivated Operant Movements by Rats

We studied changes in the levels of Fos immunoreactivity and NADPH diaphorase reactivity in the autonomic nuclei and catecholaminergic (CA) groups of brainstem cells in rats that realized food-procuring movements by the forelimb. Fos-immunoreactivity in the medullary nuclei of the autonomic nervous system, ANS (Sol, IRt, CVL/RVL), of these animals was appreciably higher than that in control rats. Under such conditions, a considerable part of motoneurons in the brainstem autonomic motor nuclei (10, Amb, and RAmb) were activated. In the motor nuclei of the vagus nerve, large Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) neurons were observed. In rats, therefore, intense autonomic reactions closely related to realization of a motor program develop during sessions of operant food-procuring movements. The expression of protein c-Fos in brainstem CA neurons during the performance of operant movements was intensified, mostly on the contralateral side. In the brainstem CA groups А5 and А6 (LC/SC), we observed a maximum number of Fos-ir neurons, as compared with the control values. These cell groups are formed mostly of noradrenergic neurons that are the main sources of descending inhibitory inputs to the spinal thorasic and lumbar intermediolateral sympathetic nuclei. Therefore, the ANS can directly influence the functioning of muscle spindles and proprioceptors and can, as a result, influence the realization of motor program.



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Neuroprotective Effects of Macrovipera lebetina Snake Venom in the Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

Pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include accumulation and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain, activation of astrocytes and microglia, and disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission. In our experiments on rats, a model of AD was created by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of Aβ25–35 amyloid. In another animal group, this was combined with intramuscular (i.m.) injections of small doses of Macrovipera lebetina (ML) snake venom (50 μl of 5% solution of an LD50 dose per animal seven times with one-day-long intervals). In the AD model, the most vulnerable neurons were found in the hippocampal fields CA1 and CA3. The phosphatase activity in the hippocampus of Aβ-injected rats sharply dropped. Systemic administration of small doses of ML venom induced positive changes in the structural characteristics of hippocampal neurons, increased the density of neurons in the above fields, normalized metabolism, and intensified Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation. Under the action of ML venom, the proportion of responses of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after high-frequency tetanic stimulation of the ipsilateral entorhinal cortex in the form of tetanic depression–posttetanic potentiation increased, and an overall increase in the firing rate of hippocampal neurons was observed. The intensity of free radical processes in some tissues of Aβ-affected animals became much lower under the action of ML venom. Thus, small doses of this venom manifest clear neuroprotective effects in the rat AD model.



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Effects of Gonadectomy and Avoidance Learning on the GABA Aα1 Receptor Density in the Prefrontal Cortex of Male and Female Rats

We evaluated the effects of gonadectomy and passive avoidance learning on the density of GABAAα1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex of male and female rats. Twenty adult males weighing 200 ± 30 g and 20 adult females weighing 150 ± 20 g were divided into four groups: (i) Sham, intact rats with no learning session, (ii) Sham-L, intact rats subjected to the avoidance learning session, (iii) GE, gonadectomized rats without learning, and (iv) GE-L, gonadectomized rats with learning. A shuttle box was used for the induction of passive avoidance learning. The density of GABAAα1 receptors was investigated with an immunohistochemical technique; Image Analyzer software was used. Ovariectomy without learning led to significant reduction of the density of GABAAα1 receptors in different regions of the prefrontal cortex relative to the control intact group; at the same time, ovariectomized females with learning demonstrated a significantly higher density of GABAAα1 receptors in the prefrontal cortex as compared to the Sham group. No significant differences in the density of GABAAα1 receptors were observed in both castrated male rat groups. The comparison of male and female rats showed that the density of GABAAα1 receptors in castrated rats with learning was significantly lower than that in ovariectomized females with learning. Thus, ovariectomy exerts a more potent effect than castration on the GABAAα1 receptor density in different regions of the prefrontal cortex. Learning provides increases in the GABAAα1 receptor density in different regions of the prefrontal cortex in female rats, while castration of male rats exerts no significant effect from this aspect.



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Effects of Aging and Background Babble Noise on Speech Perception Processing: An fMRI Study

Speech perception processing in a noisy environment is subjected to age-related decline. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine cortical activation associated with such processing across four groups of participants with age ranges of 23–29, 30–37, 41–47 and 50–65 years old. All participants performed a forward repeat task in quiet environment (SQ) and in the presence of multi-talker babble noise (SN; 5-dB signal-to-noise ratio, SNR). Behavioral test results demonstrated a decrease in the performance accuracy associated with increasing age for both SQ and SN. However, a significant difference in the performance accuracy between these conditions could only be seen among the elderly (60–65 years old) subjects. The fMRI results across the four age groups showed a nearly similar pattern of brain activation in the auditory, speech, and attention areas during SQ and SN. Comparisons between SQ and SN demonstrated significantly lower brain activation in the left precentral gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, left Heschly's gyrus, and right middle temporal gyrus under the latter condition. Other activated brain areas showed no significant differences in brain activation between SQ and SN. The decreases in cortical activation in the activated regions positively correlated with the decrease in the behavioral performance across age groups. These findings are discussed based on a dedifferentiation hypothesis that states that increased brain activation among older participants, as compared to young participants, is due to the age-related deficits in neural communication.



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Gender and Age-Related Peculiarities of the H-Reflex Indices in Sportsmen

In a group of 44 healthy trained subjects (biathlon athletes), age- and sex-related peculiarities of the results of an H-reflex study were examined (EMG responses were recorded from the m. soleus). Tested subjects were divided into four groups, women and men, juniors (younger than 20 years), and adults (20–30 years). The measured indices in the groups of men and women demonstrated certain significant differences; these differences were greater in adults. Thresholds for generation of the H- and M-responses were higher in females as compared to those in males. Amplitudes of the maximum H- and M-responses in men (in both juniors and adults) significantly exceeded the analogous values in women. In adult sportsmen, amplitudes of the M-responses were higher, while ratios of the maximum H- and M-responses were smaller than those in juniors. Probable reasons of gender- and age-related peculiarities of the H-reflex indices are discussed.



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Functional State of the Mitochondria from Tissues of the Rat Brain after Chronic Occlusion of the Common Carotid Artery: Role of Lysyl Oxidase

Stenosis and occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) are one of the main reasons of cerebrovascular pathologies; these factors determine the development of hypoperfusion of the brain. Disorders in the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) underlie the development of a number of pathological processes, including vascular and cerebral pathologies. Changes in the activity of this enzyme are assumed to significantly affect the functional state of the mitochondria (MCh). We examined the role of LOX in the regulation of energy metabolism in the rat brain under conditions of experimental unilateral chronic occlusion of the CCA (CCA ChO). Experiments were carried out on Wistar rats with ligated left CCA. Animals of one of the experimental groups received drinking water with 0.2% of a LOX blocker, β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) during 8 weeks. After such course of BAPN introduction, we estimated the characteristics of energy metabolism in the MCh from tissues of the brain hemispheres using a polarographic technique. Occlusion of the CCA was accompanied by disorders in tissue respiration (oxidative phosphorylation in the MCh); these changes were more expressed in the left hemisphere (P < 0.05), but those in the right one were also quite noticeable. There were indications for the existence of interhemisphere differences in the functioning of the MCh complex 1 in healthy control animals; the respective values were greater in the left hemisphere. Introduction of BAPN promoted partial recovery of the MCh functions; this was manifested in some weakening of the effects of CCA occlusion. Thus, under conditions of unilateral CCA ChO, energy metabolism in both brain hemispheres undergoes negative changes. Changes in the LOX activity are one of the factors responsible for negative shifts in the indices of MCh functioning related to hypoperfusion of brain tissues.



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EEG Differences Between Eyes-Closed and Eyes-Open Conditions at the Resting Stage for Euthymic Participants

Most prior research examined differences in the EEG frequency bands between eyes-closed and eyesopen conditions at the resting state as a baseline; without counter checking on the mental health state of the subjects; the depressive symptoms were often not assessed or controlled during the experiment. We examined EEGs of euthymic participants (who were free from the psychiaric symptoms) for the above two conditions at the resting state. A population of participants with healthy levels of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (n = 50) has been examined with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The powers of the alpha rhythm, interpreted as relaxation waves, were higher during eyes-closed compared to eyes-open condition (P = 0.0…) in all brain regions (32 EEG channels). The prefrontal cortex was characterized by higher delta, theta, and beta powers during eyes-open periods at the resting state, as compared with eyes-closed ones.



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Watch: Paramedic to release movie to inspire future EMTs

By EMS1 Staff BATON ROUGE, La. — A paramedic and filmmaker is set to release a movie he hopes will inspire younger generations to join the EMS industry. Baton Rouge Proud reported that paramedic David Jarreau's new film, "Unit 68," tells the story of a young boy who finds a mysterious ambulance and meets his future self inside. Jarreau said his goal with the movie is to inspire ...

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The Windmill-task as a new quantitative and objective assessment for mirror movements in unilateral cerebral palsy: a pilot study

Publication date: Available online 23 March 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Ingar Marie Zielinski, Bert Steenbergen, Anna Schmidt, Katrijn Klingels, Cristina Simon Martinez, Pascal de Water, Brian Hoare
ObjectiveTo introduce the Windmill-task, a new objective assessment to quantify the presence of mirror movements (MMs) in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP). In children with uCP MMs are frequently observed. They are typically assessed with the observation-based Woods and Teuber scale (W&T). However, due to its subjective nature and variable administration, interpretation of data across studies is problematic.DesignProspective, observational, cohort pilot study.SettingChildren with uCP were recruited from Monash Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia as a convenience sample from a cohort of children previously recruited for a larger study.ParticipantsProspective cohort of 23 children with uCP (age range:6-15y, mean age=10y5m, SD=2y7m). Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of uCP with a Manual Ability Classification System (MACS)20 level I-III.InterventionsNot applicable.Main Outcome Measure(s)The concurrent validity of the Windmill-task is assessed and sensitivity and specificity for MM detection is compared between both assessments. To assess the concurrent validity, Windmill-data are compared to W&T-data using Spearman-rank (rho) correlations for two conditions (affected-hand-moving vs. less-affected-hand-moving). Sensitivity and specificity are compared by presenting the mean percentage of children being assessed inconsistently across both assessments.ResultsOutcomes of both assessments correlated significantly (affected-hand-moving: rho=.520;p=.005; less-affected-hand-moving: rho=.488;p=.009). However, many children displayed MMs on the Windmill-task, but not on the W&T (sensitivity: affected-hand-moving:27.5%; less-affected-hand-moving:40.6%). Only two children displayed MMs on the W&T, but not on the Windmill-task (specificity: affected-hand-moving:2.9%; less-affected-hand-moving:1.4%)).ConclusionsThe Windmill-task seems to be a valid tool to assess MMs in children with uCP and has additional advantage of sensitivity to detect MMs.



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Seasonal patterns of community participation and mobility of wheelchair users over an entire year

Publication date: Available online 23 March 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Jaimie F. Borisoff, Jacquie Ripat, Franco Chan
ObjectiveTo describe how people who use wheelchairs participate and move at home and in the community over an entire year-long period, including during times with inclement weather conditions.DesignLongitudinal mixed-methods research study.SettingUrban community in Canada.ParticipantsPeople who use a wheelchair for home and community mobility (n=11).InterventionNot applicable.Main Outcome measuresGlobal Positioning System (GPS) tracker for movement in community (number of trips per day); Accelerometer for bouts of wheeling mobility (number of bouts per day, speed, distance, and duration); Prompted recall interviews to identify supports and barriers to mobility and participation.ResultsMore trips per day were taken in summer (p = 0.03) and on days with no snow and temperatures above 0 C. Participants reliant on public transportation demonstrated more weather specific changes in their trip patterns. The number of daily bouts of mobility remained similar across seasons; total daily distance wheeled, duration, and speed were higher on summer days, days with no snow, and days with temperatures above 0 C. A higher proportion of outdoor wheeling bouts occurred in summer (p = 0.02), and with temperatures above 0 C (p = 0.03). Inaccessible public environments were the primary barrier to community mobility and participation; access to social supports and private transportation were the primary supports.ConclusionsObjective support is provided for the influence of various seasonal weather conditions on community mobility and participation for people who use a wheelchair. Longitudinal data collection provided a detailed understanding of the patterns of, and influences on, wheelchair mobility and participation within wheelchair users' own homes and communities.

Graphical abstract

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Safety and feasibility of a neuroscience critical care program to mobilize patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage

Publication date: Available online 23 March 2018
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Mona N. Bahouth, Melinda C. Power, Elizabeth K. Zink, Kate Kozeniewski, Sowmya Kumble, Sandra Deluzio, Victor C. Urrutia, Robert D. Stevens
ObjectiveTo measure the impact of a progressive mobility program on patients admitted to a neuroscience critical care unit (NCCU) with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The early mobilization of critically ill patients with spontaneous ICH is a challenge due to the potential for neurologic deterioration and hemodynamic lability in the acute phase of injury. Patients admitted to the ICU have been excluded from randomized trials of early mobilization after stroke.DesignAn interdisciplinary working group developed a formalized NCCU Mobility Algorithm which allocates patients to incremental passive or active mobilization pathways on the basis of level of consciousness and motor function. In a quasi-experimental consecutive group comparison, patients with ICH admitted to the NCCU were analyzed in two six-month epochs, before and after roll-out of the algorithm. Mobilization and safety endpoints were compared between epochs. Setting: Neuro Critical Care Unit (NCCU) in an urban, academic hospitalParticipantsAdult patients admitted to the NCCU with primary intracerebral hemorrhageResultsThe two groups of ICH patients (pre-, n=28; post algorithm roll-out, n=29) were similar on baseline characteristics. Patients in the post-intervention group were significantly more likely to undergo mobilization within the first 7 days after admission (OR: 8.7, 95% CI: 2.1,36.6; p=0.003). No neurologic deterioration, hypotension, falls or line dislodgements were reported in association with mobilization. A non- significant difference in mortality was noted pre and post roll-out (4% versus 24% respectively, p=0.12).ConclusionsThe implementation of a progressive mobility algorithm was safe and associated with a higher likelihood of mobilization in the first week after spontaneous ICH. Research is needed to investigate methods and timing for first mobilization in critically ill stroke patients.



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Moving beyond the 'standard' 12-lead ECG

There's more to a diagnostic ECG than just 12-leads, and there's more to a 12-lead than just ST-Elevation

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Rick Santorum: Students should learn CPR, not seek gun laws

Santorum's comments prompted outrage on social media a day after hundreds of thousands of teenagers and their supporters rallied across the U.S.

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Comment on: “Drinking Strategies: Planned Drinking versus Drinking to Thirst”



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Correction to: Test-Retest Reliability and Interpretation of Common Concussion Assessment Tools: Findings from the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium

The article Test-Retest Reliability and Interpretation of Common Concussion Assessment Tools.



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Author’s Reply to Valenzuela et al.: Comment on “Drinking Strategies: Planned Drinking Versus Drinking to Thirst”



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Association of body mass index with chronic pain prevalence: a large population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and chronic pain.

Methods

The outcome was chronic pain prevalence by body mass index (BMI). BMIs of less than 18.5, 18.5–25.0, 25.0–30.0, and 30.0 or over kg/m2 were defined as underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese.

Subjects

We used data from 4993 participants (2464 men and 2529 women aged 20–79 years) of the Pain Associated Cross-sectional Epidemiological survey in Japan. Sex-stratified multivariable-adjusted odds ratios were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking, exercise, sleep time, monthly household expenditure, and presence of severe depression. We analyzed all ages and age subgroups, 20–49 and 50–79 years.

Results

The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among underweight, overweight, and obese male respondents than those reporting normal weight, with multivariable odds ratios of 1.52 (1.03–2.25), 1.55 (1.26–1.91), and 1.71 (1.12–2.60). According to underweight, only older men showed higher prevalence of chronic pain than normal weight men with odd ratios, 2.19 (1.14–4.20). Being overweight and obese were also associated with chronic pain in women; multivariable odds ratios were 1.48 (1.14–1.93) and 2.09 (1.20–3.64). Being underweight was not associated with chronic pain.

Conclusion

There was a U-shaped association between BMI and chronic pain prevalence among men ≥ 50 years, and a dose–response association among women. Our finding suggests that underweight should be considered in older men suffering chronic pain.



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Diversity and common themes in the organization of ocelli in Hymenoptera, Odonata and Diptera

Abstract

We show in a comparative analysis that distinct retinal specializations in insect ocelli are much more common than previously realized and that the rhabdom organization of ocellar photoreceptors is extremely diverse. Hymenoptera, Odonata and Diptera show prominent equatorial fovea-like indentations of the ocellar retinae, where distal receptor endings are furthest removed from the lens surface and receptor densities are highest. In contrast, rhabdomere arrangements are very diverse across insect groups: in Hymenoptera, with some exceptions, pairs of ocellar retinular cells form sheet-like rhabdoms that form elongated rectangular shapes in cross-section, with highly aligned microvilli directions perpendicular to the long axis of cross-sections. This arrangement makes most ocellar retinular cells in Hymenoptera sensitive to the direction of polarized light. In dragonflies, triplets of retinular cells form a y-shaped fused rhabdom with microvilli directions oriented at 60° to each other. In Dipteran ocellar retinular cells microvilli directions are randomised, which destroys polarization sensitivity. We suggest that the differences in ocellar organization between insect groups may reflect the different head attitude control systems that have evolved in these insect groups, but possibly also differences in the mode of locomotion and in the need for celestial compass information.



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Small Bowel Amyloidosis

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The goal of this paper is to review the literature on small bowel amyloidosis. Our review focuses on the underlying etiology, histopathology, clinical features, endoscopic and radiologic findings, and the mainstay of management.

Recent Findings

The latest research shows changing epidemiological trends of different types of amyloidosis. It also reveals a better understanding of its pathophysiology and shows improvement in treatment outcomes.

Summary

Amyloidosis is a group of diseases of multiple etiologies and clinical presentations. It is characterized by pathological deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteins within various organs leading to disruption of their structure and function. The classification of amyloidosis includes primary, secondary, dialysis-related, senile, and hereditary. Amyloidosis can be systemic or localized. The incidence of AA amyloidosis is declining in frequency. If the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is involved, the small intestine is the most commonly affected site. Overall, outcomes among patients with newly diagnosed amyloidosis have improved. This article focuses on small bowel amyloidosis.



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Update on Bile Acid Malabsorption: Finally Ready for Prime Time?

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To provide an update on the prevalence, pathophysiology, disease associations, and treatment options for bile acid malabsorption (BAM).

Recent Findings

•Molecular mechanisms—BAs prevent water reabsorption and increase water secretion by intracellular mediators, increasing aquaporin channels and intracellular permeability. •Inflammatory bowel disease—new molecular mechanisms of BAM are identified in patients without ileal disease, including changes in expression of ileal BA transporter and nuclear receptors involved in BA homeostasis. •Microscopic colitis—BAM is one of the mechanisms leading to microscopic colitis. •Diagnostic testing—new diagnostic tests have been launched in the USA (serum C4 and fecal 48-h BA excretion); stimulated FGF19 has higher detection of BAM compared to fasting sample alone. •Treatment—investigational FXR agonists may provide a daily, oral option for treatment of BAM instead of BA sequestrants.

Summary

There is a greater appreciation of the biological role of bile acids across multiple fields of medicine, including gastrointestinal indications.



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Diagnosis and Management of Fecal Incontinence

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to highlight current and newer therapeutic approaches to treat fecal incontinence in patients who do not respond to conservative measures.

Recent Findings

Neurostimulation techniques, injection of bulking agents, and radiofrequency energy delivery to the anal canal have been proposed and tested for fecal incontinence over the last decade. Sacral stimulation is both effective and durable and is now the most popular of the invasive techniques whereas percutaneous tibial stimulation, radiofrequency energy, and bulking agents are either less effective or their evaluation has been handicapped by suboptimal study designs. The precise indications for the new vaginal control device and anal plugs remain to be established. The magnetic anal sphincter is disappointing. Stem cell therapy is a potentially exciting approach, which is in its infancy.

Summary

There continues to be an unmet need for innovative approaches to patients with fecal incontinence who do not respond to conservative measures. The efficacy of current and future therapies should be assessed using criteria more stringent than has been used in the past to provide a more realistic assessment of meaningful efficacy.



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Transcriptome analysis of differentially expressed genes in rabbits’ ovaries by digital gene-expression profiling

Abstract

Reproduction is a complex physiological process that is regulated by multiple genes and pathways. Compared with studies of common livestock, fewer studies of genes related to the fertility of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been reported, and the molecular mechanism of their high productivity is still poorly understood. To identify candidate genes associated with development and prolificacy in rabbits, we analyzed gene expression differences among the ovaries of mature Californian rabbit (LC), and mature (HH) and immature Harbin white rabbit (IH) using digital gene expression technology. We detected 885 and 321 genes that were significantly differentially expressed in comparisons between HH/IH and HH/LC, respectively. The functions of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were determined by GO classification and KEGG pathway analysis. The results suggest that most of the DEGs between the mature and immature developmental stages were predominantly associated with DNA replication, cell cycle, and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, and most were up-regulated in the IH group compared with the HH group. The DEGs involved in disparate fecundities between HH and LC were associated with reproduction, fructose and mannose metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis, and pyruvate metabolism. Our results will contribute to a better understanding of changes in the regulatory network in ovary at different developmental stages and in different fertility of rabbit.



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Genetic structure of six cattle populations revealed by transcriptome-wide SNPs and gene expression

Abstract

There are abundant cattle breeds/populations in China, and the systematic discovery of genomic variants is essential for performing the marker assisted selection and conservation of genetic resources. In the present study, we employed whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology for revealing genetic structure among six Chinese cattle populations according to transcriptome-wide SNPs and gene expression. A total of 68,094 variants consisting of 61,754 SNPs and 6340 InDels were detected and widely distributed among all chromosomes, by which the clear patterns of population structures were revealed. We also found the significantly differential density of variant distribution among genes. Additionally, we totally assembled 15,992 genes and detected obvious differences on the expression profiles among populations. In contrast to genomic variants, the measure of gene expression levels failed to support the expected population structure. Here, we provided a global landscape on the differential expression genes among these cattle populations.



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Multivariate genome-wide association studies on tenderness of Berkshire and Duroc pig breeds

Abstract

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been steadily used for identification of genomic links to disease and various economical traits. Of those traits, a tenderness of pork is one of the most important factors in quality evaluation of consumers. In this study, we use two pig breed populations; Berkshire is known for its excellent meat quality and Duroc which is known for its high intramuscular fat content in meat. Multivariate genome-wide association studies (MV-GWAS) was executed to compare SNPs of two pigs to find out what genetic variants occur the tenderness of pork. Through MV-GWAS, we have identified candidate genes and the association of biological pathways involved in the tenderness of pork. From these direct and indirect associations, we displayed the usefulness of simple statistical models and their potential contribution to improving the meat quality of pork. We identified a candidate gene related to the tenderness in only Berkshire. Furthermore, several of the biological pathways involved in tenderness in both Berkshire and Duroc were found. The candidate genes identified in this study will be helpful to use them in breeding programs for improving pork quality.



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Human genetics: Population-scale family trees from publicly available data

Human genetics: Population-scale family trees from publicly available data

Human genetics: Population-scale family trees from publicly available data, Published online: 26 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrg.2018.16

Human genetics: Population-scale family trees from publicly available data

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The ethics of patenting autism genes

The ethics of patenting autism genes

The ethics of patenting autism genes, Published online: 26 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrg.2018.17

A recent patent granted for methods for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) raises several ethical concerns beyond the fundamental question of whether genomic sequences are patentable, as it suggests that genetic testing can provide a diagnosis of ASD even before behavioural symptoms present.

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Enhancing the accuracy of next-generation sequencing for detecting rare and subclonal mutations

Enhancing the accuracy of next-generation sequencing for detecting rare and subclonal mutations

Enhancing the accuracy of next-generation sequencing for detecting rare and subclonal mutations, Published online: 26 March 2018; doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.117

Despite the remarkable throughput of next-generation sequencing technologies, standard techniques are limited by the difficulty in distinguishing sequencing errors from genuine low-frequency DNA variants within heterogeneous cellular or molecular populations. This Review discusses sequencing methodologies and bioinformatic strategies that have been devised for the reliable detection of rare mutations and describes various important applications in diverse fields including cancer, ageing and metagenomics.

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Next-generation sequencing reveals genetic landscape in 46, XY disorders of sexual development patients with variable phenotypes

Abstract

Disorders of sexual development (DSD) are rare congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Currently, less than 20% of patients receive an accurate genetic diagnosis. Targeted next-generation sequencing, consisting of 33 candidate genes and 47 genes involved in sexual differentiation and development, was performed on 70 46, XY DSD patients. Functional assays were performed to evaluate the expression and transcriptional activity of one reported and nine novel mutations of NR5A1. In total, 113 mutations, including 86 novel and 27 reported sites in 40 genes, were identified in 52 patients. Among them, 37 mutations from 19 genes were first identified in 46, XY DSD patients, including EGF, LHX9, and CST9. Nine patients displayed biallelic mutations, 12 had mutations in sex chromosome genes and 14 had monoallelic mutations in NR5A1, BMP4, and WT1. Higher frequency mutations were identified in AR, SRD5A2, and NR5A1. Six missense, one frameshift, and one three-nucleotide deletion mutations of NR5A1 were shown to impair the transactivation ability with an altered nuclear aggregation of p.T29K and p.N44del variants. Multiple genetic mutations were identified in 33 of the 70 patients. The targeted sequencing panel provides an efficient method for the etiological diagnosis of 46, XY DSD patients and expands the candidate genes and inherited patterns.



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Human genetics: Population-scale family trees from publicly available data



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The ethics of patenting autism genes



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Enhancing the accuracy of next-generation sequencing for detecting rare and subclonal mutations



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