Τρίτη, 31 Οκτωβρίου 2017

Feasibility of deep brain stimulation for controlling the lower urinary tract functions: An animal study

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Publication date: December 2017
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 128, Issue 12
Author(s): Shih-Ching Chen, Pei-Yi Chu, Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, Yu-Ting Li, Chih-Wei Peng
ObjectiveTo evaluate the feasibility of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and compare the potential of four DBS targets in rats for regulating bladder activity: the periaqueductal gray (PAG), locus coeruleus (LC), rostral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO), and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg).MethodsA bipolar stimulating electrode was implanted. The effects of DBS on the inhibition and activation of micturition reflexes were investigated by using isovolumetric intravesical pressure recordings.ResultsPAG DBS at 2–2.5 V, PnO DBS at 2–2.5 V, and PPTg DBS at 1.75–2.5 V nearly completely inhibited reflexive isovolumetric bladder contractions. By contrast, LC DBS at 1.75 and 2 V slightly augmented reflexive isovolumetric bladder contractions in rats. DBSs on PnO and PPTg at higher intensities (2.5–5 V) demonstrated a higher success rate and larger contraction area evocation in activating bladder contractions in a partially filled bladder. DBS targeting the PPTg was most efficient in suppressing reflexive isovolumetric bladder contractions.ConclusionPPTg DBS demonstrated stable results and high potency for controlling bladder contractions. PPTg might be a promising DBS target for developing new neuromodulatory approaches for the treatment of bladder dysfunctions.SignificanceDBS could be a potential approach to manage bladder function under various conditions.



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Long-Term Impact of Optimum Contribution Selection Strategies on Local Livestock Breeds with Historical Introgression at the Example of German Angler Cattle

The long-term performance of different selection strategies was evaluated via simulation at the example of a local cattle breed, the German Angler cattle. Different optimum contribution selection approaches to maximize genetic gain were compared to a reference scenario without selection and truncation selection. The kinships and migrant contribution were estimated from genomic data. Truncation selection achieved the highest genetic gain but decreased diversity considerably at native alleles. It also caused the highest increase in migrant contributions. Traditional optimum contribution selection, which only constrains on kinship, achieved almost the same genetic gain but also caused a small increase of migrant contribution and remarkably reduced the diversity at native alleles. When migrant contribution was required not to increase and the increase of kinship at native alleles was restricted, the migrant contribution levels and the diversity at native alleles were well managed, and the genetic gain was only slightly reduced. However, genetic progress was substantially lower in the scenario that aimed at recovering the original genetic background. Truncation selection and traditional optimum contribution selection both reduce the genetic originality of breeds with historical introgression. The inclusion of migrant contribution and kinship at native alleles as additional constraints in optimum contribution selection showed great potential for conservation. Recovering the original genetic background is possible but requires many generations of selection and reduces the genetic progress in performance traits. Hence, constraining the migrant contribution at their current values can be recommended to avoid further reduction of genetic originality.



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Selected highlights in clinical anesthesia research

To review research highlights of manuscripts published in 2016 that pertain to all aspects of the clinical practice of anesthesiology.

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Enhanced skeletal muscle regrowth and remodelling in massaged and contralateral non-massaged hind limb

Abstract

Massage, in the form of cyclic compressive loading (CCL), is associated with multiple health benefits, but its potential anabolic effect on atrophied muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that the mechanical activity associated with CCL induces an anabolic effect in skeletal muscle undergoing regrowth after a period of atrophy. Fisher/Brown Norway rats at 10 months of age were hind limb unloaded for a period of 2 weeks. The rats were then allowed reambulation with CCL applied at a 4.5 N load at 0.5 Hz frequency for 30 min every other day for 4 bouts during a regrowth period of 8 days. Muscle fibre cross sectional area was enhanced by 18% with massage during regrowth compared to reloading alone, and this was accompanied by elevated myofibrillar and cytosolic protein as well as DNA synthesis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation indicated that CCL increased mechanical stimulation, while a higher number of Pax7+ cells likely explains the elevated DNA synthesis. Surprisingly, the contralateral non-massaged limb exhibited a comparable 17% higher muscle fibre size compared to reloading alone, and myofibrillar protein synthesis, but not DNA synthesis, was also elevated. We conclude that massage in the form of CCL induces an anabolic response in muscles regrowing after an atrophy-inducing event. We suggest that massage can be used as an intervention to aid in the regrowth of muscle lost during immobilization.

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Gene-gene interaction between DRD4 and COMT modulates clinical response to clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

Clozapine is the drug of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, its use is associated with variable clinical responses and serious adverse effects. Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in synaptic neurotransmission may account for such variability. Here, we studied independent and epistatic genetic associations of polymorphisms in DRD4 (120-bp duplication) and COMT (Val158Met) with clinical response to clozapine in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. We studied 93 participants who were on stable doses of clozapine for at least 12 weeks. A total score of less than or equal to 35 on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale was defined as a clinical response. The genetic associations were tested using logistic regression analyses. Neither polymorphism studied was found to be independently associated with response to clozapine. However, a statistically significant gene-gene interaction was observed between the polymorphisms. Participants with the COMT Val/Met or Met/Met genotype, who also had one or two DRD4 120-bp alleles (120/240 and 120/120), showed significantly better clinical response to clozapine. Our results highlight the importance of investigating gene-gene interactions, while studying the pharmacogenetics of clozapine. Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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KIMTEK transport units fit Can-Am Defender and Can-Am Defender Max

MEDLITE® and FIRELITE® slip-on skid units do the job in Can-Am side-by-sides ORLEANS, Vt. — KIMTEK Corp, makers of MEDLITE® and FIRELITE® Transport skid units for off-road rescue and wildland firefighting, announce the full compatibility of their top-selling line of UTV-based skid units with Can-Am Defender and Can-Am Defender Max (crew) side-by-side UTVs. The Defender's rugged ...

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Presurgical language mapping using event-related high-gamma activity: the Detroit procedure

The ultimate goal of epilepsy surgery is to completely remove the epileptogenic zone while maximally preserving functionally-important brain areas including the primary language areas (Asano et al., 2013). In case noninvasive evaluation fails to satisfactorily localize these areas of interest, invasive presurgical evaluation is often employed with intracranial electrodes placed on the affected hemisphere for days to weeks (Lesser et al., 2010). The seizure onset zone responsible for habitual seizures and the spatial extent of neuroimaging abnormalities are determined for localization of the epileptogenic zone (Asano et al., 2009).

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Student Veterans Reintegrating from the Military to the University with Traumatic Injuries: How Does Service Use Relate to Health Status?

Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Christine A. Elnitsky, Cara Blevins, Jan Warren Findlow, Tabitha Alverio, Dennis Wiese
ObjectiveTo examine the effects of campus services on the health of veterans with traumatic injuries and comorbidities as they return from military service and enter college.DesignCross-sectional internet survey using a mixed-methods analysis approach.SettingA four-year urban research university in the southeastern United States.ParticipantsWe conducted a survey of 127 veterans returning from active military duty.InterventionsNone.Main Outcome MeasuresSurveys included standardized measures of health status, traumatic injuries and functional impairment (PCL-C, VHA TBI screen, Veterans RAND-12), as well as use of campus services and perceived effectiveness of these services in supporting reintegration to the university, and recommendations for additional services.ResultsQuantitative and qualitative data revealed that student veterans experience high rates of chronic pain that interfere with their daily functioning (92.7%), symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (77.9%), traumatic brain injury (TBI) (26.0%), and comorbidities as the Polytrauma Clinical Triad (PCT) (14.2%). Despite the high prevalence of pain, PTSD, and TBI, few students used disability services (5.2%), counseling services (18.8%) or student health services (36.5 %). Students experienced challenges accessing needed health services when reintegrating from the military to the university, including mutable university service factors.ConclusionsFindings indicate the need for campus services to address the particular needs of student veterans and the need for determining what particular services should be offered to help this population cope with injuries and succeed in college.



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Long-term social reintegration outcomes for burn survivors with and without peer support attendance: A Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation (LIBRE) Study

Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Brian Grieve, Gabriel D. Shapiro, Lucy Wibbenmeyer, Amy Acton, Austin Lee, Molly Marino, Alan Jette, Jeffrey C. Schneider, Lewis E. Kazis, Colleen M. Ryan
ObjectiveTo examine differences in long-term social reintegration outcomes for burn survivors with and without peer support attendence.DesignCross-sectional survey.SettingCommunity-dwelling burn survivors.ParticipantsBurn survivors (N = 601) aged ≥18 years with injuries to ≥5% total body surface area or burns to critical areas (hands, feet, face, or genitals).InterventionsNot applicable.Main Outcome MeasuresThe LIBRE Profile was used to examine the following previously validated six scale scores of social participation: Family & Friends, Social Interactions, Social Activities, Work & Employment, Romantic Relationships, and Sexual Relationships.ResultsBurn support group attendance was reported by 330 (55%) of 596 respondents who responded to this item. Attendees had larger burn size (43.4 ± 23.6 vs. 36.8 ± 23.4% total body surface area burned (TBSA), p<0.01) and were more likely to be >10 years from injury (50% vs 42.5%, p<0.01). Survivors who attended at least one support group scored significantly higher on three of the scales: Social Interactions (p=.01), Social Activities (p=.04) and Work and Employment (p=.05). In adjusted analyses, peer support attendance was associated with increased scores on the Social Interactions scale, increasing scores by 17% of a standard deviation (95% CI, 1-33%, p = .04).ConclusionsBurn survivors who reported peer support attendance had better social interaction scores than those who did not. This is the first reported association between peer support group attendance and improvements in community reintegration in burn survivors. This cross-sectional study prompts further exploration into the potential benefits of peer support groups on burn recovery with future intervention studies.



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Comparison of different methodologies for the 90Sr determination in environmental samples

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Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 181
Author(s): Željko Grahek, Silvia Dulanská, Gorana Karanović, Ivana Coha, Ivana Tucaković, Marijana Nodilo, Ľubomír Mátel
The paper describes different isolation/separation and detection procedures for 90Sr determination in the environmental samples which are routinely used in Laboratories A and B. In this context, four different methods for strontium isolation and two methods for detection were tested and compared by 90Sr determination in proficiency test samples (water, soil, vegetation) and animal bone samples. The chromatographic isolation of Sr on Sr resin, AnaLig®Sr01 resin gel, strong base anion exchange resins in nitrate form and combination of strong base anion exchange and Sr resin were used for the examination of the impact of sample matrix constituents on efficiency of strontium isolation (chemical yield), while Cherenkov counting of 90Y and counting of 90Sr(90Y) on proportional counter were used for the quantitative 90Sr determination. The chemical yields obtained with different isolation methods were compared with the emphasis on its influence on reliability of the 90Sr determination in different kinds of samples. The results show that the efficiency of strontium isolation depends on type of sample and separation methodology. The strontium yield on Sr resin column decreases with the increase of Sr, Ca and Na concentration. In the presence of 1 g of Ca and 1 g of Na, the yield of 85% was obtained for 5 mg of Sr carrier and dropped below 50% with further increase of Sr and other elements. However, the yield can be increased to 75% if Na and part of Ca are separated from Sr on the anion exchange column with alcoholic solution of nitric acid and by final separation of Ca from Sr on the Sr resin column. In the presence of large amounts of Ca, Na and other elements, isolation efficiency on the Sr resin column significantly decreases in comparison with other methods. The average yield for isolation from vegetation samples on the Sr resin column is only 21%. For the soil samples the highest average yield (78%) is obtained for the isolation in the combination of anion exchange and Sr resin columns. For the isolation from bone samples the average yields over 80% are on AnaLig®Sr01 and anion exchange resins columns, while Sr resin was not used for separation due to high content of Ca in samples. The results of the 90Sr determination in proficiency testing (PT) samples show that the accuracy of the determination does not depend on high chemical yield but depends on accuracy of yield determination. The analysis of z-values shows that 96% of obtained z-values range from 0 to ±2 while 77% of z-values range between 0 and ± 1. Ninety percent of obtained results of 90Sr determination deviate less than 20% from assigned values in PT provider reports. The results of 90Sr determination in animal bone samples using different methods are in good agreement. The results obtained by Cherenkov counting in both laboratories vary from −3.1–14.5% while results obtained by determination via 90Y and counting on i-Matic vary between −10.0 and −2.9%. These deviations are in accordance with deviations obtained with PT samples. Activity concentrations of 90Sr in wild boar bone samples range from 4 to 30 Bq kg−1 while in deer bone samples from 2 to 8 Bq kg−1.



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Fallout isotope chronology of the near-surface sediment record of Lake Bolătău

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 181
Author(s): Árpád Bihari, Máté Karlik, Marcel Mîndrescu, Zoltán Szalai, Ionela Grădinaru, Zoltán Kern
Fallout isotope (210Pbex,137Cs and 241Am) based dating has been carried out on the near-surface sediment core collected from Lake Bolătău-Feredeu (Bukovina, Romania). The motivation was to improve the chronology of this recent section in connection with significant fluctuations observed in sediment accumulation rates, particle size distribution and primordial radioisotope (i.e. 40K and 232Th) composition. Previously only an extrapolation of a broad-range OxCal age-depth model, which was based on 8 AMS radiocarbon dates from the deeper part of a parallel sediment sequence and tentatively validated for the upper part using the double peaks of the 137Cs activity concentration distribution, was available for the studied section (1–24 cm). Parallel to the previous 137Cs measurement, 210Pb and 226Ra (for a more detailed, 210Pbex-based chronology), 241Am (for an additional time-marker), as well as 40K and 232Th concentrations have also been determined by gamma-spectrometry. In case of the 210Pbex-based chronology, due to a large deviation from a pure exponential distribution, the Constant Flux (CF) model has been used for the calculation of sediment ages and accumulation rates. Although the broad-range OxCal and the CF model were broadly similar down to 22 cm, the 210Pbex-based ages are clearly superior in terms of uncertainty in the uppermost 12 cm, while the broad-range model has smaller uncertainty below 20 cm (>150 years). The CF model gave an average mass accumulation rate of (0.08 ± 0.03) g cm−2 yr−1 for sections 0–11 cm, and (0.03 ± 0.01) g cm−2 yr−1 for sections 12–22 cm, respectively. Significant changes have been observed in the depth distribution of both the particle size distribution and the elemental/isotopic composition of the sediment record, most likely related to the variation observable in the intensity and volume of precipitation in the catchment. The obtained high-resolution records of Lake Bolătău, including multiple radioisotopes, can serve as a regional benchmark for similar studies.

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Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board Page

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Publication date: December 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 180





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Detailed effects of particle size and surface area on 222Rn emanation of a phosphate rock

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Publication date: December 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 180
Author(s): Gustavo Haquin, Zohar Yungrais, Danielle Ilzycer, Hovav Zafrir, Noam Weisbrod
The dependency of radon emanation on soil texture was investigated using the closed chamber method. Ground phosphate rock with a large specific surface area was analyzed, and the presence of inner pores, as well as a high degree of roughness and heterogeneity in the phosphate particles, was found. The average radon emanation of the dry phosphate was 0.145 ± 0.016. The emanation coefficient was highest (0.169 ± 0.019) for the smallest particles (<25 μm), decreasing to a constant value (0.091 ± 0.014) for the larger particles (>210 μm). The reduction rate followed an inverse power law. As expected, a linear dependence between the emanation coefficient and the specific surface area was found, being lower than predicted for the large specific surface area. This was most likely due to an increase in the embedding effect of radon atoms in adjacent grains separated by micropores. Results indicate that knowledge of grain radium distribution is crucial to making accurate emanation predictions.



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Application of topographical source model for air dose rates conversions in aerial radiation monitoring

Publication date: December 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 180
Author(s): Azusa Ishizaki, Yukihisa Sanada, Mutsushi Ishida, Masahiro Munakata
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident in 2011, aerial radiation monitoring (ARM) using a manned helicopter was conducted to rapidly measure air dose rates and the deposition of radioactive nuclides over a large area. Typically, the air dose rate is obtained by conversion from the count rate using conventional flat source model (FSM). The converted dose rate obtained via aerial monitoring poorly matches the results of ground measurement in the mountain and forest areas because FSM does not consider topographical effects. To improve the conversion accuracy, we developed new methods to analyze aerial monitoring data using topographical source model (TSM) based on the analytical calculation of the gamma-ray flux. The ARM results converted using both FSM as well as TSM were compared with ground measurement data obtained after the FDNPS accident. By using TSM, the conversion accuracy was improved. In addition, to determine a parameter sensitive to topographical effects, we examined five parameters and it was clear that the difference between the elevation just below the helicopter and the mean elevation within the measurement area was the most influential.

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Emergency preparedness for the accidental release of radionuclides from the Uljin Nuclear Power Plant in Korea

Publication date: December 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 180
Author(s): Soon-Ung Park, In-Hye Lee, Seung Jin Joo, Jae-Won Ju
Site specific radionuclide dispersion databases were archived for the emergency response to the hypothetical releases of 137Cs from the Uljin nuclear power plant in Korea. These databases were obtained with the horizontal resolution of 1.5 km in the local domain centered the power plant site by simulations of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) with the Unified Model (UM)–Local Data Assimilation Prediction System (LDAPS). The Eulerian Dispersion Model–East Asia (EDM–EA) with the UM–Global Data Assimilation Prediction System (UM-GDAPS) meteorological models was used to get dispersion databases in the regional domain. The LPDM model was performed for a year with a 5-day interval yielding 72 synoptic time-scale cases in a year. For each case hourly mean near surface concentrations, hourly mean column integrated concentrations, hourly total depositions for 5 consecutive days were archived by the LPDM model in the local domain and by the EDM-EA model in the regional domain of Asia. Among 72 synoptic cases in a year the worst synoptic case that showed the highest mean surface concentration averaged for 5 days in the LPDM model domain was chosen to illustrate the emergency preparedness to the hypothetical accident at the site. The simulated results by the LPDM model with the 137Cs emission rate of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident for the first 5-day period were found to be able to provide prerequisite information for the emergency response to the early phase of the accident whereas those of the EDM-EA model could provide information required for the environmental impact assessment of the accident in the regional domain. The archived site-specific database of 72 synoptic cases in a year could have a great potential to be used as a prognostic information on the emergency preparedness for the early phase of accident.

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Fukushima-derived radiocesium fallout in Hawaiian soils

Publication date: December 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 180
Author(s): Trista McKenzie, Henrietta Dulai
Several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage on March 11, 2011, resulting in the release of radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs), as well as other radionuclides, into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawai'i and in milk samples analyzed on the island of Hawai'i. This study estimated the magnitude of cesium deposition in soil, collected in 2015–2016, resulting from atmospheric fallout. It also examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed on O'ahu and the island of Hawai'i following the disaster. Fukushima-derived fallout was differentiated from historic nuclear weapons testing fallout by the presence of 134Cs and the assumption that the 134Cs to 137Cs ratio was 1:1. Detectable, Fukushima-derived 134Cs inventories ranged from 30 to 630 Bq m−2 and 137Cs inventories ranged from 20 to 2200 Bq m−2. Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in soils were related to precipitation gradients, particularly in areas where rainfall exceeded 200 mm between March 19 and April 4, 2011. This research confirmed and quantified the presence of Fukushima-derived fallout in the state of Hawai'i in amounts higher than predicted by models and observed in the United States mainland, however the activities detected were an order of magnitude lower than fallout associated with historic sources such as the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific. In addition, this study showed that areas of highest cesium deposition do not overlap with densely populated or agriculturally used areas.

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Study of soil-fern transfer of naturally occurring alpha emitting radionuclides in the Southern Region of Cameroon

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Publication date: December 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 180
Author(s): S. Mvondo, G.H. Ben-Bolie, J.M. Ema'a Ema'a, P. Owono Ateba, P. Ele abiama, J.F. Beyala Ateba
This study was carried out in the localities Melondo and Ngombas located in the Southern Region of Cameroon where there are known to be uranium-bearing and high background radiation areas. Activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 210Po, 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th and 226Ra were determined in soil and fern (filicophyta) samples collected at 10 points in both localities. In soil, the average values of these activity concentrations (in Bq.kg−1 d.w.) were 210Po(130 ± 10), 238U(126 ± 11.6), 235U(5 ± 1), 234U(131 ± 10), 232Th(400 ± 22), 230Th(145 ± 11), 228Th(381 ± 21) and 226Ra(154 ± 28) at Melondo; and 210Po(228 ± 1), 238U(170 ± 11), 235U(9 ± 2), 234U(179 ± 12), 232Th(200 ± 18), 230Th(184 ± 18), 228Th(228 ± 22) and 226Ra(416 ± 7) at Ngomba. In fern the average activity concentrations were: 210Po(35 ± 3), 238U(0.68 ± 0.05), 235U(0.042 ± 0.01), 234U(0.90 ± 0.05), 232Th(1.2 ± 0.2), 230Th(0.7 ± 0.1), 228Th(39 ± 3) and 226Ra(14 ± 3) at Melondo and 210Po(24 ± 2), 238U(0.82 ± 0.06), 235U(0.046 ± 0.01), 234U(0.92 ± 0.06), 232Th(0.8 ± 0.2), 230Th(0.9 ± 0.2), 228Th(15 ± 5) and 226Ra(14 ± 3) at Ngomba. The soil-fern transfer factors (TF) (in kg.kg−1) were respectively 210Po(1.64 × 10−1), 238U (5 × 10−3), 235U(7 × 10−3), 234U(6 × 10−3), 232Th(3 × 10−3), 230Th(5 × 10−3), 228Th(7.9 × 10−2), and 226Ra(5.1 × 10−2). The highest TF for fern was for 210Po, probably because of atmospheric deposition. The TFs of uranium and thorium were comparable to those given in the IAEA handbook for grass.



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The evaluation of the 1001.03 keV gamma emission absolute intensity using fundamental parameter method

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Publication date: December 2017
Source:Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, Volume 180
Author(s): A.E.M. Khater, Y.Y. Ebaid
The accurate evaluation of the absolute intensity of the gamma-ray transition 1001.03 keV of 234mPa is crucial for accurate determination of 238U in nuclear material and environmental samples. Over the last decades, a wide range of 1001.03 keV absolute intensity values were published by different researchers and ranged from 0.59 to 1.12%. Nowadays, one of the most commonly used values is 0.847 ± 0.008% that seems not accurate and would eventually lead to an overestimation of 238U activity concentration. The absolute intensity of 1001.03 keV gamma transition was re-evaluated using different fundamental parameter method (FPM) modes, uranium ore and granite samples, samples' geometries, sample-to-detectors' geometries and gamma ray spectrometers. The mean ± standard deviation of newly optimized absolute intensity value is 1.067 ± 0.084% with an average relative bias of - 20% from the commonly used value.



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Can Ultrasound-guided S1 Transforaminal Epidural Injection Using the In-plane Approach and Color Doppler Imaging be a safer alternative to lumbar inter-laminar epidural injection? : A Visual Vignette.

No abstract available

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Ultrasonography Imaging for the Diagnosis and Guided Injection of Plantaris Tendon Strain in a Patient with Tennis Leg.

No abstract available

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New Neandertal wrist bones from El Sidrón, Spain (1994–2009)

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Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 114
Author(s): Tracy L. Kivell, Antonio Rosas, Almudena Estalrrich, Rosa Huguet, Antonio García-Tabernero, Luis Ríos, Marco de la Rasilla
Twenty-nine carpal bones of Homo neanderthalensis have been recovered from the site of El Sidrón (Asturias, Spain) during excavations between 1994 and 2009, alongside ∼2500 other Neandertal skeletal elements dated to ∼49,000 years ago. All bones of the wrist are represented, including adult scaphoids (n = 6), lunates (n = 2), triquetra (n = 4), pisiforms (n = 2), trapezia (n = 2), trapezoids (n = 5), capitates (n = 5), and hamates (n = 2), as well as one fragmentary and possibly juvenile scaphoid. Several of these carpals appear to belong to the complete right wrist of a single individual. Here we provide qualitative and quantitative morphological descriptions of these carpals, within a comparative context of other European and Near Eastern Neandertals, early and recent Homo sapiens, and other fossil hominins, including Homo antecessor, Homo naledi, and australopiths.Overall, the El Sidrón carpals show characteristics that typically distinguish Neandertals from H. sapiens, such as a relatively flat first metacarpal facet on the trapezium and a more laterally oriented second metacarpal facet on the capitate. However, there are some distinctive features of the El Sidrón carpals compared with most other Neandertals. For example, the tubercle of the trapezium is small with limited projection, while the scaphoid tubercle and hamate hamulus are among the largest seen in other Neandertals. Furthermore, three of the six adult scaphoids show a distinctive os-centrale portion, while another is a bipartite scaphoid with a truncated tubercle. The high frequency of rare carpal morphologies supports other evidence of a close genetic relationship among the Neandertals found at El Sidrón.



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The easternmost Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) from Jinsitai Cave, North China

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Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 114
Author(s): Feng Li, Steven L. Kuhn, Fuyou Chen, Yinghua Wang, John Southon, Fei Peng, Mingchao Shan, Chunxue Wang, Junyi Ge, Xiaomin Wang, Tala Yun, Xing Gao
The dispersal of Neanderthals and their genetic and cultural interactions with anatomically modern humans and other hominin populations in Eurasia are critical issues in human evolution research. Neither Neanderthal fossils nor typical Mousterian assemblages have been reported in East Asia to date. Here we report on artifact assemblages comparable to western Eurasian Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) at Jinsitai, a cave site in North China. The lithic industry at Jinsitai appeared at least 47–42 ka and persisted until around 40–37 ka. These findings expand the geographic range of the Mousterian-like industries at least 2000 km further to the east than what has been previously recognized. This discovery supplies a missing part of the picture of Middle Paleolithic distribution in Eurasia and also demonstrates the makers' capacity to adapt to diverse geographic regions and habitats of Eurasia.



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Scaling of bony canals for encephalic vessels in euarchontans: Implications for the role of the vertebral artery and brain metabolism

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Publication date: January 2018
Source:Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 114
Author(s): Doug M. Boyer, Arianna R. Harrington
Supplying the central nervous system with oxygen and glucose for metabolic activities is a critical function for all animals at physiologic, anatomical, and behavioral levels. A relatively proximate challenge to nourishing the brain is maintaining adequate blood flow. Euarchontans (primates, dermopterans and treeshrews) display a diversity of solutions to this challenge. Although the vertebral artery is a major encephalic vessel, previous research has questioned its importance for irrigating the cerebrum. This presents a puzzling scenario for certain strepsirrhine primates (non-cheirogaleid lemuriforms) that have reduced promontorial branches of the internal carotid artery and no apparent alternative encephalic vascular route except for the vertebral artery. Here, we present results of phylogenetic comparative analyses of data on the cross-sectional area of bony canals that transmit the vertebral artery (transverse foramina). These results show that, across primates (and within major primate subgroups), variation in the transverse foramina helps significantly to explain variation in forebrain mass even when variation in promontorial canal cross-sectional areas are also considered. Furthermore, non-cheirogaleid lemuriforms have larger transverse foramina for their endocranial volume than other euarchontans, suggesting that the vertebral arteries compensate for reduced promontorial artery size. We also find that, among internal carotid-reliant euarchontans, species that are more encephalized tend to have a promontorial canal that is larger relative to the transverse foramina. Tentatively, we consider the correlation between arterial canal diameters (as a proxy for blood flow) and brain metabolic demands. The results of this analysis imply that human investment in brain metabolism (∼27% of basal metabolic rate) may not be exceptional among euarchontans.



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Full Time Faculty/Clinical Coordinator Position in Emergency - MassBay Community College

Position Summary MassBay Community College seeks a qualified full time instructor for the Emergency Medical Services Department. The EMS faculty member teaches courses in the classroom, skills and simulation laboratory, and in clinical setting in the EMT and Paramedicine Programs. This instructor also serves as Clinical Coordinator to advocate for clinical and field placements, will monitor student ...

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STAR syndrome plus: The first description of a female patient with the lethal form

The STAR syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant developmental disorder caused by point mutations in the single FAM58A gene or deletions involving FAM58A and its flanking genes. The STAR phenotype is characterized by a rather homogeneous constellation of facial dysmorphisms and malformations summarized by its acronym, Syndactyly, Telecanthus, Anogenital, and Renal malformations. Here we describe a female patient with STAR syndrome and a 130 kb deletion at Xq28, including the FAM58A gene. She presented with cleft lip palate, omphalocele, and cerebral malformations not previously considered part of the phenotypic spectrum of this syndrome. She died at 6 weeks from respiratory failure.



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Widespread covariation of early environmental exposures and trait-associated polygenic variation [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

Although gene–environment correlation is recognized and investigated by family studies and recently by SNP-heritability studies, the possibility that genetic effects on traits capture environmental risk factors or protective factors has been neglected by polygenic prediction models. We investigated covariation between trait-associated polygenic variation identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and...

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Mutagenic cost of ribonucleotides in bacterial DNA [Genetics]

Replicative DNA polymerases misincorporate ribonucleoside triphosphates (rNTPs) into DNA approximately once every 2,000 base pairs synthesized. Ribonucleotide excision repair (RER) removes ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) from genomic DNA, replacing the error with the appropriate deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). Ribonucleotides represent a major threat to genome integrity with the potential to cause strand...

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WD40-repeat 47, a microtubule-associated protein, is essential for brain development and autophagy [Genetics]

The family of WD40-repeat (WDR) proteins is one of the largest in eukaryotes, but little is known about their function in brain development. Among 26 WDR genes assessed, we found 7 displaying a major impact in neuronal morphology when inactivated in mice. Remarkably, all seven genes showed corpus callosum defects,...

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Training and Development Specialist - Ready Responders

The Role The Training and Development Specialist (TDS) is responsible for designing and implementing the training programs for all Ready Responders teammates: onboarding, new industry standards, reinforcement of best practices, targeted trainings to address gaps, seasonal trainings, etc. While Ready Responders start their roles with foundational knowledge and experience, the TDS has the unique opportunity ...

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Supply Chain Manager - Ready Responders

About The Role The Supply Chain Manager will work closely with the Chief Operations Officer and Team Supervisors to drive and manage company-wide processes, ensuring that every Ready Responder is able to provide the highest level of care to patients across Orleans Parish. Each Ready Responder will be equipped with his/her own kit of essential tools and equipment so that (s)he is fully prepared for every ...

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Supervisor - Ready Responders

The Role As a Ready Responders Supervisor you will directly manage and provide ongoing support to Ready Responders: regular individual check-ins, troubleshooting as needed, general and targeted performance management, and ongoing coaching and support. This integral role will not only be responsible for maintaining the overall performance of his/her Responder team, (s)he will hold a high bar for both ...

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Paramedic - Ready Responders

About The Role When you join our team as a Ready Responder, you will join a group of dedicated healthcare providers who are licensed, trained, and credentialed to respond at the EMT-Basic level of care. Our Responders provide two types of service: Acute care response, high priority calls for service Help to improve patient outcomes by arriving at the scene within minutes Provide on-scene triage and ...

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Emergency Medical Technician - Ready Responders

About The Role When you join our team as a Ready Responder, you will join a group of dedicated healthcare providers who are licensed, trained, and credentialed to respond at the EMT-Basic level of care. Our Responders provide two types of service: Acute care response, high priority calls for service Help to improve patient outcomes by arriving at the scene within minutes Provide on-scene triage and ...

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Paramedic--Flexible Hours - Ready Responders

About The Role When you join our team as a Ready Responder, you will join a group of dedicated healthcare providers who are licensed, trained, and credentialed to respond at the EMT-Basic level of care. Our Responders provide two types of service: Acute care response, high priority calls for service Help to improve patient outcomes by arriving at the scene within minutes Provide on-scene triage and ...

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EMT--Flexible Hours - Ready Responders

About The Role When you join our team as a Ready Responder, you will join a group of dedicated healthcare providers who are licensed, trained, and credentialed to respond at the EMT-Basic level of care. Our Responders provide two types of service: Acute care response, high priority calls for service Help to improve patient outcomes by arriving at the scene within minutes Provide on-scene triage and ...

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Mutations of PTPN23 in developmental and epileptic encephalopathy

Abstract

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with poor prognosis. Recent discoveries have greatly expanded the repertoire of genes that are mutated in epileptic encephalopathies and DEE, often in a de novo fashion, but in many patients, the disease remains molecularly uncharacterized. Here, we describe a new form of DEE in patients with likely deleterious biallelic variants in PTPN23. The phenotype is characterized by early onset drug-resistant epilepsy, severe and global developmental delay, microcephaly, and sometimes premature death. PTPN23 encodes a tyrosine phosphatase with strong brain expression, and its knockout in mouse is embryonically lethal. Structural modeling supports a deleterious effect of the identified alleles. Our data suggest that PTPN23 mutations cause a rare severe form of autosomal-recessive DEE in humans, a finding that requires confirmation.



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Spontaneous external biliary fistula arising from an intrahepatic duct

Abstract

A spontaneous external biliary fistula is most commonly a cholecystocutaneous fistula secondary to acute cholecystitis. A fistula arising from an intrahepatic duct is extremely rare. An 87-year-old man presented with swelling of the epigastric region and right upper quadrant abdomen. He had a history of cholecystectomy and endoscopic sphincterotomy. After antibiotic treatment and surgical opening of both lesions, abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a soft tissue mass cephalad to the umbilicus. We excised the mass, and found it to be associated with a fistula through the linea alba. Fistulography showed an abscess cavity communicating with the intrahepatic duct in segment III. Histopathological examination of the mass showed an abscess without malignancy. The fistula closed spontaneously without laparotomy. In this case, the underlying pathology was considered to be associated with a subcapsular hepatic cyst in segment III.



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Post-Stroke Cognitive Impairments and the Potential for Treatment with Cellex

Objective. To assess the neuropsychological characteristics of post-stroke cognitive impairments (PSCI) in the acute period of ischemic stroke (IS) and to evaluate the efficacy of Cellex. Materials and methods. Complex neuropsychological testing was performed in 288 patients in the acute period of IS. Cellex was used in addition to basal treatment in 30 patients at a dose of 0.1 mg (1 ml) s.c. for 10 days, with treatment being initiated in the hyperacute period. Results and discussion. Multifunctional PSCI was detected in 87% of the patients in the acute period of IS. Most patients showed impairments to attention, regulatory functions, speech, and memory. More than a third of patients showed multifunctional non-amnestic cognitive impairments. Monofunctional nonamnestic PSCI was encountered in 5.5% of cases. Isolated memory deficit was found in 2% of patients. Most elderly patients displayed PSCI, mostly the mixed variant. Isolated decreases in the rate or regulation of cognitive activity dominated among young and middle-aged patients, with one in four patients showing mixed cognitive impairments. A tendency to greater age was seen in patients with mixed-type PSCI. Analysis of the efficacy of Cellex in the acute period of IS showed that use was linked with improvements in cognitive status and the state of neurodynamic, regulatory, and visuospatial functions. The neurotrophic agent Cellex was effective in correcting PSCI in the acute period of IS.



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Rapid recovery and altered neurochemical dependence of locomotor central pattern generation following lumbar neonatal spinal cord injury

Abstract

Following incomplete compression injury in the thoracic spinal cord of neonatal mice one day after birth (P1), virtually normal hindlimb locomotor function is recovered within about 3 weeks despite substantial permanent thoracic tissue loss (Boulland et al. 2013; Chawla et al. 2016). Here, we asked whether similar recovery occurs following lumbar injury that impacts more directly on the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG). As in thoracic injuries, lumbar injuries caused about 90% neuronal loss at the injury site and increased serotonergic innervation below the injury. Motor recovery was slower after lumbar than thoracic injury, but virtually normal function was attained by P25 in both cases. Locomotor CPG status was tested by eliciting fictive locomotion in isolated spinal cords using a widely used neurochemical cocktail (NMDA, dopamine, serotonin). No fictive locomotion could be elicited 1 day post-injury, but could within 3 days post-injury as readily as in age-matched uninjured control spinal cords. Burst patterning and coordination were largely similar in injured and control spinal cords but there were differences. Notably, in both groups there were two main locomotor frequencies, but injured spinal cords exhibited a shift towards the higher frequency. Injury also altered the neurochemical dependence of locomotor CPG output, such that injured spinal cords, unlike control spinal cords, were incapable of generating low frequency rhythmic coordinated activity in the presence of NMDA and dopamine alone. Thus, the neonatal spinal cord exhibits remarkable functional recovery also after lumbar injuries, but the neurochemical sensitivity of locomotor circuitry is modified in the process.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Microvascular reactivity, assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test, is associated with patient outcomes following cardiac surgery: A prospective observational study.

BACKGROUND: Microvascular dysfunction in patients admitted to the ICU following cardiac surgery may be related to perioperative complications and increased resource utilisation even in the presence of acceptable systemic haemodynamic variables. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between microvascular impairment using peripheral near-infrared spectroscopy at ICU admission and 6 h postadmission and the duration of mechanical ventilatory support, length of stay in ICU and in hospital. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Single-centre, tertiary-level cardiac ICU. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine adult patients following elective cardiac surgery excluding patients with on-going extracorporeal support or in whom tissue haemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) measurements were not feasible. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thenar and forearm StO2 in response to a vascular occlusion test to calculate desaturation and reperfusion slopes. A logistic regression model was used to ascertain the associations between StO2, desaturation and reperfusion slopes as well as cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, arterial lactate concentrations and prolonged (>=75th percentile) duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay and hospital length of stay. RESULTS: A reduced reperfusion slope at ICU admission was associated independently with prolonged mechanical ventilation at thenar (OR 0.08; 95% CI [0.02 to 0.47], P = 0.003) and forearm [OR 0.2 (0.04 to 0.59), P = 0.006] sites. Similarly, a reduced Rres was associated with prolonged ICU LOS at both thenar [OR 0.3 (0.13 to 0.77), P = 0.007] and forearm [OR 0.2 (0.05 to 0.62), P = 0.007] sites at ICU0 h, as well as ICU6 h [OR 0.2 (0.05 to 0.66), P = 0.004 and OR 0.05 (0.008 to 0.34), P = 0.002]. An increased Rdes was associated with prolonged hospital LOS at the thenar eminence at ICU0 h [OR 1.9 (1.4 to 2.3), P = 0.004] and ICU6 h [OR 6.7 (2.0 to 23), P = 0.002] as well as the forearm at ICU0 h [OR 1.5 (1.3 to 1.9), P = 0.004] and ICU6 h [OR 1.6 (1.3 to 2.1), P = 0.004]. CONCLUSION: In the early postoperative period following cardiac surgery, changes in thenar and forearm tissue oxygenation variables are associated with patient resource utilisation outcomes. (C) 2017 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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Measuring in vivo responses to endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress using a novel Heme Oxygenase 1 reporter mouse

Abstract

Hmox1 protein holds great promise as a biomarker of in vivo stress responses as it is highly induced in stressed or damaged cells. However, Hmox1 expression patterns have thus far only been available in simple model organisms with limited relevance to humans. We now report a new Hmox1 reporter line that makes it possible to obtain this information in mice, a premiere model system for studying human disease and toxicology. Using a state-of-the-art strategy, we expressed multiple complementary reporter molecules from the murine Hmox1 locus, including firefly luciferase to allow long-term, non-invasive imaging of Hmox1 expression, and β-galactosidase for high-resolution mapping of expression patterns post-mortem. We validated the model by confirming the fidelity of reporter expression, and its responsiveness to oxidative and inflammatory stimuli. In addition to providing blueprints for Hmox1 expression in mice that provide novel biological insights, this work paves the way for the broad application of this model to establish cellular stresses induced by endogenous processes and those resulting from exposure to drugs and environmental agents. It will also enable studies on the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of disease and its prevention.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Ribeye protein is intrinsically dynamic but is stabilized in the context of the ribbon synapse

Abstract

Ribeye protein is a major constituent of the synaptic ribbon, an organelle that coordinates rapid and sustained vesicle release to enable hearing and balance. The ribbon is considered to be a stable structure. However, under certain physiological conditions such as acoustic overexposure that results in temporary noise-induced hearing loss or perturbations of ion channels, ribbons may change shape or vanish altogether, suggesting greater plasticity than previously appreciated. The dynamic properties of ribeye proteins are unknown. Here we use transgenesis and imaging to explore the behaviours of ribeye proteins within the ribbon and also their intrinsic properties outside the context of the ribbon synapse in a control cell type, the skin cell. By fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on transgenic zebrafish larvae, we test whether ribeye proteins are dynamic in vivo in real time. In the skin, a cell type devoid of synaptic contacts, Ribeye a-mCherry exchanges with ribbon-like structures on a minute timescale (t1/2 = 3.2 min). In contrast, Ribeye a of the ear and lateral line and Ribeye b of the lateral line each exchange at ribbons of hair cells an order of magnitude slower (t1/2 of 125.6 min, 107.0 min, and 95.3 min, respectively) than Ribeye a of the skin. These basal exchange rates suggest that long-term ribbon presence may require ribeye renewal. Our studies demonstrate that ribeye proteins are inherently dynamic but are stabilized at the ribbons of sensory cells in vivo.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Approaches to modeling the development of physiological stress responsivity

Abstract

Influential biopsychosocial theories have proposed that some developmental periods in the lifespan are potential pivot points or opportunities for recalibration of stress response systems. To date, however, there have been few longitudinal studies of physiological stress responsivity and no studies comparing change in physiological stress responsivity across developmental periods. Our goals were to (a) address conceptual and methodological issues in studying the development of physiological stress responsivity within and between individuals, and (b) provide an exemplar for evaluating development of responsivity to stress in the parasympathetic nervous system, comparing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responsivity from middle to late childhood with middle to late adolescence. We propose the use of latent growth modeling of stress responsivity that includes time-varying covariates to account for conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of physiological stress responsivity. Such models allow researchers to address key aspects of developmental sensitivity including within-individual variability, mean level change over time, and between-individual variability over time. In an empirical example, we found significant between-individual variability over time in RSA responsivity to stress during middle to late childhood but not during middle to late adolescence, suggesting that childhood may be a period of greater developmental sensitivity at the between-individual level.



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A successful case of locally advanced pancreatic cancer undergoing curative distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection after combination chemotherapy of nab-paclitaxel with gemcitabine

Abstract

Pancreatic cancer patients have a poor prognosis because of a low rate of resection that results from distant metastases or local advancement. We report a successful case of unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer in a patient who was curatively resected after combination therapy with nab-paclitaxel (nab-PTX) and gemcitabine (GEM). A 61-year-old man was referred for treatment of a 45-mm pancreatic tail tumor involving the celiac axis, common hepatic artery, and splenic artery that appeared as an abnormal soft-density mass on imaging. This patient's tumor was defined as unresectable due to local advancement, and, therefore, the powerful combined chemotherapy regimen of nab-PTX with GEM was initiated to allow for possible resection later. After three cycles of chemotherapy, a CT scan revealed that the soft-density mass around the celiac axis and common hepatic artery had dramatically disappeared, and the tumor was then determined to be a resectable lesion. Thus, distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection was performed and curability was achieved. There has been no tumor recurrence or distant metastasis at more than 12 months after surgery, and the patient remains alive at 17 months after initial chemotherapy.



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Δευτέρα, 30 Οκτωβρίου 2017

rSalvador: An R Package for the Fluctuation Experiment

The past few years saw a surge of novel applications of the Luria-Delbruck fluctuation assay protocol in bacterial research.  Appropriate analysis of fluctuation assay data often requires computational methods that are unavailable in the popular web tool FALCOR. This paper introduces an R packages named rSalvador to bring improvements to the field. The paper focuses on rSalvador's capabilities to alleviate three kinds of problems found in recent investigations: (i) resorting to partial plating without properly accounting for the effects of partial plating; (ii) conducting attendant fitness assays without incorporating mutants' relative fitness in subsequent data analysis; and (iii) comparing mutation rates using methods that are in general inapplicable to fluctuation assay data. In addition, the paper touches on rSalvador's capabilities to estimate sample size and the difficulties related to parameter non-identifiability.



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Use of Mental Health Services by Adolescents After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Triala

Mental health problems are common after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Many patients in need of mental health services do not receive them, but studies have not consistently used prospective and objective methods or followed samples for more than 1 year.

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The effects of an 8-week stabilization exercise program on lumbar multifidus muscle thickness and activation as measured with ultrasound imaging in patients with low back pain: An exploratory study

Lumbar statilization exercise programs (LSEP) produce positive effects on clinical outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms remain fairly unexplored. Psychological and neuromuscular mechanisms can be involved such as a better activation of the lumbar multifidus which represents one possibility.

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Interaction of Glutamate Receptors and GABA Neurons in the Central Nervous System

This review summarizes data on the interaction of effects arising as a result of activation of receptors for the main neurotransmitters in the CNS – glutamate and GABA. Reports on the structures and functions of the receptors for these signal substances are presented, and questions of their colocalization in synapses and interactions between the effects of activation of both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors for these neurotransmitters at the postsynaptic level are discussed.



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Morphological Changes and Characteristics of the Expression of Serine Racemase in the Rat Hippocampus in Combined Stress

Structural changes in the ventral segment of the hippocampus and the characteristics of the expression of serine racemase were studied in rats aged 12 and 24 months exposed to combined stress. Four groups of 10 animals were formed: group 1 were control rats aged 12 months; group 2 were control rats aged 24 months; group 3 were 12-month rats subjected to 30-min stress daily for seven days; group 4 were 24-month rats subjected to stress. Stress was applied in a special apparatus consisting of six isolated sectors of identical volume and allowing the combination of different types of stress to be applied (pulsing light, loud noise, vibration). The ventral segment of the hippocampus of experimental animals showed an increase in the specific number of shrunken hyperchromic neurons in field CA3 and decreases in neuron density, accompanied by pericellular edema, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and decreased serine racemase expression in the neuropil of the radial layer of fields CA1 and CA3. Stressed animals showed changes in neurons in the pyramidal layer of field CA3, which were combined with a decrease in the level of expression of serine racemase in dendrites in the radial layer of fields CA1 and CA3, which is taken as a sign of impairment to NMDA receptor-mediated transmission of nerve spikes in the hippocampus.



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The Role of GABAergic Interneurons in the Cortex and Hippocampus in the Development of Epilepsy

This review analyzes contemporary data on the possible roles of different classes of interneurons in the hippocampus and cortex in the pathogenesis of temporal epilepsy in humans – one of the commonest forms of epilepsy. Data obtained from humans (results of post mortem morphological investigation of patients' brain tissues and electrophysiological experiments on brain slices collected at neurosurgical procedures) are considered, along with results from studies of in vivo and in vitro animal models of temporal epilepsy. Systematic analysis of impairments to inhibitory processes in temporal epilepsy show that these result from the selective death of particular interneuron populations and from functional impairments to the operation of important interneurons. Understanding of the concrete roles of different classes of interneurons in epilepsy is required for the development of new and effective treatment methods for this disease.



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Effects of Cognitive Loading on the Development of Muscle Fatigue

The aim of the present work was to study the effects of cognitive loading requiring activation of the attention systems on the development of muscle fatigue. The dynamics of measures of arm muscle fatigue were evaluated in two sessions, separated by 5 min, consisting of 250 maximum-strength dynamometer compressions in response to acoustic target signals in three tasks with different levels of cognitive loading. The first experiment used only the target signals; in experiment two, the subjects had to discriminate the target signal from an equal number (250) of nontarget signals, which required voluntary attention. In experiment three, the proportions of target stimuli were 17 and 83%, respectively, i.e., the target stimulus was random (deviant), activating not only voluntary attention, but also involuntary attention. Measurements of grip strength, maximum voluntary contraction strength, and subjective assessments of fatigue before and after the motor tasks showed that experiments involving voluntary and involuntary attention to sound stimuli produced a smaller rate of development of muscle fatigue. Activation of involuntary attention, accompanied by the appearance of mismatch negativity on the EEG, enhanced the effect of voluntary attention.



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Acquisition of a Conditioned Fear Reaction to a Light Stimulus in Mice: Comparison with Learning in Response to a Sound Stimulus

Currently the model of associative memory in mammals most frequently used in neurobiological studies consists of acquisition of a conditioned reflex freezing reaction. As most studies address the mechanisms of learning in response to a sound stimulus, the question of the extent to which the patterns of forming associative memory are universal and apply to other conditioned stimuli remains open. The aim of the present work was to compare the dynamics of the formation and reproduction of a memory in mice on acquisition of a conditioned freezing reaction to light and sound conditioned stimuli. Training using a light stimulus was found to occur in this model significantly more slowly than using a sound signal. In addition, the dynamics of memory reproduction differed in animals trained using sound and light stimuli, being slower using light stimuli, which may reflect different consolidation or extraction processes for these types of memory. The results of this study are critically important for understanding the common and specific conditions for the formation of associative memory in this model.



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Long-Term Consequences of Perinatal Hypoxia and Their Possible Pharmacological Correction: Responses of Neocortical Nerve Cells and Synapses

The morphological characteristics of neurons and synaptic contacts in the neocortex following acute perinatal hypoxia and subsequent use of Saliphene were studied in later ontogeny (days 80–90) in 28 Wistar rats. Controls consisted of intact animals of the same age. Light and electron microscopy studies were performed, along with immunocytochemical detection of synaptophysin and morphometric studies. These investigations showed that hypoxia in the perinatal period leads to structural rearrangements in neocortical neurons in adult animals. Degeneration of some large pyramidal neurons in layer V was seen, with decreases in the density of synaptic contacts (almost twofold) in the deep layers of the neocortex. These impairments were probably due to modifications to the developmental program for structures and interneuronal contacts. The data obtained here provide evidence that the Russian formulation "Saliphene" has protective actions on neurons and their differentiation and synaptogenesis after hypoxia. This suggests that this formulation is clinically effective and provides grounds for continuing studies in this direction.



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Association of the GRIN2B Gene Polymorphism with Verbal Fluency and Impairments to Abstract Thought in Schizophrenia

Objective. This study was conducted to seek associations between the GRIN2B gene and signs of impairments to thought and speech in schizophrenia, which may be based on access to the mental lexicon. Materials and methods. A group 552 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were studied to establish associations between the rs7301328 polymorphism of the GRIN2B gene and semantic verbal fluency and five symptoms of impairments to thought and speech on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results and conclusions. Associations between the GRIN2B gene and verbal fluency (p = 0.013) and impairment to abstract thought (p = 0.012) were found. Verbal fluency was not found to have a mediatory role in the association between the gene and the impairment to thought. These results suggest that the GRIN2B gene has a modifying action on language processes extracting information from the mental lexicon on the basis of semantic features and, furthermore, that it makes a contribution to the variability of clinically marked impairments to abstract thought in patients with schizophrenia. The heterozygous genotype may be protective in relation to the development of thought and speech pathology.



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Permeability of the Dura Mater of the Spinal Cord in Dogs for Low Molecular Weight Substances in Serum

The permeability of the dura mater (DM) of the dog spinal cord for low molecular weight serum components – urea, creatinine, glucose, lactate, cholesterol, calcium, and inorganic phosphate – was studied in in vitro conditions. DM permeability for a high molecular weight serum component – albumin – was assessed as a reference compound. Most of the study components had permeabilities of 8–15%. The greatest DM permeability was for lactate (33.6%) and the lowest was for cholesterol (1.3%). Values for urea and creatinine were 8.0 and 7.5%, respectively; there was a nonlinear relationship between permeability and the initial substrate concentration in the serum. The DM permeability threshold for urea was 4.83 mM and that for creatinine was 97 μM. The functional characteristics of DM permeability may be determined by its structural features – dense packing of fibrillar connective tissues structures, high content of sulfated and the absence of nonsulfated glycosaminoglycans.



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Individual Features of Viewing Emotionally Significant Images

Experimental data on the individual features of eye movements on viewing affective images from the IAPS database are presented. The results provide evidence that the viewing trajectory in each subject (n = 20) persisted on presentation of images with different emotional coloration. The whole cohort of subjects showed a significant correlation between the numbers of tests in which areas of interest were detected, in three combinations: between negative and positive images, between negative and neutral, and between positive and neutral (r = 0.84, 0.78, and 0.77, respectively). Analogous correlations were seen for the duration of gaze fixations (r = 0.90, 0.82, and 0.90). The number of fixation points in areas of interest, the size of the areas examined, and the duration of fixations were found to differ significantly between two groups of subjects (with dominance of focal or scanning gaze trajectories). The potential for using emotionally significant images for assessing the dominant type of visual attention in terms of eye movement parameters in individual humans is discussed.



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Changes in the Ethogram in Rats Due to Contagion Behavior

Experiments were performed using a model of contagion behavior based on drinking behavior in rats. Observer rats without the drinking motivation, in the presence of a familiar conspecific with drinking motivation who demonstrated drinking behavior (demonstrator rats), displayed behavioral signs of the drinking motivation, i.e., signs of contagion behavior. Analysis of transition probability matrixes to investigate changes in the ethogram in observer rats demonstrated contagion behavior. Decreases in the frequency of aggressive and defensive behavioral patterns were seen in these animals, along with simultaneous increases in the frequency of exploratory activity, drinking, and exploratory approaches to bottles as compared with the ethograms of observer rats not displaying signs of contagion behavior on testing in the presence of a familiar conspecific demonstrator without the drinking motivation.



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The Role of Treatment Motivation Subsystems in the Overall Structure of Compliance in Patients Undergoing Psychopharmacotherapy

Objective. To identify interactions in the structure of treatment motivation and compliance in patients in a psychiatric clinic. Materials and methods. A questionnaire and compliance scales were used to assess treatment motivation in 104 patients in the Department of Integrative Pharmaco- and Psychotherapy. These included 67 patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective spectrum disorders, 15 with affective disorders, 13 with personality disorders and neurotic disorders, and nine with organic lesions. Results and conclusions. The key role in forming the overall level of treatment compliance is played by the motivation mechanism based on subjective experience of suffering from the disorder. Occurrence of amotivation syndrome has disastrous effects on the formation of compliance. Passive agreement by the patient to accept treatment leads to a degradation in the treatment alliance, which is worsened by cognitive deficit in patients and reduced insight into the condition. Predominance of external motivation to receive treatment, determined by the pressure of the patient's immediate environment, also had adverse impact on the compliance subsystem linked with the surroundings. Pressure from relatives was often not transformed into adequate social support. Extremely low levels of internal motivation based on an understanding of the nature of the disorder, led to decreases in compliance associated with attitudes to treatment with medication.



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The Content of c-Fos-Positive Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex and Striatum and Behavioral Characteristics in Rats on Cutaneous Application of Antiseptic Dorogov’s Stimulator Paste

Experiments were performed on three groups of male Sprague–Dawley rats, each of six animals. Group 1 consisted of intact animals; group 2 of animals given zinc paste, and group 3 of animals given fraction 3 of antiseptic Dorogov's stimulator (ASD-3) by application to the skin on the back. Detection of c-Fos-positive neurons in different parts of the brain and studies of behavioral responses demonstrated activation of neurons in the cingulate, motor, and piriform areas of the cerebral cortex and the striatum, with increases in motor and ultrasound activity; there was a correlation between behavioral reactions and activation of neurons in these brain areas. These results provide evidence of the concomitant regulation of behavior by multiple brain structures and that ASD-3 has neurotropic properties.



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“Unpredictable Stress”: Ambiguity of Stress Reactivity in Studies of Long-Term Plasticity

Data on the influences of stress on the function of long-term synaptic plasticity are analyzed. Using longterm potentiation (LTP) as an example, stress has been shown to have both stimulatory and inhibitory influences on the effectiveness of the induction of long-term modifications, the effect depending on the nature, duration, and intensity of the stress, the observation time point, the brain structure being studied, and, thus, the involvement in the stress response of the different mechanisms underlying LTP. Stress-induced increases in glucocorticoid levels did not obligately correlate with changes in long-term plasticity, while application of corticosterone in vivo and in vitro could lead to both activation and inhibition of LTP. Existing data provide evidence that changes in LTP are determined by the ratio of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, activation of the latter not so much impairing the mechanisms of generation as increasing the threshold of induction of LTP, regulating the metaplasticity of synapses. The unpredictability of the effects of stress is related in particular to the involvement of other transmitter systems regulating metaplasticity whose actions depend on the animal's individual experience in the stress reaction. The range of individual differences stimulates the ongoing search for significant factors determining the stress reactivity of longterm plasticity underlying stress resistance or susceptibility to its pathological consequences. Differences in the processing of signals arriving at neurons and their molecular mediation may constitute such a factor.



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Cognitive Impairments in Stroke: Potential for Medication-Based Correction

Objective. To assess the efficacy and safety of Cellex for the correction of cognitive disorders in the acute period of ischemic stroke (IS). Materials and methods. The study included 246 patients in the acute period of IS. Patients were divided by random selection into two groups given Cellex or placebo for 10 days on the background of standard basal treatment. Patients were assessed dynamically in terms of neuropsychological status. Results and conclusions. This study showed that in patients with IS, mild and moderate cognitive impairments underwent faster and more marked regression when Cellex was prescribed (p < 0.05).



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Increasing the Efficacy of the Psychopharmacotherapy of Late Depression: Optimization of Treatment Duration

Objective. This study was performed to analyze the potential for using different methods to increase the efficacy of the psychopharmacotherapy of late depression, particularly by increasing the duration of treatment. Materials and methods. The study included 378 patients aged 50–82 (mean 60.6 ± 8.4) years. Treatment duration effects were studied by dividing patients into groups with short (4–8 weeks), intermediate (12 weeks), and long (20–24 weeks) durations of psychopharmacotherapy. Results and conclusions. Treatment results for durations of less than 8 weeks were significantly worse than those obtained with treatment duration greater than 12 weeks (these groups were not comparable because the initial cohorts were not comparable). By week 24, treatment responses were obtained in 63.9% of patients who had not responded to treatment by week 12, and 43.4% achieved remission. Partial responses and stable positive improvements by 12 weeks (about half the patients achieved remission) were predictors of responses with treatment durations of up to 24 weeks. These data were used to develop algorithms for selection of therapeutic tactics in patients with late depression depending on the results obtained at the first 12 weeks of psychopharmacotherapy.



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Systematics and Characteristics of the Development of Mental Disorders in Patients with HIV Infection

Objective. To study and systematize the features of the development of mental disorders seen in HIV infection. Materials and methods. A total of 250 HIV-infected patients and 50 consumers of injected narcotics aged 18–50 years were studied. Most HIV-infected patients were aged 21–40 years. The study used a general clinical method to investigate patients for psychopathology in addition to lab tests and experimental psychological investigations. Results and conclusions. Mental disorders seen in HIV-infected patients formed three groups of impairments: psychogenic-reactive, exogenous-organic, and personality disorders. The dynamics of these disorders were found to result from the complex actions of somatogenic, nosogenic, and premorbid personality factors.



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Event-Related Potentials to Faces Presented in an Emotional Context

The ability to recognize faces is a key skill forming our social behavior. Much attention has been focused on studies of the perception of emotional faces and expressions, though the question of the effects of context on the face recognition process has received little study. Subjects in the studies reported here watched a video clip, after which EEG recordings were made as they performed a task with photographs of the neutral faces of the characters in the film and photographs of the neutral faces of fillers (characters not appearing in the film). Studies were performed using event-related potentials (ERP). Differences were found in the amplitude of the P200 component in responses to presentation of the faces of culprits and victims, which may be associated with the different subjective significance of these stimuli for the person watching the video clip. Correlations were also found between the subjects' personality characteristics (anxiety, aggressivity, hostility) and increases in the amplitude of the P200 component in response to the faces of victims as compared with fillers. Further studies of the effects of emotional context on the perception of faces are required.



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Long-Term Effects of Stressors during the Neonatal Period of Development on the Nociceptive System and Psychoemotional Behavior

The long-term effects of peripheral inflammatory pain, transient maternal separation stress, and the combination of these factors on days 1 and 2 of life or on days 7 and 8 of life were studied in relation to measures of baseline pain (in the absence of an inflammatory process), prolonged responses to reinitiation of inflammation in the formalin test, levels of anxiety, extents of depressive behavior, and spatial learning ability when the animals reached adult age (90 days). In adult rats, study parameters showed changes depending on the type of early treatment and the age at which it was applied: inflammatory pain induced hypoalgesia in the hotplate test and degraded spatial learning ability in the Morris maze; maternal separation stress on days 1–2 but not days 7–8 increased pain responses in the formalin test. Regardless of the age at which the rat pups were subjected to treatments, repeated induction of inflammatory foci induced increased pain responses when animals reached adulthood. In the forced swimming test, immobility was increased in rats subjected to any of the treatments. The effects of combined pain and stress did not increase the influences of each applied alone. These new data contribute to the further development of our understanding of the longterm influences of harmful pain and stressors and their interactions in the neonatal period of development on the functional activity of the tonic nociception system and psychoemotional behavior.



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The impact of menstrual phase on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation during handgrip exercise in healthy premenopausal women

Abstract

Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in response to a sustained shear stress stimulus (e.g. via handgrip exercise; HGEX) is emerging as a useful tool for assessing endothelial function; however, the impact of menstrual phase on HGEX-FMD is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HGEX-FMD fluctuates with cyclical changes in estrogen levels over two discrete phases (low and high estrogen) of the menstrual cycle. Brachial artery (BA) diameter and blood velocity were assessed with 2D and Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Shear stress was estimated using shear rate (SR = BA blood velocity/BA diameter). Participants (12 healthy, regularly cycling women 21 ± 2 yrs) completed two experimental visits: (1) low estrogen (early follicular, EF) and (2) high estrogen (late follicular, LF). Reactive hyperemia stimulated FMD (RH-FMD) and HGEX-FMD (6-minutes of handgrip exercise) were assessed each visit. Results are mean ± SD. Estrogen increased from the EF to LF phase (EF: 33 ± 9 pg mL−1; LF: 161 ± 113 pg mL−1, P = 0.003). However, neither the SR stimuli (HGEX P = 0.501; RH P = 0.173), nor the FMD responses differed between phases (EF vs. LF: HGEX-FMD: 4.8 ± 2.8% vs. 4.6 ± 2.2%, P = 0.601; RH-FMD: 7.9 ± 4.3% vs. 6.4 ± 3.1%, P = 0.071). These results extend existing RH-FMD findings indicating that not all women experience fluctuations in FMD with the menstrual cycle. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms that underlie variability in the impact of menstrual phase on FMD.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Transcription: Promoters dictate termination mode

Transcription: Promoters dictate termination mode

Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.93



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Human gene essentiality

Human gene essentiality

Nature Reviews Genetics, Published online: 30 October 2017; doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.75

Characterizing the essentiality of human genes provides insights into gene function and genome evolution and facilitates the clinical interpretation of genetic variants. This article analyses essentiality metrics based on the statistical intolerance to loss-of-function mutations in human population sequencing studies and discusses commonalities and distinctions relative to data sets from knockout mice and functional genomics screens in human cell culture. Implications for disease genetics and extrapolation to non-coding regions are also discussed.



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Human gene essentiality



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Transcription: Promoters dictate termination mode



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Κυριακή, 29 Οκτωβρίου 2017

Time, touch and temperature affect perceived finger position and ownership in the grasp illusion

Abstract

Perceived body position and ownership are fundamental to our ability to sense and interact with the world. Previous work indicates that temporally congruent, repetitive multisensory stimuli are needed to alter the sense of body ownership. In the present study 30 subjects passively grasped an artificial rubber finger with their left index and thumb while their right index finger, located 12 cm below, was lightly clamped. Fingers with varied physical characteristics were also passively grasped to determine how these characteristics influenced perceived body position and ownership. Subjects immediately felt their hands to be 5.3 cm [3.4 to 7.3] (mean [95%CI]) closer, a feeling that remained after 3 min (6.0 cm [4.5 to 7.5]). By the end of the trial, perceived ownership increased by 1.2 [0.6 to 1.9] points on a 7-point Likert scale, with the group average moving from 'neither agree or disagree' at the start to 'somewhat agree' at the end. Compared to grasping a control rubber finger, grasping a cold, rough, oddly shaped or rectangular shaped finger-like object reduced perceived ownership. These results provide new insights into the role of cutaneous sensory receptors in defining these aspects of proprioception, and the speed with which these effects occur. Static touch rapidly induces large, sustained changes in perceived body position and prolonged exposure to these cutaneous inputs, alone, can induce a sense of body ownership. Also, certain physical characteristics of grasped objects influence the sense of body ownership.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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2. Do repeated limbic seizures induce depression-like behavior in rats?

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Publication date: November 2017
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 128, Issue 11
Author(s): W. McIntyre Burnham, Brian W. Scott
It has been reported that rapid kindling of the hippocampus produces lasting depression-like behavior in rats, as evidenced by increased immobility in the forced swim test and a loss of preference for sweetened water (Mazarati et al., 2007). This might suggest that repeated limbic seizure activity could be the cause of the depression often seen in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.Sixty-day old male Wistar rats were implanted with electrodes in the amygdala and ventral hippocampus and kindled (or sham kindled) daily to a criterion of 10 stage 5 seizures. Two weeks later subjects were tested in the forced swim and sweet taste preference tests. No differences were found between the kindled and sham kindled animals.Subsequently, twenty-one day old male Wistar rat pups were implanted and quick kindled (or sham kindled) in the ventral hippocampus. Kindling was accomplished in a single day by stimulating every 5min for 84 stimulations. Four days or two weeks later they were tested in the forced swim and sweet taste preference tests. No differences were found between the kindled and sham kindled animals.The present data do not support the idea that repeated limbic seizures induce depression-like behavior in rats.



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Machine-based classification of ADHD and nonADHD participants using time/frequency features of event-related neuroelectric activity

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Publication date: December 2017
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 128, Issue 12
Author(s): Hüseyin Öztoprak, Mehmet Toycan, Yaşar Kemal Alp, Orhan Arıkan, Elvin Doğutepe, Sirel Karakaş
ObjectiveAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent diagnosis among children who are referred to psychiatry departments. Although ADHD was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century, its diagnosis is still confronted with many problems.MethodA novel classification approach that discriminates ADHD and nonADHD groups over the time-frequency domain features of event-related potential (ERP) recordings that are taken during Stroop task is presented. Time-Frequency Hermite-Atomizer (TFHA) technique is used for the extraction of high resolution time-frequency domain features that are highly localized in time-frequency domain. Based on an extensive investigation, Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) was used to obtain the best discriminating features.ResultsWhen the best three features were used, the classification accuracy for the training dataset reached 98%, and the use of five features further improved the accuracy to 99.5%. The accuracy was 100% for the testing dataset. Based on extensive experiments, the delta band emerged as the most contributing frequency band and statistical parameters emerged as the most contributing feature group.ConclusionThe classification performance of this study suggests that TFHA can be employed as an auxiliary component of the diagnostic and prognostic procedures for ADHD.SignificanceThe features obtained in this study can potentially contribute to the neuroelectrical understanding and clinical diagnosis of ADHD.



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Interindividual variability in response to continuous theta-burst stimulation in healthy adults

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Publication date: November 2017
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 128, Issue 11
Author(s): Ali Jannati, Gabrielle Block, Lindsay M. Oberman, Alexander Rotenberg, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
ObjectiveWe used complete-linkage cluster analysis to identify healthy subpopulations with distinct responses to continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS).Methods21 healthy adults (age±SD, 36.9±15.2years) underwent cTBS of left motor cortex. Natural log-transformed motor evoked potentials (LnMEPs) at 5–50min post-cTBS (T5–T50) were calculated.ResultsTwo clusters were found; Group 1 (n=12) that showed significant MEP facilitation at T15, T20, and T50 (p's<0.006), and Group 2 (n=9) that showed significant suppression at T5–T15 (p's<0.022). LnMEPs at T10 and T40 were best predictors of, and together accounted for 80% of, cluster assignment.In an exploratory analysis, we examined the roles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms in the cTBS response. Val66Met participants showed greater facilitation at T10 than Val66Val participants (p=0.025). BDNF and cTBS intensity predicted 59% of interindividual variability in LnMEP at T10. APOE did not significantly affect LnMEPs at any time point (p's>0.32).ConclusionsData-driven cluster analysis can identify healthy subpopulations with distinct cTBS responses. T10 and T40 LnMEPs were best predictors of cluster assignment. T10 LnMEP was influenced by BDNF polymorphism and cTBS intensity.SignificanceHealthy adults can be sorted into subpopulations with distinct cTBS responses that are influenced by genetics.



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Effect of local cooling on excitation-contraction coupling in myasthenic muscle: Another mechanism of ice-pack test in myasthenia gravis

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Publication date: November 2017
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 128, Issue 11
Author(s): Daisuke Yamamoto, Tomihiro Imai, Emiko Tsuda, Takayoshi Hozuki, Rika Yamauchi, Shin Hisahara, Jun Kawamata, Shun Shimohama
ObjectiveThe ice-pack test is a convenient diagnostic testing procedure for myasthenia gravis (MG). We investigated the underlying mechanism of the ice-pack test performed on bilateral masseters.MethodsWe performed trigeminal repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS), excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling assessment (Imai's method) and bite force measurement before and after cooling of the masseters in MG patients and normal controls. After placing the ice-pack on the masseters for 3min, serial recordings of the three tests were performed at various time intervals during 10min after cooling.ResultsThe bite force increased significantly after cooling in ice-pack-positive MG patients. The acceleration and acceleration ratio (acceleration at a given time to baseline acceleration) of jaw movement increased significantly after cooling of the masseters in ice-pack-positive MG patients compared to ice-pack-negative patients and normal controls. The prolonged effect of cooling continued until the end of recording even though decremental response to RNS had returned to baseline value.ConclusionsCooling of myasthenic muscle may induce two effects. One is relatively short effect on electrical synaptic transmission at the endplate, and another is prolonged effect on E-C coupling in the muscle.SignificanceThe ice-pack test induces a prolonged effect of ameliorating impaired E-C coupling in MG.



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Reduced motor cortical inhibition in migraine: A blinded transcranial magnetic stimulation study

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Publication date: December 2017
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 128, Issue 12
Author(s): J.P. Neverdahl, P.M. Omland, M. Uglem, M. Engstrøm, T. Sand
ObjectiveTo investigate motor cortical excitability, inhibition, and facilitation with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in migraine in a blinded cross-sectional study.MethodsResting motor threshold (RMT), cortical silent period (CSP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were compared in 27 interictal migraineurs and 33 controls. 24 female interictal migraineurs and 27 female controls were compared in subgroup analyses. Seven preictal migraineurs were also compared to the interictal group in a hypothesis-generating analysis. Investigators were blinded for diagnosis during recording and analysis of data.ResultsSICI was decreased in interictal migraineurs when compared to healthy controls (p=0.013), CSP was shortened in female interictal migraineurs (p=0.041). ICF was decreased in preictal compared to interictal migraineurs (p=0.023). RMT and ICF were not different between interictal migraineurs and controls.ConclusionCortical inhibition was decreased in migraineurs between attacks, primarily in a female subgroup, indicating an importance of altered cortical inhibition in migraine.SignificancePrevious studies on motor cortical excitability in migraineurs have yielded varying results. This relatively large and blinded study provides support for altered cortical inhibition in migraine. Measuring intracortical facilitation in the period preceding migraine attacks may be of interest for future studies.



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Intermittent theta-burst stimulation induces correlated changes in cortical and corticospinal excitability in healthy older subjects

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Publication date: December 2017
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 128, Issue 12
Author(s): Tamara Gedankien, Peter J. Fried, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Mouhsin M. Shafi
ObjectiveWe studied the correlation between motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and early TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) from single-pulse TMS before and after intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) to the left primary motor cortex (M1) in 17 healthy older participants.MethodsTMS was targeted to the hand region of M1 using a MRI-guided navigated brain stimulation system and a figure-of-eight biphasic coil. MEPs were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle using surface EMG. TEPs were extracted from a 61-channel EEG recording. Participants received 90 single TMS pulses at 120% of resting motor threshold before and after iTBS.ResultsAcross all participants, the change in N15-P30 TEP and MEP amplitudes were significantly correlated (r=0.69; p<0.01). Average TEP responses did not change significantly after iTBS, whereas MEP amplitudes showed a significant increase.ConclusionsChanges in corticospinal reactivity and cortical reactivity induced by iTBS are related. However, the effect of iTBS on TEPs, unlike MEPs, is not straightforward.SignificanceOur findings help elucidate the relationship between changes in cortical and corticospinal excitability in healthy older individuals. Going forward, TEPs may be used to evaluate the effects of theta-burst stimulation in non-motor brain regions.



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Corticomuscular coherence in the acute and subacute phase after stroke

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Publication date: November 2017
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 128, Issue 11
Author(s): Lisbeth Hoejkjaer Larsen, Ivan Chrilles Zibrandtsen, Troels Wienecke, Troels Wesenberg Kjaer, Mark Schram Christensen, Jens Bo Nielsen, Henning Langberg
ObjectiveStroke is one of the leading causes of physical disability due to damage of the motor cortex or the corticospinal tract. In the present study we set out to investigate the role of adaptations in the corticospinal pathway for motor recovery during the subacute phase after stroke.MethodsWe examined 19 patients with clinically diagnosed stroke and 18 controls. The patients had unilateral mild to moderate weakness of the hand. Each patient attended two sessions at approximately 3days (acute) and 38days post stroke (subacute). Task-related changes in the communication between motor cortex and muscles were evaluated from coupling in the frequency domain between EEG and EMG during movement of the paretic hand.ResultsCorticomuscular coherence (CMC) and intermuscular coherence (IMC) were reduced in patients as compared to controls. Paretic hand motor performance improved within 4–6weeks after stroke, but no change was observed in CMC or IMC.ConclusionsCMC and IMC were reduced in patients in the early phase after stroke. However, changes in coherence do not appear to be an efficient marker for early recovery of hand function following stroke.SignificanceThis is the first study to demonstrate sustained reduced coherence in acute and subacute stroke.



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