Πέμπτη, 9 Μαΐου 2019

Chair-based Abbreviated Repositioning maneuver (ChARM)

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A Chair-based Abbreviated Repositioning Maneuver (ChARM) for fast treatment of posterior BPPV.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 May 07;:

Authors: Michael P, Muñoz D, Tuma A, Gárate M, Barraza C, Nuñez M, Breinbauer HA

Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a variation of the Epley maneuver, which we have titled "Chair-based Abbreviated Repositioning maneuver (ChARM)", in solving cases of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo (BPPV) of the posterior canal. ChARM addresses multiple issues of highly overloaded medical centers that delay its due and timely resolution. For example it does not necessitate an examination bed/table and requires only a backed chair, and less than 3 min to be performed. In combination with a recently published abbreviated diagnostic maneuver it can solve BPPV cases within few minutes of single medical visit.
METHODS: Patients being diagnosed with posterior BPPV by means of an abbreviated diagnostic maneuver were recruited. Immediately after diagnosis, a single attempt of ChARM was conducted. The patient was followed for 48 h and at 1 month after these procedures to assess the persistence of symptomatology.
RESULTS: 124 patients were treated with ChARM immediately after diagnosis during their very first medical visit. 92 patients (74.2%) solved their symptomatology completely after a single attempt of ChARM. The absence of symptoms persisted during the 30 days of follow-up.
DISCUSSION: ChARM showed high success rates in solving posterior BPPV. The entire diagnostic-treatment procedure takes less than 5 min to perform and may allow direct treatment of patients, thereby avoiding unnecessary referrals or full vestibular testing. These abbreviated tools may be particularly useful in primary care settings or heavily overloaded otolaryngology or neurology departments.

PMID: 31065788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Otolaryngology


  1. Aberrant expressed long non-coding RNAs in laryngeal squamous-cell carcinoma

    In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 9 May 2019
    Purchase PDF
    Abstract
    Purpose

    Laryngeal squamous-cell carcinoma (LSCC) is the second most common malignant tumor of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The study was aimed to identify key long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) biomarkers for LSCC.

    Methods

    Differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) and mRNAs (DEmRNAs) between LSCC and adjacent tissues were obtained based on The Cancer Genome Atlas. DElncRNA-DEmRNAs co-expression and DElncRNA-nearby-target DEmRNA interaction networks were constructed. Receiver operating characteristic and survival analysis were performed. A published dataset were as used to validate the result of bioinformatics analysis.

    Results

    We obtained 1103 DEmRNAs and 306 DElncRNAs between LSCC and adjacent tissues. A total of 338 DElncRNA-DEmRNA co-expression pairs and 229 DElncRNA-nearby-target DEmRNA pairs were obtained. Ten DElncRNAs and six DEmRNAs has great diagnostic value for LSCC. HOXB9 has potential prognostic value for LSCC. The results of GSE84957 validation were generally consistent with our results.

    Conclusion

    Our study provided clues for understanding the mechanism and developing potential biomarkers for LSCC.

  2. Impact of payer status on survival in parotid malignancy

    In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 9 May 2019
    Purchase PDF
    Abstract
    Objective

    In the setting of current national healthcare reform, it becomes especially relevant to understand the current state of healthcare disparities with regards to insurance status. To determine the impact of payer status on survival in parotid malignancy, we utilized the National Cancer Database (NCDB).

    Study design

    Retrospective database review.

    Setting

    National Cancer Database (2004–2012).

    Subjects and methods

    The NCDB was queried for cases of primary malignancy of the parotid gland between 2004 and 2012. The impact of payer status on overall survival was evaluated, as well as the relationship of insurance status with patient and tumor variables.

    Results

    15,815 cases met inclusion criteria. A majority had private insurance (47.8%), followed by Medicare (40.9%), Medicaid (5.0%), uninsured (3.2%) and other government sources (1.3%). Medicare patients had the lowest 5 and 10-year survival rates (50.7% (95% CI [49.3–52.1]) and 27.8% (95% CI [25.0–30.9]), respectively). On multivariable analysis, uninsured, Medicare, and Medicaid patients had worse overall survival than the privately insured (HR 1.42, 95% CI [1.17–1.74]; HR 1.29, 95% CI [1.17–1.42]; HR 1.36, 95% CI [1.13–1.62], respectively). Uninsured and Medicaid patients were more likely than the privately insured to present with advanced stage disease, nodal metastasis and longer times to treatment following diagnosis.

    Conclusion

    In parotid malignancy, uninsured, Medicaid, and Medicare patients have worse survival outcomes compared to those with private insurance. Uninsured and Medicaid patients also present with more advanced stage disease and have increased wait times before definitive treatment is initiated.

  3. Clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with a diameter less than or equal to 5 mm

    In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 8 May 2019
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    Abstract
    Purpose

    This retrospective study was conducted to assess the epidemiological, clinical and histologic characteristics of incidentally identified and presurgically diagnosed papillary thyroid microcarcinomas less than or equal to 5 mm in size (small PTMC).

    Materials and methods

    Cases from October 2003 to February 2018 were retrieved from pathology databases, and their clinicopathological features were reviewed.

    Results

    There were a total of 182 cases of small PTMCs, 141 women and 41 men. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.5. Most of the small PTMCs were not detected on clinical examination and workup and were diagnosed incidentally during pathologic examination. 21.4% of small PTMCs showed multifocality, with 21 cases of unilateral multifocal lesions and 18 cases with bilateral multifocal tumors. Small PTMCs were most often follicular variant (51.9%) followed by classic type (47.5%). The average size of follicular variants appeared to be larger than that of the classic type PTMCs (2.84 ± 1.43 mm vs 2.26 ± 1.51 mm, P = 0.01). A total of 66 cases (36.3%) had regional lymph node sampling or selective neck dissection and 15 of these cases identified lymph node metastasis (22.7%). 46.7% of patients with node positive microcarcinomas were male compared with 16% male in group with negative lymph nodes (P = 0.03).

    Conclusions

    Small PTMCs (≤5 mm) are often multifocal and bilateral and histology is commonly both the classical and follicular variant of PTC. While often diagnosed incidentally small PTMC can lead to regional lymph node involvement in a significant portion of cases and evaluation of the regional lymph nodes should be considered in the clinical management of these patients.

  4. An unusual case of sudden sensorineural hearing loss after cycling class

    In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 April 2019
    Purchase PDF
    Abstract

    In this case report, our patient developed sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) after loud noise exposure during a popular cardiovascular group exercise cycling class. To increase awareness among all healthcare professionals of the effects of these modern-day group fitness classes on hearing loss, we describe this case and review the current literature on SSNHL and its management. A 35-year old man developed SSNHL in the setting of loud noise exposure during a high intensity aerobic exercise class. After a short course of oral steroids with no improvement, intratympanic steroids were administered weekly for three weeks. The patient showed minimal improvement; thus, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was conducted. Serial audiograms continued to show severe to profound mixed hearing loss in the right ear. In conclusion, individuals who participate in loud, high-intensity aerobic group-exercise classes should be careful of the potential for noise-induced hearing loss. Aerobic exercise may make these individuals more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss. Early intervention is critical for any chance of recovery.

  5. Practice patterns and knowledge among California pediatricians regarding human papillomavirus and its relation to head and neck cancer

    In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 April 2019
    Purchase PDF
    Abstract
    Objective

    To identify practice patterns regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination efforts and vaccination rates in context of head and neck cancer prevention, identify barriers to vaccination, and identify gaps in knowledge regarding the link between HPV and head and neck cancer in the pediatrician population.

    Study design/Methods

    A 27-question cross-sectional survey was distributed to members of the four California chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Results

    Of the completed responses, 89.4% identified as "always" recommending the HPV vaccine to patients, but only 19.5% of pediatricians estimated that >75% of their eligible patients had completed the HPV vaccination series. 71.5% of respondents felt that further education about HPV's link to head and neck cancer them more comfortable discussing vaccination. Physicians who were in practice longer were less likely to respond that additional education about HPV and its link to head and neck cancer would make them more comfortable discussing vaccination with patients (p = 0.043). Physicians who were in practice longer were more likely to correctly respond that HPV type 16 is the most common strain linked to head and neck cancer (p = 0.021).

    Conclusion

    There is need to improve both the knowledge base and comfort level of pediatricians in counseling their patients during vaccine recommendations. Otolaryngologists have a critical role in providing education to physicians, trainees, and the general public in the effort to combat the epidemic of HPV-associated head and neck cancer.

  6. The molecular differences between human papillomavirus-positive and -negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: A bioinformatics study

    In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 23 April 2019
    Purchase PDF
    Abstract
    Objective

    To investigate the genetic and epigenetic differences between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and HPV-negative OPSCC.

    Methods

    Microarray data of HPV-positive and -negative OPSCC were retrieved from NCBI GEO datasets. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) were identified by performing differential expression analysis. A functional enrichment analysis was performed to explore the biological processes and signaling pathways that DEGs and DE-miRNAs were involved in, respectively. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed to identify hub genes. miRNA-target network and miRNA-miRNA functional synergistic network were each constructed in order to identify risk-marker miRNAs. An miRNA-target-pathway network was constructed in order to explore the function of identified risk-marker miRNAs.

    Results

    Microarray data from 3 datasets (GSE39366, GSE40774, and GSE55550) was included and analyzed. The PPI network identified 3 hub genes (VCAM1, UBD, and RPA2). MiR-107 and miR-142-3p were found to play the most significant role in both the DE-miRNA-target network as well as in the miRNA-miRNA functional synergistic network. MiR-107 was involved in HPV-induced tumorigenesis by targeting many genes (CAV1, CDK6, MYB, and SERPINB5) and regulating the p53 signaling pathway, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and the autophagy pathway. In addition, miR-142-3p was implicated in HPV-induced tumorigenesis by targeting the PPFIA1 gene and regulating transcriptional dysregulation and other cancerous pathways.

    Conclusion

    Three genes (VCAM1, UBD, and RPA2), two miRNAs (miR-107 and miR-142-3p), and four pathways (p53, PI3K-Akt, autophagy, and transcription dysregulation in cancer) were identified to play critical roles in distinguishing HPV-positive OPSCC from HPV-negative OPSCC.

  7. Vitamin D deficiency and its relationship to cancer stage in patients who underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 22 April 2019
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    Abstract
    Purpose

    As imaging technology improves and more thyroid nodules and malignancies are identified, it is important to recognize factors associated with malignancy and poor prognosis. Vitamin D has proven useful as a prognostic tool for other cancers and may be similarly useful in thyroid cancer. This study explores the relationship of Vitamin D to papillary thyroid carcinoma stage while accounting for socioeconomic covariates.

    Materials and methods

    The medical records of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy at one institution between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. Subjects with non-papillary thyroid cancer pathology, prior malignancy, and without Vitamin D levels were excluded. The remaining 334 patient records were examined for cancer stage, Vitamin D levels, Vitamin D deficiency listed in history, and demographic and comorbid factors.

    Results

    Vitamin D laboratory values showed no significant relationship to cancer stage (p = 0.871), but patients with Vitamin D deficiency documented in the medical record were more likely to have advanced disease (28.6% versus 14.7%; p = 0.028). The patients with documented Vitamin D deficiency also had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D nadirs (21.5 ng/mL versus 26.5 ng/mL, p = 0.008) and were more likely to be on Vitamin D supplementation (92.6% versus 41.8%, p < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The results suggest that Vitamin D deficiency may have value as a negative prognostic indicator in papillary thyroid cancer and that pre-operative laboratory evaluation may be less useful. This is important because Vitamin D deficiency is modifiable. While different racial subgroups had different rates of Vitamin D deficiency, neither race nor socioeconomic status showed correlation with cancer stage.

  8. Failed larynx preservation and survival in patients with advanced larynx cancer

    In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 22 April 2019
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    Abstract
    Purpose

    To evaluate the survival benefit of total laryngectomy (TL) after induction chemotherapy in locally advanced laryngeal cancer patients.

    Materials and methods

    This is a retrospective study utilizing the National Cancer Database, which captures >80% of newly diagnosed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cases in the United States. We included patients diagnosed with advanced stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2013 (n = 5649) who received either TL (n = 4113; 72.8%) or induction chemotherapy followed by either radiation therapy (n = 1431) or TL (n = 105). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate overall survival. A Cox regression model was computed to examine how the prognostic impact of treatment differed by clinical stage.

    Results

    In multivariable analysis, when compared to patients receiving TL alone, those receiving induction chemotherapy followed by TL experienced no significant difference in survival (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63–1.13), while those receiving induction chemotherapy followed by radiation experienced poorer survival (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06–1.26). Induction chemotherapy followed by TL was associated with improved survival compared to induction chemotherapy and radiation (P = .042). Among patients with T4a tumors, TL (P < .001) and induction chemotherapy followed by TL (P = .002) were both associated with improved survival compared to induction chemotherapy and radiation. There were no survival differences between TL and induction chemotherapy followed by TL (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.52–1.10).

    Conclusions

    Larynx preservation may be attempted without compromising survival in patients with locally advanced larynx cancer who fail induction chemotherapy and undergo TL.

  9. Improving efficiency in epistaxis transfers in a large health system: Analyzing emergency department treatment variability as pretext for a clinical care pathway

    In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 16 April 2019
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    Abstract
    Introduction

    Epistaxis is a common condition with an estimated $100 million in health care costs annually. A significant portion of this stems from Emergency Department (ED) management and hospital transfers. Currently there is no data in the literature clearly depicting the differences in treatment of epistaxis between Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians and Otolaryngologists. Clinical care pathways (CCP) are a way to standardize care and increase efficiency. Our goal was to evaluate the variability in epistaxis management between EM and Otolaryngology physicians in order to determine the potential impact of a system wide clinical care pathway.

    Materials and methods

    A retrospective case study was conducted of all patients transferred between emergency departments for epistaxis over an 18-month period. Exclusion criteria comprised patients under 18 years old, recent sinonasal surgery, bleeding disorders, and recent facial trauma.

    Results

    73 patients met inclusion criteria. EM physicians used nasal cautery in 8%, absorbable packing in 1% and non-absorbable packing in 92% (with 33% being bilateral). In comparison, Otolaryngologists used nasal cautery in 37%, absorbable packing in 34%, and non-absorbable packing in 23%. Eighty percent of patients treated by an Otolaryngology physician required less invasive intervention than previously performed by EM physicians prior to transfer.

    Conclusions

    Epistaxis management varied significantly between Emergency Medicine and Otolaryngology physicians. Numerous patients were treated immediately with non-absorbable packing. On post-transfer Otolaryngology evaluation, many of these patients required less invasive interventions. This study highlights the variability of epistaxis treatment within our hospital system and warrants the need for a standardized care pathway.

  10. Predicting transient hypocalcemia in patients with unplanned parathyroidectomy after thyroidectomy

    In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 16 April 2019
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    Abstract
    Objective

    To assess the utility of rapid parathyroid hormone (PTH) values in predicting transient post-operative hypocalcemia in patients with unplanned parathyroidectomy during total or completion thyroidectomy.

    Methods

    All patients who underwent total or completion thyroidectomy between January 2010 and January 2015 were reviewed. Incidences of post-operative hypocalcemia were compared in patients with and without unplanned parathyroidectomy. Unplanned parathyroidectomy was defined as intra-operative incidental or intentional parathyroidectomy. Logistic regression assessed for predictors of hypocalcemia and optimum amount of calcium supplementation.

    Results

    Thirty-eight (13.6%) patients had evidence of incidental parathyroidectomy and 39/280 (13.9%) patients had parathyroid autotransplantation intra-operatively. Central neck dissection and malignancy were identified as risk factors for unplanned parathyroidectomy (p = 0.001, p = 0.060). Patients with unplanned parathyroidectomy were more likely to have hypocalcemia (p = 0.002) and hypoparathyroidism (p < 0.0005). PTH value was the only significant predictor of hypocalcemia in these patients. In patients with a post-operative PTH of ≤15, initial calcium supplementation ≥ 1000 mg decreased the risk of hypocalcemia (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Post-operative PTH value predicts hypocalcemia in patients undergoing total and completion thyroidectomy with unplanned parathyroidectomy. In patients with a post-operative PTH < 15, initial calcium supplementation with ≥1000 mg of elemental calcium is recommended.

  11. Clinical practice patterns in laryngeal cancer and introduction of CT lung screening

    In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 12 April 2019
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    Abstract
    Objectives

    After the publication of large clinical trials, in January 2014 The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended annual lung cancer screening with low-dose CT in a well-defined group of high-risk smokers. A significant proportion of patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) meet the introduced criteria, and we hypothesized that clinical practice would change as a result of these evidence-based guidelines.

    Methods

    Retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with LC and treated at Johns Hopkins Hospital who met USPSTF criteria for annual chest screening and were followed for at least 3 consecutive years in the years surrounding the introduction of screening guidelines (January 2010 to December 2017) was performed to identify those who had recommended screening CT chest.

    Results

    A total of 151 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study and were followed for a total of 746 patient-years. 184/332 (55%) patient-years in the pre-guidelines period and 246/414 (59%) in the post-guidelines period included at least one recommended chest imaging (CT or PET-CT; p = 0.27). 248/332 (75%) patient-years in the pre-guidelines period and 314/414 (76%) in the post-guidelines period included any radiological chest imaging (X-ray, CT or PET-CT; p = 0.72). Screening scans were ordered by OHNS (45%), Medical Oncology (31%), Radiation Oncology (8%), and primary care (14%) with 70% of patients missing at least one year of indicated screening.

    Conclusions

    The implementation of new lung cancer screening guidelines did not change clinical practice in the management of patients with LC and many patients do not receive recommended screening. Further study concerning potential barriers to effective evidence-based screening and coordination of care is warranted.

  12. Wideband Tympanmetry Results of Bone Cement Ossiculoplasty

    In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 12 April 2019
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    Abstract
    Objective

    We aim to investigate hearing sensitivity and wideband tympanometry results in bone cement ossiculoplasty cases in present study.

    Study design

    A prospective study.

    Setting

    Ossiculoplasty patients were grouped according to the anatomical location of bone cement application by surgery note. Ossiculoplasty and tympanoplasty patients were retrospectively invited to the clinic and evaluated. 30 bone cement ossiculoplasty cases as well as 30 Type I tympanoplasty cases (intact ossicular chain) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study and Wideband Tympanometry was performed. Tympanometric peak pressure, equivalent middle ear volume, static admittance, tympanogram width, resonance frequency, average wideband tympanometry and absorbance measurements were analyzed.

    Results

    A statistically significant improvement was observed in the hearing levels of all ossiculoplasty and type I tympanoplasty patients (p < 0.05). Bone cement ossiculoplasty groups demonstrated the remarkable differences than the type I tympanoplasty and control group in Wideband Tympanometry test parameters. In some parameters, malleus-stapes and manubriostapedioplasty groups demonstrated similarities to Type I tympanoplasty and control groups.

    Conclusion

    Bone cement is an effective application for ossiculoplasty. Wideband tympanometry is a promising method for the evaluation of the middle ear dynamics.

  13. Intracapsular hemorrhage rates in non-fixated nylon sheet orbital implants for orbital fracture management

    In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 9 April 2019
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    Abstract
    Purpose

    To examine the incidence of intracapsular hemorrhage in orbital fracture repair with non-fixated nylon sheet implants.

    Methods

    A retrospective chart review of 227 patients presenting from January 2013 to December 2016 for orbital fracture repair with nylon sheet implants.

    Results

    Of the 331 orbital fractures repaired over 4 years, a total of 227 met inclusion criteria. The average implant thickness was 0.38 mm and no implants were fixated. Four total implants (1.8%) were removed due to complications; one each secondary to exploration for ongoing postoperative diplopia, immediate post-operative orbital hemorrhage, a cystic mass anterior to the implant, and pain. There were no cases of intracapsular hemorrhage nor infection for any of the 227 patients over 4 years.

    Conclusions

    To the authors knowledge, this represents the largest case series to date to assess the rate of intracapsular hemorrhage in non-fixated nylon sheet orbital implants. In the 227 cases reviewed over a 4-year period, there were no cases of intracapsular hemorrhage. This suggests a much lower complication rate than previously reported.

    Précis

    A case series of 227 patients who underwent orbital fracture repair with non-fixated nylon sheet implants.

    1. Aberrant expressed long non-coding RNAs in laryngeal squamous-cell carcinoma

      In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 9 May 2019
      Purchase PDF
      Abstract
      Purpose

      Laryngeal squamous-cell carcinoma (LSCC) is the second most common malignant tumor of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The study was aimed to identify key long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) biomarkers for LSCC.

      Methods

      Differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) and mRNAs (DEmRNAs) between LSCC and adjacent tissues were obtained based on The Cancer Genome Atlas. DElncRNA-DEmRNAs co-expression and DElncRNA-nearby-target DEmRNA interaction networks were constructed. Receiver operating characteristic and survival analysis were performed. A published dataset were as used to validate the result of bioinformatics analysis.

      Results

      We obtained 1103 DEmRNAs and 306 DElncRNAs between LSCC and adjacent tissues. A total of 338 DElncRNA-DEmRNA co-expression pairs and 229 DElncRNA-nearby-target DEmRNA pairs were obtained. Ten DElncRNAs and six DEmRNAs has great diagnostic value for LSCC. HOXB9 has potential prognostic value for LSCC. The results of GSE84957 validation were generally consistent with our results.

      Conclusion

      Our study provided clues for understanding the mechanism and developing potential biomarkers for LSCC.

    2. Impact of payer status on survival in parotid malignancy

      In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 9 May 2019
      Purchase PDF
      Abstract
      Objective

      In the setting of current national healthcare reform, it becomes especially relevant to understand the current state of healthcare disparities with regards to insurance status. To determine the impact of payer status on survival in parotid malignancy, we utilized the National Cancer Database (NCDB).

      Study design

      Retrospective database review.

      Setting

      National Cancer Database (2004–2012).

      Subjects and methods

      The NCDB was queried for cases of primary malignancy of the parotid gland between 2004 and 2012. The impact of payer status on overall survival was evaluated, as well as the relationship of insurance status with patient and tumor variables.

      Results

      15,815 cases met inclusion criteria. A majority had private insurance (47.8%), followed by Medicare (40.9%), Medicaid (5.0%), uninsured (3.2%) and other government sources (1.3%). Medicare patients had the lowest 5 and 10-year survival rates (50.7% (95% CI [49.3–52.1]) and 27.8% (95% CI [25.0–30.9]), respectively). On multivariable analysis, uninsured, Medicare, and Medicaid patients had worse overall survival than the privately insured (HR 1.42, 95% CI [1.17–1.74]; HR 1.29, 95% CI [1.17–1.42]; HR 1.36, 95% CI [1.13–1.62], respectively). Uninsured and Medicaid patients were more likely than the privately insured to present with advanced stage disease, nodal metastasis and longer times to treatment following diagnosis.

      Conclusion

      In parotid malignancy, uninsured, Medicaid, and Medicare patients have worse survival outcomes compared to those with private insurance. Uninsured and Medicaid patients also present with more advanced stage disease and have increased wait times before definitive treatment is initiated.

    3. Clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma with a diameter less than or equal to 5 mm

      In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 8 May 2019
      Purchase PDF
      Abstract
      Purpose

      This retrospective study was conducted to assess the epidemiological, clinical and histologic characteristics of incidentally identified and presurgically diagnosed papillary thyroid microcarcinomas less than or equal to 5 mm in size (small PTMC).

      Materials and methods

      Cases from October 2003 to February 2018 were retrieved from pathology databases, and their clinicopathological features were reviewed.

      Results

      There were a total of 182 cases of small PTMCs, 141 women and 41 men. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.5. Most of the small PTMCs were not detected on clinical examination and workup and were diagnosed incidentally during pathologic examination. 21.4% of small PTMCs showed multifocality, with 21 cases of unilateral multifocal lesions and 18 cases with bilateral multifocal tumors. Small PTMCs were most often follicular variant (51.9%) followed by classic type (47.5%). The average size of follicular variants appeared to be larger than that of the classic type PTMCs (2.84 ± 1.43 mm vs 2.26 ± 1.51 mm, P = 0.01). A total of 66 cases (36.3%) had regional lymph node sampling or selective neck dissection and 15 of these cases identified lymph node metastasis (22.7%). 46.7% of patients with node positive microcarcinomas were male compared with 16% male in group with negative lymph nodes (P = 0.03).

      Conclusions

      Small PTMCs (≤5 mm) are often multifocal and bilateral and histology is commonly both the classical and follicular variant of PTC. While often diagnosed incidentally small PTMC can lead to regional lymph node involvement in a significant portion of cases and evaluation of the regional lymph nodes should be considered in the clinical management of these patients.

    4. An unusual case of sudden sensorineural hearing loss after cycling class

      In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 April 2019
      Purchase PDF
      Abstract

      In this case report, our patient developed sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) after loud noise exposure during a popular cardiovascular group exercise cycling class. To increase awareness among all healthcare professionals of the effects of these modern-day group fitness classes on hearing loss, we describe this case and review the current literature on SSNHL and its management. A 35-year old man developed SSNHL in the setting of loud noise exposure during a high intensity aerobic exercise class. After a short course of oral steroids with no improvement, intratympanic steroids were administered weekly for three weeks. The patient showed minimal improvement; thus, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was conducted. Serial audiograms continued to show severe to profound mixed hearing loss in the right ear. In conclusion, individuals who participate in loud, high-intensity aerobic group-exercise classes should be careful of the potential for noise-induced hearing loss. Aerobic exercise may make these individuals more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss. Early intervention is critical for any chance of recovery.

    5. Practice patterns and knowledge among California pediatricians regarding human papillomavirus and its relation to head and neck cancer

      In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 25 April 2019
      Purchase PDF
      Abstract
      Objective

      To identify practice patterns regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination efforts and vaccination rates in context of head and neck cancer prevention, identify barriers to vaccination, and identify gaps in knowledge regarding the link between HPV and head and neck cancer in the pediatrician population.

      Study design/Methods

      A 27-question cross-sectional survey was distributed to members of the four California chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

      Results

      Of the completed responses, 89.4% identified as "always" recommending the HPV vaccine to patients, but only 19.5% of pediatricians estimated that >75% of their eligible patients had completed the HPV vaccination series. 71.5% of respondents felt that further education about HPV's link to head and neck cancer them more comfortable discussing vaccination. Physicians who were in practice longer were less likely to respond that additional education about HPV and its link to head and neck cancer would make them more comfortable discussing vaccination with patients (p = 0.043). Physicians who were in practice longer were more likely to correctly respond that HPV type 16 is the most common strain linked to head and neck cancer (p = 0.021).

      Conclusion

      There is need to improve both the knowledge base and comfort level of pediatricians in counseling their patients during vaccine recommendations. Otolaryngologists have a critical role in providing education to physicians, trainees, and the general public in the effort to combat the epidemic of HPV-associated head and neck cancer.

    6. The molecular differences between human papillomavirus-positive and -negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: A bioinformatics study

      In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 23 April 2019
      Purchase PDF
      Abstract
      Objective

      To investigate the genetic and epigenetic differences between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and HPV-negative OPSCC.

      Methods

      Microarray data of HPV-positive and -negative OPSCC were retrieved from NCBI GEO datasets. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) were identified by performing differential expression analysis. A functional enrichment analysis was performed to explore the biological processes and signaling pathways that DEGs and DE-miRNAs were involved in, respectively. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed to identify hub genes. miRNA-target network and miRNA-miRNA functional synergistic network were each constructed in order to identify risk-marker miRNAs. An miRNA-target-pathway network was constructed in order to explore the function of identified risk-marker miRNAs.

      Results

      Microarray data from 3 datasets (GSE39366, GSE40774, and GSE55550) was included and analyzed. The PPI network identified 3 hub genes (VCAM1, UBD, and RPA2). MiR-107 and miR-142-3p were found to play the most significant role in both the DE-miRNA-target network as well as in the miRNA-miRNA functional synergistic network. MiR-107 was involved in HPV-induced tumorigenesis by targeting many genes (CAV1, CDK6, MYB, and SERPINB5) and regulating the p53 signaling pathway, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and the autophagy pathway. In addition, miR-142-3p was implicated in HPV-induced tumorigenesis by targeting the PPFIA1 gene and regulating transcriptional dysregulation and other cancerous pathways.

      Conclusion

      Three genes (VCAM1, UBD, and RPA2), two miRNAs (miR-107 and miR-142-3p), and four pathways (p53, PI3K-Akt, autophagy, and transcription dysregulation in cancer) were identified to play critical roles in distinguishing HPV-positive OPSCC from HPV-negative OPSCC.

    7. Vitamin D deficiency and its relationship to cancer stage in patients who underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

      In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 22 April 2019
      Purchase PDF
      Abstract
      Purpose

      As imaging technology improves and more thyroid nodules and malignancies are identified, it is important to recognize factors associated with malignancy and poor prognosis. Vitamin D has proven useful as a prognostic tool for other cancers and may be similarly useful in thyroid cancer. This study explores the relationship of Vitamin D to papillary thyroid carcinoma stage while accounting for socioeconomic covariates.

      Materials and methods

      The medical records of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy at one institution between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. Subjects with non-papillary thyroid cancer pathology, prior malignancy, and without Vitamin D levels were excluded. The remaining 334 patient records were examined for cancer stage, Vitamin D levels, Vitamin D deficiency listed in history, and demographic and comorbid factors.

      Results

      Vitamin D laboratory values showed no significant relationship to cancer stage (p = 0.871), but patients with Vitamin D deficiency documented in the medical record were more likely to have advanced disease (28.6% versus 14.7%; p = 0.028). The patients with documented Vitamin D deficiency also had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D nadirs (21.5 ng/mL versus 26.5 ng/mL, p = 0.008) and were more likely to be on Vitamin D supplementation (92.6% versus 41.8%, p < 0.001).

      Conclusions

      The results suggest that Vitamin D deficiency may have value as a negative prognostic indicator in papillary thyroid cancer and that pre-operative laboratory evaluation may be less useful. This is important because Vitamin D deficiency is modifiable. While different racial subgroups had different rates of Vitamin D deficiency, neither race nor socioeconomic status showed correlation with cancer stage.

    8. Failed larynx preservation and survival in patients with advanced larynx cancer

      In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 22 April 2019
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      Abstract
      Purpose

      To evaluate the survival benefit of total laryngectomy (TL) after induction chemotherapy in locally advanced laryngeal cancer patients.

      Materials and methods

      This is a retrospective study utilizing the National Cancer Database, which captures >80% of newly diagnosed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cases in the United States. We included patients diagnosed with advanced stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2013 (n = 5649) who received either TL (n = 4113; 72.8%) or induction chemotherapy followed by either radiation therapy (n = 1431) or TL (n = 105). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate overall survival. A Cox regression model was computed to examine how the prognostic impact of treatment differed by clinical stage.

      Results

      In multivariable analysis, when compared to patients receiving TL alone, those receiving induction chemotherapy followed by TL experienced no significant difference in survival (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63–1.13), while those receiving induction chemotherapy followed by radiation experienced poorer survival (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06–1.26). Induction chemotherapy followed by TL was associated with improved survival compared to induction chemotherapy and radiation (P = .042). Among patients with T4a tumors, TL (P < .001) and induction chemotherapy followed by TL (P = .002) were both associated with improved survival compared to induction chemotherapy and radiation. There were no survival differences between TL and induction chemotherapy followed by TL (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.52–1.10).

      Conclusions

      Larynx preservation may be attempted without compromising survival in patients with locally advanced larynx cancer who fail induction chemotherapy and undergo TL.

    9. Improving efficiency in epistaxis transfers in a large health system: Analyzing emergency department treatment variability as pretext for a clinical care pathway

      In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 16 April 2019
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      Abstract
      Introduction

      Epistaxis is a common condition with an estimated $100 million in health care costs annually. A significant portion of this stems from Emergency Department (ED) management and hospital transfers. Currently there is no data in the literature clearly depicting the differences in treatment of epistaxis between Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians and Otolaryngologists. Clinical care pathways (CCP) are a way to standardize care and increase efficiency. Our goal was to evaluate the variability in epistaxis management between EM and Otolaryngology physicians in order to determine the potential impact of a system wide clinical care pathway.

      Materials and methods

      A retrospective case study was conducted of all patients transferred between emergency departments for epistaxis over an 18-month period. Exclusion criteria comprised patients under 18 years old, recent sinonasal surgery, bleeding disorders, and recent facial trauma.

      Results

      73 patients met inclusion criteria. EM physicians used nasal cautery in 8%, absorbable packing in 1% and non-absorbable packing in 92% (with 33% being bilateral). In comparison, Otolaryngologists used nasal cautery in 37%, absorbable packing in 34%, and non-absorbable packing in 23%. Eighty percent of patients treated by an Otolaryngology physician required less invasive intervention than previously performed by EM physicians prior to transfer.

      Conclusions

      Epistaxis management varied significantly between Emergency Medicine and Otolaryngology physicians. Numerous patients were treated immediately with non-absorbable packing. On post-transfer Otolaryngology evaluation, many of these patients required less invasive interventions. This study highlights the variability of epistaxis treatment within our hospital system and warrants the need for a standardized care pathway.

    10. Predicting transient hypocalcemia in patients with unplanned parathyroidectomy after thyroidectomy

      In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 16 April 2019
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      Abstract
      Objective

      To assess the utility of rapid parathyroid hormone (PTH) values in predicting transient post-operative hypocalcemia in patients with unplanned parathyroidectomy during total or completion thyroidectomy.

      Methods

      All patients who underwent total or completion thyroidectomy between January 2010 and January 2015 were reviewed. Incidences of post-operative hypocalcemia were compared in patients with and without unplanned parathyroidectomy. Unplanned parathyroidectomy was defined as intra-operative incidental or intentional parathyroidectomy. Logistic regression assessed for predictors of hypocalcemia and optimum amount of calcium supplementation.

      Results

      Thirty-eight (13.6%) patients had evidence of incidental parathyroidectomy and 39/280 (13.9%) patients had parathyroid autotransplantation intra-operatively. Central neck dissection and malignancy were identified as risk factors for unplanned parathyroidectomy (p = 0.001, p = 0.060). Patients with unplanned parathyroidectomy were more likely to have hypocalcemia (p = 0.002) and hypoparathyroidism (p < 0.0005). PTH value was the only significant predictor of hypocalcemia in these patients. In patients with a post-operative PTH of ≤15, initial calcium supplementation ≥ 1000 mg decreased the risk of hypocalcemia (p < 0.05).

      Conclusion

      Post-operative PTH value predicts hypocalcemia in patients undergoing total and completion thyroidectomy with unplanned parathyroidectomy. In patients with a post-operative PTH < 15, initial calcium supplementation with ≥1000 mg of elemental calcium is recommended.

    11. Clinical practice patterns in laryngeal cancer and introduction of CT lung screening

      In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 12 April 2019
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      Abstract
      Objectives

      After the publication of large clinical trials, in January 2014 The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended annual lung cancer screening with low-dose CT in a well-defined group of high-risk smokers. A significant proportion of patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) meet the introduced criteria, and we hypothesized that clinical practice would change as a result of these evidence-based guidelines.

      Methods

      Retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with LC and treated at Johns Hopkins Hospital who met USPSTF criteria for annual chest screening and were followed for at least 3 consecutive years in the years surrounding the introduction of screening guidelines (January 2010 to December 2017) was performed to identify those who had recommended screening CT chest.

      Results

      A total of 151 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study and were followed for a total of 746 patient-years. 184/332 (55%) patient-years in the pre-guidelines period and 246/414 (59%) in the post-guidelines period included at least one recommended chest imaging (CT or PET-CT; p = 0.27). 248/332 (75%) patient-years in the pre-guidelines period and 314/414 (76%) in the post-guidelines period included any radiological chest imaging (X-ray, CT or PET-CT; p = 0.72). Screening scans were ordered by OHNS (45%), Medical Oncology (31%), Radiation Oncology (8%), and primary care (14%) with 70% of patients missing at least one year of indicated screening.

      Conclusions

      The implementation of new lung cancer screening guidelines did not change clinical practice in the management of patients with LC and many patients do not receive recommended screening. Further study concerning potential barriers to effective evidence-based screening and coordination of care is warranted.

    12. Wideband Tympanmetry Results of Bone Cement Ossiculoplasty

      In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 12 April 2019
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      Abstract
      Objective

      We aim to investigate hearing sensitivity and wideband tympanometry results in bone cement ossiculoplasty cases in present study.

      Study design

      A prospective study.

      Setting

      Ossiculoplasty patients were grouped according to the anatomical location of bone cement application by surgery note. Ossiculoplasty and tympanoplasty patients were retrospectively invited to the clinic and evaluated. 30 bone cement ossiculoplasty cases as well as 30 Type I tympanoplasty cases (intact ossicular chain) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study and Wideband Tympanometry was performed. Tympanometric peak pressure, equivalent middle ear volume, static admittance, tympanogram width, resonance frequency, average wideband tympanometry and absorbance measurements were analyzed.

      Results

      A statistically significant improvement was observed in the hearing levels of all ossiculoplasty and type I tympanoplasty patients (p < 0.05). Bone cement ossiculoplasty groups demonstrated the remarkable differences than the type I tympanoplasty and control group in Wideband Tympanometry test parameters. In some parameters, malleus-stapes and manubriostapedioplasty groups demonstrated similarities to Type I tympanoplasty and control groups.

      Conclusion

      Bone cement is an effective application for ossiculoplasty. Wideband tympanometry is a promising method for the evaluation of the middle ear dynamics.

    13. Intracapsular hemorrhage rates in non-fixated nylon sheet orbital implants for orbital fracture management

      In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 9 April 2019
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      Abstract
      Purpose

      To examine the incidence of intracapsular hemorrhage in orbital fracture repair with non-fixated nylon sheet implants.

      Methods

      A retrospective chart review of 227 patients presenting from January 2013 to December 2016 for orbital fracture repair with nylon sheet implants.

      Results

      Of the 331 orbital fractures repaired over 4 years, a total of 227 met inclusion criteria. The average implant thickness was 0.38 mm and no implants were fixated. Four total implants (1.8%) were removed due to complications; one each secondary to exploration for ongoing postoperative diplopia, immediate post-operative orbital hemorrhage, a cystic mass anterior to the implant, and pain. There were no cases of intracapsular hemorrhage nor infection for any of the 227 patients over 4 years.

      Conclusions

      To the authors knowledge, this represents the largest case series to date to assess the rate of intracapsular hemorrhage in non-fixated nylon sheet orbital implants. In the 227 cases reviewed over a 4-year period, there were no cases of intracapsular hemorrhage. This suggests a much lower complication rate than previously reported.

      Précis

      A case series of 227 patients who underwent orbital fracture repair with non-fixated nylon sheet implants.