Τρίτη, 8 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Pink Floyd - "Hey You"

hAWE FUN ... ExEMTNor

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Pink Floyd - "Hey You"

hAWE FUN ... ExEMTNor

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With Us or Against Us

OK ... Remember: E N J O Y ! ROFL ! ExEMTNor

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Pink Floyd - "Hey You"

hAWE FUN ... ExEMTNor

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With Us or Against Us

OK ... Remember: E N J O Y ! ROFL ! ExEMTNor

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Pink Floyd - "Hey You"

hAWE FUN ... ExEMTNor

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With Us or Against Us

OK ... Remember: E N J O Y ! ROFL ! ExEMTNor

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BIOANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF LOSARTAN IN RABBIT PLASMA BY RP-HPLC

2016-11-08T03-09-50Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Sandhya Pamu*, , Subrahmanyam C V S , Rao Patnaik K S K .
A simple and selective RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of Losartan potassium in rabbit plasma. Chromatographic separation of Losartan was achieved on a Thermosil ODS C-18 column (150×4.6mm) 5μ particle size, using mobile phase consisting of a mixture of Phosphate buffer and Acetonitrile (60/40 v/v, pH 4) at 245nm. Linearity was observed in the range of 20-150 ng/mL for Losartan potassium with a mean correlation coefficient of 0.999. The accuracy of the method was assessed by recovery studies at three different levels. Recovery studies indicated that the absence of interference from commonly encountered pharmaceutical additives. The method was found to be precise as indicated by the repeatability analysis, showing % RSD less than 2. All statistical data proved validity of the method and can be used for pharmacokinetic analysis of Losartan in rabbit plasma.


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PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND BIOPESTICIDAL EFFICACY OF SOME PLANTS OF EAST SINGHBHUM, JHARKHAND

2016-11-08T03-09-50Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Namrata Kumari, Kiran Shukla, Hanuman Prasad Sharma.
Preliminary phytochemical studies have been carried out on 5 plant species, growing wildly in East Singhbhum,district of Jharkhand. The leaf extracts were prepared using organic solvent in soxlet apparatus. Three insect pests viz. storage pest, mealybugs and cut worm/caterpillar were used in the study. All the five plants studied exhibited pesticidal properties which are dose dependent. Annona squamosa and Cleistanthus collinus contains highest amount of the phytochemical and are most effective in these pest. It can be used as bio-pesticides. Blumea balsamifera was least effective as pesticides.


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FORMULATION OF BIOADHESIVE CHITOSAN/PLURONIC THERMOSENSITIVE IN-SITU GEL FOR MODIFIED RELEASE OF GATIFLOXACIN

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Shah Hirva*, Shah Dhiren, Vashi Jenisha.
Bacterial conjunctivitis requires treatment of antibiotics for almost a week. It may result in poor patient compliance with conventional dosage forms due to greater frequency of drug administration. Some dosage regimens are 2-3 drops every 2-3 hours. The excessive drug loss is exhibited by conventional formulations in the cul-de-sac upon instillation. The thermosensitive Chitosan/Pluronic in-situ gel loaded with Gatifloxacin, used for bacterial conjunctivitis, exhibited sol-gel transition upon instillation. The formulation prepared by polymer mixing exhibited bioadhesive and gelling properties. The selected independent variables were percentage of Pluronic F127 (A) and percentage of Chitosan (B) and dependent variables were gelling temperature and bioadhesive strength. This temperature triggered gelling system was prepared with the objectives of increasing contact time, achieving controlled release, reducing the frequency of administration and obtaining greater therapeutic efficacy of the drug. The characterization showed that all formulations had clarity, variation in gelling capacity. Other physical properties like pH, viscosity and drug content were found to be varying from 7.1-7.7, 240-410 cps, and 84.62-96.83% respectively. Therefore, the formulation having 0.3%w/v chitosan and 20% w/v Pluronic F127 exhibited the critical gelling temperature at 37°C and bioadhesion strength of 4.0 g/cm2. This formulation showed better sustained drug release i.e. 75.10% drug release for period of 10 hours.


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PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION, IN-VITRO STUDIES AND IN-VIVO ASSESSMENT OF DRUG CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPLEX FOR ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF FEBUXOSTAT

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Abhishek Pathak*, Sadhana J Rajput.
The objective of this research was to enhance the oral bioavailability of Febuxostat (FBX) by preparing the Febuxostat/cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The β-cyclodextrin, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, Methyl-β-cyclodextrin and γ-cyclodextrin were used to prepare inclusion complex with FBX by physical mixing, kneading method and freeze drying method. And 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was selected as a best fit carrier for inclusion of FBX in (1:1) molar ratio on the basis of phase solubility and inclusion efficiency study. Freeze drying method was found most effective method in terms of solubilization and dissolution of FBX. The physicochemical characterization of prepared inclusion complexes was performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Infra-red spectroscopy (IR) analysis indicated the perfect inclusion of FBX in 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Adequate dissolution was achieved in distilled water and phosphate buffer pH-6.8. In-vitro Cell Cytotoxicity Studies (MTT Assay) using Caco-2 cell line model confirmed the bio-tolerability of FBX-inclusion complexes. In vivo assessment demonstrated that freeze dried inclusion complex of FBX with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin exhibited better pharmacokinetic properties compared to plain FBX and commercial formulation. The relative oral bioavailability of FBX in Albino rabbits resulted from Freeze dried inclusion complex was found 3.08 fold and 2.29 fold greater than plain FBX and marketed formulation, respectively.


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SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF FLURBIPROFEN AND PANTOPRAZOLE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Varaprasad Adepu*, K.E.V Nagoji, V.Girijasastry.
RP-HPLC method is developed for determination of pantoprazole and flurbiprofen in binary combination. Pantoprazole and flurbiprofen were detected at 270 nm using a BDS Hypersil C8 (250 X 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column and mixture of 0.02M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile 30:70 v/v as mobile phase.The flowrate was 1ml/min and effluent was detected at 270nm. Response was linear over the range of 10-100 mcg/ml for pantoprazole and of 5-50 mcg/ml for flurbiprofen. The retention time of flubiprofen was 2.407 min and pantoprazole was 5.441 min.The developed method efficiently separated the analytical peaks from mixture. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ. The method developed can be applied successfully for determination of pantoprazole and flurbiprofen in dosage form.


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MULTIPLE DISEASES AND POLYPHARMACY IN THE ELDERLY CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PATIENTS: CHALLENGES FOR THE INTERNIST WITH A NEED FOR AN EFFECTIVE SOLUTION

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Battu Rakesh*, Emilda .T. Joy, Jaladi Himaja, Dr.B.S.Suresha.
Polypharmacy is arguably one of the most pressing prescribing issues. There is no formally accepted definition, but it is usually considered as concurrent prescribing of at least four or five drugs. Multiple diseases and multimorbidity inevitably lead to the use of multiple drugs, a condition known as polypharmacy. Polypharmacy, a preventable and significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in geriatrics of cardiovascular disease. Aging seldom comes alone, often being accompanied by chronic diseases, co-morbidity, disability and frailty. Older people are particularly prone to adverse consequences due to age related physiological changes altering the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics characteristics of many medicines. Over the last 2030 years, problems related to aging, multimorbidity, and polypharmacy have become a prominent issue in global healthcare. Therapy in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often involves poly pharmacy and patients require close therapy monitoring. Polypharmacy also has the potential to influence many aspects of safe prescribing, including adverse drug reactions, risk of medication interactions, and adherence. Clinical pharmacists need to challenge the current culture of ratcheting up numbers of medications, and to increase awareness of the consequences of polypharmacy. This can be addressed, in part, through continued medical education, and also through clinical guidelines, particularly for common conditions affecting older patients. Proactively addressing the problem has significant potential to maximise quality of life for patients, help patients to manage their own medicines, reduce adverse effects, and encourage more rational and efficacious drug use. When individualization of therapy is warranted, the role of pharmacist can prove to be the best in achieving the therapeutic goals and improve the treatment outcomes of the patients. The main objectives of the study are to assess the prevalence of polypharmacy in cardiovascular disease patients ≥ 65 years and to assess the various causes for polypharmacy and to reduce and manage polypharmacy. This Cross Sectional study was carried out in the Department of General Medicine, MIMS Teaching Hospital, Mandya, Karnataka, using a well-designed patient data collection form. Among 114 cardiovascular disease patients analysed 65 patients were males (57.01%) and 49 (42.99%) were females. Among all admitted patients in ICCU, RICU, MICU and medical wards (male and female) for cardiac problems, patients were suffering mostly from co-morbid conditions and commonly found co-morbid condition was hypertension and diabetes mellitus, which supports the study that polypharmacy is extremely high in Hypertensive and Diabetic patients are more prone to high risk of complications (Drug-Drug Interactions and Adverse drug reactions). Polypharmacy was identified in 86 patients (75.43%) which include 51 (59.30%) males and 35 (40.70%) females. The study highlights the emergency department as a place where potential drug interactions can be identified in high-risk elderly patients. The presence of a Clinical Pharmacist would be of potential benefit to the process of identification of Polypharmacy and drug interactions. Furthermore, rational prescribing for the elderly should essentially involve listing potentially inappropriate medications, where the risks of administration may outweigh the benefits of administration. Polypharmacy places geriatric patients at risk of adverse events, functional decline, and geriatric syndromes. The strategies such as use of a risk stratification tool and application of palliative care principles represent initial steps forward to reduce polypharmacy.


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PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND BIOPESTICIDAL EFFICACY OF SOME PLANTS OF EAST SINGHBHUM, JHARKHAND

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Namrata Kumari, Kiran Shukla, Hanuman Prasad Sharma.
Preliminary phytochemical studies have been carried out on 5 plant species, growing wildly in East Singhbhum,district of Jharkhand. The leaf extracts were prepared using organic solvent in soxlet apparatus. Three insect pests viz. storage pest, mealybugs and cut worm/caterpillar were used in the study. All the five plants studied exhibited pesticidal properties which are dose dependent. Annona squamosa and Cleistanthus collinus contains highest amount of the phytochemical and are most effective in these pest. It can be used as bio-pesticides. Blumea balsamifera was least effective as pesticides.


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EFFECT OF MIXING ESSENTIAL OILS CONTENTS OF ARTEMESIA HERBA ALBA ASSO. AND ARTEMISIA MONOSPERMA DELILE ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF URINARY TRACT

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Heba Ibrahim Abd EI-Moaty, Rehab A. Lotfy.
The objective of the study is to assess antibacterial activities of essential oil and its mixture of two Artemesia species against four bacterial strains isolated from urine (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp. and Klebsiella spp.). The essential oils percentages of the aerial parts of Artemesia herba alba and Artemesia monosperma were 0.83 % and 0.22 %, respectively as clear yellowish liquid oil. Mixing essential oil of both plants with ratio (1:2 v: v), respectively, gave highest antibacterial activity, then the mixture were investigated using GC MS, beside investigation the essential oil of each plant alone. The obtained results showed that, the major constituents of the essential oil of Artemesia herba alba were Geraniol (28.27 %), Artemesia alcohol (24.92 %), Yomogi alcohol (13.05 %) and αˈ-Ionol (11.66 %), which resembled monoterpene alcohol compounds. Meanwhile the major constituents of the essential oil of Artemesia monosperma were Naphthalene 2-ethenyl (Aromatic hydrocarbon) (35.20 %), Imidazolidine (Heterocyclic compound) (19.27 %), and 2αˈ-pinene (Monoterpenes) (10.89 %). On other-hand the obtained major components of the mixture (1: 2, v: v) were Naphthalene 2-ethenyl (31.78 %), Imidazolidine (14.84%) and 2αˈ-pinene (12.93 %). Meanwhile the mixture of Artemesia herba alba and Artemesia monosperma with ratio (1: 2 v: v, respectively) showed highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp. and Klebsiella spp. isolated from urine. The present study scientifically proved that the mixture of essential oil of Artemesia herba alba and Artemesia monosperma is antimicrobial agent that can be used to treat urinary tract infectious diseases.


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SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF N-HETEROCYCLIC SUBSTITUTED HYDRAZONE SCHIFF’S BASES

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Vrushali T. Kale*, Archana S. Burghate, Shrikant A. Wadhal.
The present research deals with the synthesis, spectral studies and biological evolution of substituted hydrazone schiffs bases derivatives of benzothiazolyl and benzimidazolyl for antimicrobial activity. the compounds were synthesized by green chemistry technique which includes synthesis series of 2-[1-(Benzothiazole-2-yl hydrazono)-ethyl]-4-methyl phenol 3, 2-(Benzothiazole-2-yl hydrazono)-methyl)- phenol, N-Benzothiazole-2-yl-N-(1-4-chloro-phenyl)-ethylidene]-hydrazine ,2-[1-H-Benzimidazole-2-yl hydrazono)-methyl]-4-methyl phenol and implemented for their antibacterial activity study. The antimicrobial activities of these synthesized compounds are done by agar disc diffusion method at two different concentrations in DMSO against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli. Structures of all the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their IR, 1H-NMR and CHN analysis .From the synthesized compounds 3a,3b,3c biologically active Escherichia.coli and Staphylococcus. Aureus.


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NIOSOMES- A NOVEL TOOL FOR ANTI-AGEING COSMECEUTICALS

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Prabha Singh*, Huda Ansari, Shalan Dabre.
Aging is a complex biological process that has not yet been completely elucidated. Human aging and longevity are affected by multiple reasons like genetic factors, environmental factors such as diseases, lifestyle, and social factors. Ageing gives rise to different age related diseases like cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, and frailty. Also people around the world have always been looking for better health and appearance. Therefore, the ideal anti-ageing formulation should be applicable for both maintaining the healthful appearance as a cosmetic product as well as preventing the development of degenerative diseases. With increasing advancement in the field of science and technology and also with increase in the information about products available through the use of social media, formulating new products and advertising them have become quite easy. Nowadays formulation containing nanotechnology combined with cosmeceuticals is growing on a larger scale. Thus, we can say that novel cosmetic delivery systems have enormous potential and are next generation carrier systems. Novel drug delivery systems like liposomes, were discovered in 1960s and since then they have been used effectively. However, due to their stability issues, new delivery systems like niosomes were discovered with improved stability. Niosomes are used in the field of cosmetics since the early 1970s. They are stable with good penetrating power and less irritating as compared to other colloidal carrier systems. This review article focuses on the role of niosomes as a carrier for anti-aging topical products.


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MIXED HYDROTROPY: A RISING TOOL FOR SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY AND COSMECEUTICAL APPLICATIONS

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Satish Polshettiwar, Snehal Shivaji Khorate*.
Solubility is the important phenomenon in pharmaceutical formulation, which plays very effective and significant role in the designing of various dosage forms. It is important characteristics of a drug for its oral bioavailability, formation and development of different dosage form of different drugs and for quantitative analysis. There are many techniques which are used to enhance the aqueous solubility, hydrotropy is one of them which is simple, advance, cost effective, eco-friendly and novel method. Hydrotropy is defined as a solubilization process whereby addition of a large amount of second solutes results in an increase in the aqueous solubility of another solute and chemicals which are used in the hydrotropy are called hydrotropes like sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, urea, niacinamide etc. To achieve highest degree of solubility hydrotropes can be combined with polymers or cosolvents as in mixed hydrotropy. Mixed hydrotropic solubilization technique is the phenomenon to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs in the blends of hydrotropic agents which gives synergistic enhancement in solubility. Based on advantages of certain properties like the high selectivity, independent of pH and cheap, easy availability makes this technique more powerful than other Solubilization methods. In the present review attempt has been made to provide detailed information on the novel applications of hydrotropy with respect to Cosmeceutical and transdermal formulations as well the mechanism of hydrotropes, hydrotropic agents, classification and Solubilization of hydrotropes, several hydrotropes used in tablet formulation are discussed.


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3 H-QUINAZOLIN-4-ONES AS ANTICANCER AGENTS: A REVIEW

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Nilesh S. Khairnar*, Jogendra C. Hundiwale, Avinash V. Patil.
Heterocyclic chemistry composed of at least fifty percent of all organic chemistry research worldwide which contains heterocyclic moieties. 4(3H)-Quinazolinone is nothing but the 3H-Quinazolin-4-one which play a prominent role in the field of Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry for to invent or discover the new potent moiety. It is strongly showing evidence as active chemical agents in all human being or in animals by their pharmacological activity. 4(3H)-Quinazolinone and their entire derivatives having very good pharmaceutical utility among the influential classes of heterocyclic moieties by synthesizing it through various synthetic avenues. It shows some of the Pharmaceutical or Biochemical activities like anticancer, analgesic & anti-inflammatory, anti HIV, antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antimalerial & antifungal etc. from the literature survey. Cancer is very crucial or critical health problem now a day in developing as well as undeveloped countries. It has achieved first position as killer by surpassing the heart disease also from all over the world. It is quiet difficult task to design novel antitumor agent in lab level but it is critically very important. The purpose of this review was to follow literature work reported by researchers on 3H-Quinazolin-4-ones for only anticancer activity. This review might be helpful in the development of novel lead molecules which is having heterocyclic nucleus to potential drug profile for future prospect as anticancer agent and become prospective part in fulfillment of pharmaceutical world. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is made from one of the erbB members which come from Tyrosine Kinase Receptor (TKR). It is cellular transmemberane glycoprotein.


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THIAZOLES AS AN ANTICANCER AGENT: AN OVERVIEW

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Prabodh V. Sapkale, Avinash V. Patil.
Cancer is a potentially major disease caused mainly by many surrounding factors that mutate genes encoding critical cell-regulatory proteins. The resultant aberrant cell behaviour leads to expansive masses of abnormal cells that destroy surrounding normal tissue and can spread to vital organs resulting in disseminated disease, commonly patient death is occurred. Structurally diverse thiazoles with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups were conveniently synthesized through various methods which are explained in this review. The effect of substitution at the 2- and 4-positions was investigated. Thiazole is also showing various biological activities but recently it shows major activity as anticancer with minimizing side effect and adverse effect. It also has large area for research with same biological activity.


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STUDIES ON THE FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING DOSAGE FORMS OF LORATADINE

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Ramesh KVRNS*, Maha Hammad Sitta, Omar Sarheed, Shahnaz Usman, Hemant Yadav, Fasiha Shah, Quamrul Islam.
Loratadine is a anti allergic drug (NSAID) used in the management of the symptomatic relief of allergy such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis), urticarial (hives), chronic idiopathic urticaria. Loratadine is a poorly water-soluble drug and for such drugs, dissolution plays an important role in their absorption. In the present investigation, an approach of solvent deposited systems of the dispersions of loratadine in Gelucire 50/13 (G) and Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) on Neusilin (N) were prepared to enhance the dissolution of loratadine. Dispersions were prepared employing different proportions of the carriers. The prepared dispersions were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, x ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the XRD and DSC study indicated that the drug existed in amorphous form in the dispersions. The dispersions exhibited higher dissolution compared to the pure drug and there were no interactions with the carriers. Dispersion in gelucire showed much higher dissolution than the dispersion in hydroxypropyl cellulose. There was 10 to 12 fold increase in dissolution rate with various dispersions when compared with the pure drug. Dispersions on neusilin resulted in products which had good flow properties enabling direct compression of the dispersion into tablets. The Kawakita constants calculated for the various products are suggestive of good flow character. All the tablets showed good pharmaceutical characteristics and exhibited rapid dissolution. From the results of the investigation in may be concluded that employing solvent deposited systems of the solid dispersions is a useful approach to prepare the fast dissolving tablets of loratadine.


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SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SOME NEW N-ACETYL PYRAZOLINES FROM SUBSTITUTED CHALCONES

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Abdulkareem Ali Hussein,*, Bushra Ahmed Kateb,, P.A. Kulkarni.
In the present study, a novel series of N-acetyl pyrazolines (4a-j) were synthesized from different chalcones (3a-j) with hydrazine hydrate and glacial acetic acid. The compounds were synthesized and characterizes by TLC, melting points, IR, and 1H-NMR spectra. All the synthesized compounds have been screened and evaluated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus gr +ve, Escherichia coli gr ve, Bacillus subtilis gr +ve, Salmonella typhi gr ve , and antifungal activity against Aspergillus oryzoe, Aspergillus niger, using disc diffusion method. The compounds show the moderate to good activity against bacteria. The new structural classes of compounds may prove as lead molecules and good candidates for the future investigations.


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RUNNING MORTALITY SYNDROME (RMS) IN FARM-REARED SHRIMP, LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI CULTURE SYSTEMS IN ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
S. A. Mastan, Md. Osman Ahmed*.
Since 2011, a new syndrome has struck the shrimp industry in India. The syndrome was such that, the farmed shrimp in the affected ponds show different mortality patterns which results in unusual symptoms with no co-relation to any other reported diseases. In running mortality syndrome affected farms mortality percentage reaching upto 50-70% and as a result of this several farmers have partially harvested in the middle of crop and some farmers were closed down their farming operations for two or three seasons. The symptoms includes cut antennae, uropods turn red in colour and later the hepatopancreas begins will turn reddish yellow; finally entire body turns dark red in colour. A continuous internal mortality of shrimp was observed in affected ponds. The dead shrimp settle down in the bottom of the affected ponds and do not come surface. Mortality was observed only during inter- moult stage. Mortality rate is relatively more in low saline ponds. White or yellow faecal matter was noticed in the gut of affected shrimps. This condition is known as Running Mortality Syndrome (RMS).The present paper reports the incidences of Running Mortality Syndrome (RMS) in Litopenaeus vannamei culture systems in Andhra Pradesh.


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STUDY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA FLOWER AND SEED EXTRACTS FOR THEIR ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
R. S. A. Sorna Kumar*, R. Rajeswari, M. Selvakumar, N. Karthick raja, N. Hariharan.
Various plants that have rich medicinal properties have been used to cure many diseases for several thousand years. Pongamia pinnata is widely used as a traditional medicine commonly known as Pungai in tamil which has been distributed throughout the India.P. pinnata is a source of biomedicines have been used as a crude drug for the treatment of tumours, piles, skin diseases, itches, abscess, painful rheumatic joints wounds, ulcers, diarrhoea etc. In this study,it was found that flower extract possess good antioxidant activity wherein seed extracts gave good antimicrobial activity.it was also found that kernel is less toxic to haemocytes than flower. Methanolic flower extracts also showed higher free phenolic content, Aqueous flower extract had maximum antioxidant activity. Aqueous flower extract was found to be active against Brucella melitensis and P.fluroscens. Based on the study it was found that flower extract possess good antioxidant activity wherein seed extracts gave good antimicrobial activity.


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ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXICITY ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EUPHORBIA HITRA AGAINST PC-3 AND MCF-7 CELL LINES

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Perumal .R, Selvamaleeswaran .P, Maheswaran .S, Sureshkumar .M.
Plants are considered to be a perennial source of medicine from time immemovial. The phytochemical screening was carried on the leaves extracts of Euphorbia hitra, divulged the presence of some active ingredients namely alkaloids, tannins, saponnins, phenols, steroids, flavanoids and terpenoids. The antibacterial activities of methanol extract of Euphorbia hitra aganist some pathogens; Proteus vulgaris Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa .The well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity. The antifungal activities of methanol extract of Euphorbia hitra aganist some fungus; Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagarophytes and Alternaria solan the disc diffusion method was used to regulate the antifungal activity. The prostate cancer is the most important form of cancer in males and the second leading cause of cancer related death.MCF-7 and PC-3 cell lines was derived from adinocarcinoma of human prostate this was assayed for MTT assay on treatment with Methanolic leaf extract of Euphorbia hitra where in inhibition of the cell growth was noticed.


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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF TENATOPRAZOLE SODIUM USING NATURAL POLYMERS

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
B. Divya*, J. Sreekanth, D. Satyavati.
Delayed release dosage forms are the best formulations which are used for drugs that are destroyed in the gastric fluids, or cause gastric irritation, and are absorbed preferentially in the intestine. The stability of Proton pump inhibitors is a function of pH; these are rapidly degraded in acid media, and are stable under alkaline conditions. Therefore exposure of Tenatoprazole sodium to the acidic content of the stomach would lead to significant degradation of the drug and hence, reduced bioavailability. The present investigation is aimed to formulate the matrix tablets of Tenatoprazole sodium with cashew nut tree gum, Okra gum and Xanthum gum and during formulation of the matrix tablets, granules are prepared with drug and polymers and dried and sieved well and were finally enteric coated with AQOAT AS-MF to prevent the tablets from acidic environment. Then the granules are compressed in to tablets. The tablets were evaluated for preformulation studies like angle of repose, bulk density, compressibility index and physical characteristics like hardness, weight variation, friability and drug content. In-vitro release of drug was performed in phosphate buffer solution pH 6.8 for twelve hours. All the physical characters of the fabricated tablet were within acceptable limits. It is cleared through the dissolution profile of Tenatoprazole sodium matrix tablets prepared using different polymers were indicated an increase in the polymer ratio retarded the drug release to a greater extent as evident from the in vitro drug release profile of batches A-3, B-3 & C-3. Therefore, 50% polymer level was found to be ideal for the matrix system. A better sustained drug release i.e 89.7±0.32 % drug release was obtained with the matrix tablet (Batch B-3) made-up of the Okra gum (Drug: polymer ratio=1:1) than with the cashew nut tree gum and Xanthum gum.


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A STUDY ON SEVERITY OF POTENTIAL DRUG DRUG INTERACTIONS IN COMMUNITY PHARMACIES OF MYSORE CITY

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Patel Jaskumar Nileshkumar, Ansu Anie Sunny, Jaidev Kumar*, Mit Kaushikbhai Suthar, Umesh.
Pharmacoepidemiologic studies, carried out in Europe and the Americas, have found varying rates of potential drug-drug interactions, ranging from 5% to 80%. Risk factors that have showed closer association with the presence of potential drug-drug interactions in previous studies includes Polypharmacy, age, gender, clinical conditions, medications and the number of physicians that a patient visits. By applying computerized DDI screening programs research investigators can significantly improve the identification of potentially harmful DDIs, beyond what can be achieved with manual review alone and the main objective of the study is to assess the potential drug-drug interactions in prescriptions of patients with chronic diseases in community setting and to evaluate the severity of drug-drug interaction. Among 500 potential drug-drug interactions, majority of PDDIs were moderate in severity (n=354, 71%) followed by major PDDIs (n=126, 25.4%) and minor PDDIs (n=20, 4%). This finding was similar to that found in another study performed by Anna Chatsisvili et al in community pharmacies in Greece where majority of PDDIs were moderate in severity. PDDIs involving beta adrenergic blockers and oral hypoglycemic agent (glimepiride+metformin) were the highest recorded (22.4%) followed by beta blockers and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (10.6%), ACE inhibitors and thiazide diuretics (8.2%). Our research study was only observational study; as a result investigators could not be able to evaluate the health care outcomes of the patients which remains as one of the biggest limitations of this research study.


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DIACEREIN NANOSUSPENSION: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION, CYTOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND IN-VIVO EVALUATION FOR ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT

2016-11-08T01-11-23Z
Source: Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Abhishek Pathak*, Sadhana J Rajput.
The present research was focused on bioavailability enhancement of Diacerein (DAR) by formulating an efficient Diacerein nanosuspension (DAR-NS) through wet media milling using Poloxamer-407 (P-407) and zirconium oxide beads. A 33 factorial design was employed to evaluate the combinatorial effect of P-407 concentration, DAR concentration and milling time on the particle size (PS) and saturation solubility (SS) of DAR-NS. The morphology of DAR-NS was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The loss of crystalline nature of DAR was confirmed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The in-vitro studies revealed significant increment in SS and dissolution efficiency of drug in DAR-NS. The MTT assay and in-vitro permeability studies using Caco-2 cells described the reduction in cytotoxicity and improved permeation. The in-vivo studies illustrated the enhancement in oral bioavailability of drug from DAR-NS by 3.93 and 2.41 fold compared to plain DAR and commercial formulation, respectively. The DAR-NS was found to be stable at 5°C±3°C and room temperature for 6 months. These results concise that prepared nanosuspension significantly improved the oral bioavailability of DAR which could minimize the drug side effects by reducing dose frequency and thus will lead to improved patient compliance.


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Short-term outcomes of open versus laparoscopic surgery in elderly patients with colorectal cancer

Surgical Endoscopy

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Effect of statin on hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with type 2 diabetes: A nationwide nested case-control study

International Journal of Cancer

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Rescue ALPPS is efficient and safe after failed portal vein occlusion in patients with colorectal liver metastases

Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery

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Multidisciplinary managed care networks--Life-saving interventions for hepatitis C patients

Journal of Viral Hepatitis

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Free-breathing dynamic liver examination using a radial 3D T1-weighted gradient echo sequence with moderate undersampling for patients with limited breath-holding capacity

European Journal of Radiology

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Proton pump inhibitors do not increase the risk for recurrent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Unemployment risk at 2 and 4 years following colorectal cancer diagnosis: A population based study

European Journal of Cancer

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Randomized controlled clinical trial assessing the effects of oral nutritional supplements in postoperative gastric cancer patients

Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery

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Increased interreader agreement in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma using an adapted LI-RADS algorithm

European Journal of Radiology

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, and pancreatic cancer risk: A population-based case-control study

Cancer Causes and Control

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Management, treatment, and outcomes of acute appendicitis in an elderly population: A single-center experience

European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery

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Health-related quality of life 10 years after oesophageal cancer surgery

European Journal of Cancer

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The relationship between vegetable/fruit consumption and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan

International Journal of Cancer

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Increased expression of markers of early atherosclerosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

European Journal of Internal Medicine

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New molecular therapies in patients with advanced Hepatocellular Cancer in second line of treatment: Is a real defeat?: Results from a literature based meta-analysis of randomized trials

Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology

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No association of CpG island methylator phenotype and colorectal cancer survival: Population-based study

British Journal of Cancer

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Esophageal mucosal integrity improves after laparoscopic antireflux surgery in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease

Surgical Endoscopy

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Early prediction of the outcome using tumor markers and mrecist in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma patients who underwent transarterial chemoembolization

Oncology

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Prognostic value of pre- and postoperative anti-p53 antibody levels in colorectal cancer patients: a retrospective study

Oncology

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Sarcopenia is risk factor for development of hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosysthemic shunt placement

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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Study of blood pressure profile and correlation of hypertension with age, sex, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, body mass index), socio economic status and hereditary factors in school going children

2016-11-08T00-20-56Z
Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Kamatham Madhusudhan, Rajendra Betham, Venkateswara Rao Jampana.
Background: Pre hypertension in childhood is a precursor of hypertension in adulthood. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) can be taken as surrogate marker of prevalence of hypertension and hence measurement of these parameters can help in early detection of children at risk of hypertension. The present study was done to determine the correlation of hypertension with age, gender, anthropometric measurements, socioeconomic status, and hereditary factors and to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and pre hypertension. Methods: It is an observational study involving 1009 healthy urban school children of 5 to 15 years of age. Height and weight were taken according to standard techniques (Jelliffee 1966). In order to exclude age as a confounding factor; BMI was plotted on percentile charts. Results: There was a linear increase of mean blood pressure with increasing age, height and weight. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of children with BMI 85th to 95th percentile (overweight group) and with BMI ≥95th percentile (obese group) were higher than the lower BMI groups. The children belonging to high socio economic status (class I) and those with family history of hypertension were having higher mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Equal number of children belonged to pre hypertension (65) and hypertension (67) category. Conclusions: The mean systolic and diagnostic blood pressure was equal in both sexes. Children with overweight/obesity, family history of hypertension and class I socioeconomic status had increased mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Prevalence of high blood pressure was 13.1% (pre hypertension: 6.44% and hypertension: 6.64%).


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Prevalence and correlation of soil transmitted helminth infection to the degree of anemia and nutritional status among pediatric patients of age group 6-14 years in Kishanganj, Bihar, India

2016-11-08T00-20-56Z
Source: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Santosh Kumar, Jasninder Singh, Abhay Kumar.
Background: Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem in tropical and sub­tropical countries, affecting the physical growth and cognitive development in school age children. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of various helminthes, the symptomatology and clinical manifestations of various helminthes and to correlate the nutritional status with the type of helminthic infestation. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving children aged 6­14 years attending pediatric outpatient department in MGM Medical College, Kishanganj who were screened to estimate the prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes. Results: Out of the 500 children examined, 275 children were positive for one or other helminthic ova in the stool samples giving overall incidence of 55 %. Ascariasis was most common with 58.2% among all the positive cases, hookworm 7.3%, trichuris trichura 14.5%, hymenolepsis nana 3.6%, taenia saginata 1.8% while mixed infestations constitute 14.5%. There was no significant association of gender and infestation (p value >0.05). Patients on non-vegetarian diet were more prone to get infested (Chi- square value = 19.48, p value


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