Πέμπτη, 25 Ιανουαρίου 2018

Ultrasound-Guided Shoulder Injection or Ultrasound Guides the Shoulder Injection?: Standard vs State-of-the-Art

No abstract available

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Effect of Polydeoxyribonucleotide Injection in a Patient with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Case Report

Ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection into the carpal tunnel is widely performed for the management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, this injection may worsen the condition in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) was recently recognized as a substitute for corticosteroid due to its anti-inflammatory effects. A 41-year-old woman with type 2 DM was admitted to our rehabilitation clinic with a 1-month history of numbness and tingling in her right hand and first 3 fingers tips. She declined corticosteroid treatment because of a previous episode of uncontrolled blood glucose levels following corticosteroid injection. Therefore, ultrasound-guided PDRN injections into the carpal tunnel were carried out. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient demonstrated an improvement in the CTS symptoms without any complications. Thus, PDRN injections into the carpal tunnel can be an alternative to corticosteroid injections for CTS if there are limitations due to side effects of the latter. Disclosure : This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF- 2017R1D1A1B03033127) No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit upon the authors or upon any organization with which the authors are associated. **Address corresponding author: Donghwi Park, M.D. Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Daegu Fatima Hospital, Ayangro 99, Dong gu, Daegu 41199, Republic of Korea (e-mail: bdome@hanmail.net), Tel : 82-53-940-7821, Fax : 82-53-954-7417 Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Response to the Letter to the Editor on“Point-of-Care Ultrasonography Findings and Care use Among Patients Undergoing Ultrasound-Guided Shoulder Injections”

No abstract available

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Adding sufentanil to ropivacaine in continuous thoracic paravertebral block fails to improve analgesia after video-assisted thoracic surgery: A randomised controlled trial

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BACKGROUND The benefit of adding opioid to a local anaesthetic for continuous thoracic paravertebral analgesia after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is unclear. OBJECTIVES To analyse the analgesic efficacy of ropivacaine and sufentanil in combination compared with ropivacaine alone after VATS. DESIGN A randomised, double-blinded, single-centre clinical trial. SETTING A tertiary university hospital between March 2010 and April 2014. PATIENTS Ninety patients were recruited, two were not included leaving 88 randomised into two groups. Eighteen patients were excluded from analysis and 70 completed the study. INTERVENTION To receive thoracic paravertebral analgesia with either 2 mg ml−1 ropivacaine and 0.25 μg ml−1 sufentanil (ropivacaine + sufentanil group) or 2 mg ml−1 ropivacaine alone (ropivacaine group) for 48 h postoperatively. Infusion rate was set at 0.15 ml kg−1 h−1 in both groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary endpoint was the mean total amount of self-administered morphine by the patients in each group at 48 h postoperatively. RESULTS The mean ± SD total amount of self-administered morphine was not significantly different between groups (53.1 ± 27.2 mg in the ropivacaine + sufentanil group vs. 58.8 ± 34.3 mg in the ropivacaine group; P = 0.72). No significant differences were found between the two groups in either in pain scores at rest or during movement, in opioid-related adverse reactions, in patient satisfaction or length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION Adding 0.25 μg ml−1 sufentanil to 2 mg ml−1 ropivacaine in continuous thoracic paravertebral analgesia for VATS did not reduce morphine consumption or pain scores when compared with ropivacaine alone. We cannot recommend its use for routine clinical practice. Further studies analysing different concentrations and infusion rates of sufentanil are needed before a lack of efficacy can be confirmed. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinical trial registrations: EudraCT: 2009-014832-38. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 01082744. Correspondence to Christian Bauer, MD, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital de la Croix Rousse, Service d'Anesthésie-Réanimation, 103 grande rue de la Croix-Rousse, 69004 Lyon, France Tel: +33 426732660; e-mail: christian.bauer@chu-lyon.fr Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (http://ift.tt/2ylyqmW). © 2018 European Society of Anaesthesiology

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Comparison of double intravenous vasopressor automated system using nexfin versus manual vasopressor bolus administration for maintenance of haemodynamic stability during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean delivery: A randomised double-blind controlled trial

BACKGROUND Hypotension is a common side effect of spinal anaesthesia during caesarean delivery and is associated with maternal and foetal adverse effects. We developed an updated double intravenous vasopressor automated (DIVA) system that administers phenylephrine or ephedrine based on continuous noninvasive haemodynamic monitoring using the Nexfin device. OBJECTIVE The aim of our present study is to compare the performance and reliability of the DIVA system against Manual Vasopressor Bolus administration. DESIGN A randomised, double-blind controlled trial. SETTING Single-centre, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore. PATIENTS Two hundred and thirty-six healthy women undergoing elective caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was the incidence of maternal hypotension. The secondary outcome measures were reactive hypertension, total vasopressor requirement and maternal and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS The DIVA group had a significantly lower incidence of maternal hypotension, with 39.3% (46 of 117) patients having any SBP reading less than 80% of baseline compared with 57.5% (65 of 113) in the manual vasopressor bolus group (P = 0.008). The DIVA group also had fewer hypotensive episodes than the manual vasopressor bolus group (4.67 versus 7.77%; P 

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Activities of Dual Combinations of Antibiotics Against Multidrug-Resistant Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Recovered from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Regulation of Locomotor activity in fed, fasted, and food-restricted mice lacking tissue-type plasminogen activator

Circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are driven by a circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. This clock is synchronized to environmental day/night cycles by photic i...

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Claudin expression during early postnatal development of the murine cochlea

Claudins are major components of tight junctions, which form the paracellular barrier between the cochlear luminal and abluminal fluid compartments that supports the large transepithelial voltage difference an...

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Are all Xq26.2 duplications overlapping GPC3 on array-CGH a cause of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome? When do we need transcript analysis?

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Tylosis associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus (TOC): Report of an African family with a novel RHBDF2 variant

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Tri-Tech Forensics Announces Acquisition of Rescue Essentials

LELAND, N.C. and SALIDA, Colo. — Tri-Tech Forensics, Inc., a leader in the crime scene supplies, digital forensics, and evidence collection kit markets, announced today the acquisition of Rescue Essentials, a leading manufacturer and marketer of Individual First Aid Kits, tactical EMS supplies, and first responder trauma gear and equipment. Rescue Essentials' products are sold to medical ...

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Characterization of an Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Italy

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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iPhone to get 911 location feature in update

Apple said they are adopting Advanced Mobile Location, a precise way for the phone to report the location of the caller to dispatchers

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7 Benefits of Implementing an Online Time Clock Into Your Time and Attendance Process

EMS agencies nationwide have started implementing biometric clocks into their time and attendance scheduling process based on the numerous benefits that come with the system. Biometric technology offers one of the most cost effective, convenient, and secure forms of employee and staff identification available in the world today; combining this tool with a strong EMS scheduling suite enables each agency ...

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Gene cloning system for sulfonamide-mineralizing Microbacterium sp . strain BR1

Abstract

The wide application of sulfonamide (SA) antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine contributes to the accumulation of these antibiotics in the environment and the corresponding onset of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Microbacterium sp. BR1 is capable of mineralizing sulfamethoxazole and other SAs via a novel mechanism. The genetic basis of SA elimination by BR1 remains unknown. Development of an efficient plasmid transfer protocol for Microbacterium sp. BR1 is highly desirable, as it would open the door to genetic analysis and manipulation of its genome. Here we report that intergeneric Escherichia coliMicrobacterium spp. BR1 conjugation is an efficient way to introduce various plasmids into BR1. The generated transconjugants were stable in the presence of antibiotics and the plasmids showed no signs of rearrangements. Nevertheless, the plasmids were rapidly lost in the absence of selection. We also show that the cumate-inducible beta-glucuronidase reporter gene functions in BR1 and is strictly regulated. Our results set the working ground for further genetic manipulations of BR1, such as the overexpression of sulfonamide degradation genes or the selection of strong microbacterial promoters.



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Generation of transgenic chickens by the non-viral, cell-based method: effectiveness of some elements of this strategy

Abstract

Transgenic chickens have, in general, been produced by two different procedures. The first procedure is based on viral transfection systems. The second procedure, the non-viral method, is based on genetically modified embryonic cells transferred directly into the recipient embryo. In this review, we analyzed the effectiveness of important elements of the non-viral, cell-based strategy of transgenic chicken production. The main elements of this strategy are: isolation and cultivation of donor embryonic cells; transgene construction; cell transfection in vitro; and chimera production: injection of cells into recipient embryos, raising and identification of germline chimeras, mating germline chimeras, transgene inheritance, and transgene expression. In this overview, recent progress and important limitations in the development of transgenic chickens are presented.



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The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations

Abstract

This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose–response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should investigate how best to implement accentuated eccentric loading and variable resistance training and examine how initial strength affects an athlete's ability to improve their performance following various training methods.



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Persistent isoflurane-induced hypotension causes hippocampal neuronal damage in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

Abstract

Background

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is likely to occur in elderly people, who often suffer from cerebral hypoperfusion and white matter lesions even in the absence of cerebral infarctions.

Methods

Thirty-two adult male rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: the cerebral normoperfusion + normotension group (n = 8), cerebral normoperfusion + hypotension group (n = 8), chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) + normotension group (n = 8), and CCH + hypotension group (n = 8). A rat model of CCH was developed via the permanent ligation of the bilateral common carotid arteries, but ligation was avoided in the cerebral normoperfusion groups. Two weeks later, the rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated under isoflurane anesthesia, and their mean arterial blood pressure was maintained over 80 mmHg (normotension) or below 60 mmHg (hypotension) for 2 h. After preparing brain slices, histological cresyl violet staining, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, a marker of microglial activation, or β amyloid precursor protein, a marker of axonal damage, were performed.

Results and conclusion

CCH per se caused microglial activation and axonal damage, which was not accentuated by hypotension. CCH alone did not cause neuronal damage, but CCH combined with hypotension caused significant neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA1 region. These results suggest that persistent hypotension during general anesthesia might cause neuronal damage in patients with CCH, such as elderly people, and contribute to prevention against POCD.



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The effect of in situ simulation training on the performance of tasks related to patient safety during sedation

Abstract

In many countries, procedural sedation outside of the operating room is performed by pediatricians. We examined if in situ sedation simulation training (SST) of pediatricians improves the performance of tasks related to patient safety during sedation in the Emergency Department (ED). We performed a single-center, quasi-experimental, study evaluating the performance of sedation, before-and-after SST. Sixteen pediatricians were evaluated during sedation as part of their usual practice, using the previously validated Sedation-Performance-Score (SPS). This tool evaluates physician behaviors during sedation that are conducive to safe patient outcomes. Following the sedation, providers completed SST, followed by a structured debriefing. They were then re-evaluated with the SPS during a subsequent patient sedation in the ED. Using multivariate regression, odds ratios were calculated for each SPS component, and were compared before and after the SST. Thirty-two sedations were performed, 16 before and 16 after SST. SPS scores improved from a median of 4 (IQR 2–5) to 6 (IQR 4–7) following SST (p < 0.0009, median difference 2, 95% CI 1–3). SST was associated with improved performance in four SPS components. The findings of this pilot study suggest that sedation simulation training of pediatricians improves several tasks related to patient safety during sedation.



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Loss of Response to Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Therapy in Crohn’s Disease Is Not Associated with Emergence of Novel Inflammatory Pathways

Abstract

Background

While monoclonal antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are effective in treating Crohn's disease (CD), approximately one-third of patients lose response. The mechanisms underlying this loss of response remain elusive.

Aim

We sought to determine if novel biological pathways, including TNFα-independent inflammatory pathways, emerge in those with loss of response to anti-TNFα.

Methods

Using RNA microarray technology in 28 patients with CD, we examined the colonic gene expression differences between those with active inflammation in the setting of loss of response to TNFα-antagonist therapy ("loss of responders") compared to anti-TNFα naïve patients with active inflammation and those on anti-TNF therapy in disease remission. Pathway enrichment analyses were performed.

Results

We found that colonic expression of chemokines known to drive inflammation (CXCL20, CXCL9, and CXCL10) was elevated in those with loss of response compared to those in remission. Expression of genes critical to modulating oxidative stress burden (DUOX2, DUOXA2, and NOS2) was also elevated. Additionally, MMP3, MMP1, and MMP12 were elevated in those with continued inflammation. Gene enrichment analysis revealed that loss of responders exhibited dysregulation in the cysteine and methionine metabolism pathway, suggesting alteration in oxidative stress burden. There were no differences in genes or pathways between loss of responders and those who were TNFα-naïve. However, loss of response occurred despite the ability of anti-TNFα therapy to normalize APO gene expression.

Conclusion

Our analyses suggest that loss of response to anti-TNFα is not driven by the emergence of pathways that bypass the action or induce resistance to anti-TNFα therapy.



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Acid Secretion and Its Relationship to Esophageal Reflux Symptom in Patients with Subtotal Gastrectomy

Abstract

Background

Esophageal reflux symptom has been reported as common in patients with subtotal gastrectomy. Management of postoperative esophageal reflux symptom is not satisfactory. The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of esophageal reflux symptom after subtotal gastrectomy and assess factors affecting esophageal reflux symptom in subtotal gastrectomy patients.

Methods

We prospectively enrolled 100 consecutive patients with subtotal gastrectomy who were regularly followed up by endoscopic examination. Acid secretory capacity was assessed by measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of H+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in biopsy specimens.

Results

In total, 47 % of patients had typical esophageal reflux symptom, where heartburn or regurgitation was experienced at least weekly. Age, sex, body mass index, and type of reconstruction did not differ between esophageal reflux and non-esophageal-reflux groups. The esophageal reflux group had longer duration from time of operation until study (median 5.0 versus 3.6 years; P = 0.017). Hill grade for gastroesophageal (GE) flap valve was higher in the esophageal reflux group than in the non-esophageal-reflux group (P = 0.027). H+/K+-ATPase mRNA expression was higher in the esophageal reflux group than in the non-esophageal-reflux group [3967.6 (± 7583.7) versus 896.2 (± 1456.0); P = 0.006]. Multivariate analysis revealed that postoperative duration, H+/K+-ATPase mRNA expression level, and GE flap valve disruption were significantly associated with esophageal reflux symptom development.

Conclusions

Esophageal reflux symptom is common in patients after subtotal gastrectomy, possibly because of anti-reflux-barrier impairment and preservation of acid secretory capacity following surgery. Optimal acid suppression may be helpful in managing postoperative esophageal reflux symptom.



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Arteriosclerosis Is a Major Predictor of Small Bowel Vascular Lesions

Abstract

Background

Most studies have focused on evaluating the association between the presence of small bowel vascular lesions (SBVLs) and patients' comorbidities.

Aims

We sought to uncover a more fundamental indicator that may predict the presence of SBVLs by considering atherosclerosis qualitatively and quantitatively.

Methods

We enrolled 79 consecutive patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding who had undergone computed tomography (CT) and capsule endoscopy or double-balloon endoscopy from January 2015 to June 2017. The SBVL frequency, type, and location, and the relationship between the presence of SBVLs and the patients' clinical characteristics were evaluated. Arterial wall calcification was assessed on unenhanced CT images, and a modified Agatston scoring system was used to determine the abdominal aorta calcium scores.

Results

Of the 27 (34%) patients with SBVLs, 15 (19%) had type 1a, 12 (15%) had type 1b, and 2 (3%) had type 2a SBVLs. Most of the lesions were located in the jejunum. Cardiovascular disease (P = .017), chronic kidney disease (P = .025), and arteriosclerosis (P = .0036) were associated with the presence of SBVLs. Subsequent multivariate analysis revealed that arteriosclerosis (odds ratio [OR] 7.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–143.9) and superior mesenteric artery calcification (OR 16.3; 95% CI 3.64–118.6) were independent predictors of the presence of SBVLs. The modified Agatston score was significantly higher in SBVL cases than in non-SBVL cases (6384 vs. 2666, P = .0023).

Conclusions

Arteriosclerosis, especially increased superior mesenteric artery calcification, is associated with an increased likelihood of SBVLs.



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Adalimumab for Induction of Histological Remission in Moderately to Severely Active Ulcerative Colitis

Abstract

Background

Histological remission represents a target distinct from endoscopic healing in ulcerative colitis (UC) and seems a better predictor of clinical outcomes.

Aims

The aim of this study was to assess the ability of adalimumab to achieve histological remission in UC patients.

Methods

Single-center, retrospective, open-label study of patients treated with adalimumab. Eligible patients were anti-TNF naïve adults with moderately to severely active UC. The Mayo score including endoscopy was performed at baseline and weeks 8 and 52. Histological activity was scored using the Geboes Index. The primary endpoint was histological remission, defined as a Geboes grade ≤ 3.0, at week 52.

Results

We included 34 patients. At week 8, 6 of 34 patients (17.6%) achieved histological remission. At week 52, 9 patients (26.5%, intention to treat; 31%, per protocol) had histological remission. Patients had a significant and progressive reduction in the most severe subgrades of Geboes Index from baseline at weeks 8 and 52. At weeks 8 and 52, 50 and 61.8% of patients achieved mucosal healing (Mayo endoscopic subscore 0–1). All patients who achieved histological remission also had mucosal healing. At week 8, 85.3 and 20.6% of patients achieved clinical response (decrease in Mayo score ≤ 3 points) or remission (Mayo score ≤ 2), respectively. At week 52, the corresponding values were 67.6 and 52.9%, respectively. At week 52, agreement between histological remission and mucosal healing was fair (kappa 0.293). Agreement between histological remission and Mayo endoscopic subscore 0 was good (kappa 0.71).

Conclusions

Adalimumab was able to achieve histological remission in anti-TNF naïve patients with moderately to severely active UC.



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Identification of Candidate Biomarkers Associated with Response to Vedolizumab in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Abstract

Background/Aims

Vedolizumab is an anti-α4β7 monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This exploratory study aimed to identify biomarkers associated with vedolizumab response.

Methods

Twenty-six IBD patients (15 with Crohn's, 11 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis) initiating vedolizumab at a single center between 2014 and 2016 underwent sampling of serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and during vedolizumab therapy. Response was defined as steroid-free improvement in endoscopic score or Harvey–Bradshaw index/simple clinical colitis activity index (reduction greater than 3 or total less than 3). PBMCs were evaluated for immunophenotype and expression of α4β7 integrin on lymphocytes before and during vedolizumab therapy. Serum vedolizumab levels and α4β7 saturation were measured serially after induction.

Results

Fourteen out of 26 (54%) patients treated with vedolizumab responded to therapy. Pretreatment α4β7 expression was higher in responders on multiple subsets of T, B, and NK cells, with terminal effector memory (p = .0009 for CD4 and .0043 for CD8) and NK cells (p = .0047) best discriminating between responders and nonresponders. During therapy, log10 serum vedolizumab levels at trough were higher in responders than nonresponders (p = .0007). Conversely, the percentage of effector memory T cells with free α4β7 at trough was lower in responders than nonresponders (p < .0001). However, loss of α4β7 saturation with vedolizumab was more sensitive to low serum vedolizumab in nonresponders.

Conclusions

Pretreatment α4β7 expression and α4β7 receptor saturation during maintenance therapy were identified as candidate biomarkers for vedolizumab response.



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Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Is a Novel Biomarker for the Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Stress-Induced Diarrhea-Dominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Abstract

Background

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder involving changes in normal bowel movements. The pathophysiology of IBS is not clearly understood owing to the lack of identifiable pathological abnormalities and reliable biomarkers.

Aim

The aim of this study was to discover the novel and reliable biomarker for IBS.

Method

In this study, neonatal maternal separation (NMS) stress model was used for the IBS mouse model. Further assessment was conducted with whole gastrointestinal transit test, quantitative RT-PCR, histological examination, and western blot.

Results

Male pups developed symptoms similar to those of human IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), such as low-grade inflammation, stool irregularity, and increased bowel motility. NMS stress influenced to the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and induced altered bowel motility, resulting in IBS-D-like symptoms. In addition, we found neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) to be a novel biomarker for ICC under NMS stress. nNOS expression was only observed in the ICC of the submucosal plexus of IBS-D mice, and the inhibition of nNOS changed the phenotype from IBS-D to IBS with constipation.

Conclusion

Our study demonstrates that early-life stress can influence to ICC and modulate bowel activity and that nNOS might be used as a biomarker for ICC stimulation in IBS.



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Heavy Chain Disease of the Small Bowel

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to discuss current knowledge and recent findings regarding pathogenesis, outcome, and treatment for heavy chain disease (HCD) involving the small bowel, focusing on alpha HCD or immunoproliferative small intestinal disease (IPSID), the HCD subtype typically affecting the small bowel.

Recent findings

A link between Campylobacter jejuni infection and IPSID has been established, but there is controversy as to the role played by this organism in disease pathogenesis. While cytogenetic abnormalities involving various immunoglobulin loci and PAX5 have been reported, these have been described in rare, single cases, limiting their ability to shed further light on disease pathogenesis. IPSID is typically regarded as a pre-lymphomatous condition with eventual progression to frank lymphoma; however, recent reports of longstanding non-progressive cases have expanded its clinical spectrum.

Summary

IPSID is an uncommon disorder affecting the small intestine. This review focuses on current knowledge and novel insight regarding its pathogenesis, outcome, and treatment, with an emphasis on future directions.



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Hypertonicity-induced cation channels (HICCs) in HepG2 cells: architecture and role in proliferation vs. apoptosis

Abstract

Hypertonicity-induced cation channels (HICCs) are substantial elements in the regulatory volume increase (RVI) of osmotically shrunken cells. Under isotonic conditions, they are key effectors in the volume gain preceding proliferation; HICC repression, in turn, significantly increases apoptosis rates. Despite these fundamental roles of HICCs in cell physiology, very little is known concerning the actual molecular architecture of these channels. Here, an siRNA screening on putative ion channels and transporters was performed, in HepG2 cells, with the velocity of RVI as the read-out; in this first run, δENaC, TRPM2 and TRPM5 could be identified as HICCs. In the second run, all permutations of these channels were tested in RVI and patch-clamp recordings, with special emphasis on the non-additivity and additivity of siRNAs – that would indicate molecular interactions or independent ways of channel functioning. At first sight, the HICCs in HepG2 cells appeared to operate rather independently. However, a Proximity Ligation Assay revealed that δENaC was located in proximity to, both, TRPM2 and TRPM5. Furthermore, a clear synergy of HICC current KDs was observed. δENaC, TRPM2 as well as TRPM5 were defined as mediators of HepG2 cell proliferation and their silencing increased the rates of apoptosis. This study provides a molecular characterization of the HICCs in human hepatocytes and of their role in RVI, cell proliferation and apoptosis.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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The role of nitric oxide in the cardiopulmonary response to hypoxia in high- and lowland newborn llamas

Abstract

Llamas are born in the Alto Andino with protection against pulmonary hypertension. The physiology underlying protection against pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses to acute hypoxia in highland species is unknown. We determined the role of NO in the cardiopulmonary responses to acute hypoxia in high- and low-land newborn llamas.

The cardiopulmonary function of newborn llamas, born at low (580 m) or high altitude (3600 m), was studied under acute hypoxia, with and without NO blockade. In pulmonary arteries, we measured the reactivity to potassium and SNP, and in lung we determined the content of cGMP and the expression of the NO-related proteins: BKCa, PDE5, PSer92-PDE5, PKG-1, ROCK1 and 2, MYPT1, PSer695-MYPT1, PThr696-MYPT1, MLC20 and PSer19-MLC20. Pulmonary vascular remodelling was evaluated by morphometry and α-actin expression.

High- compared to low-land newborn llamas showed lower in vivo pulmonary arterial pressor responses to acute hypoxia. This protection involved enhanced NO function, since NO blockade reverted the effect and the pulmonary arterial dilator response to SNP was significantly enhanced in highland neonates. The pulmonary expression of ROCK2 and the phosphorylation of MLC20 were lower in high altitude llamas. Conversely, MYPT1 was up-regulated whilst PSer695-MYPT1 or PThr695-MYPT1 did not change. Enhanced NO-dependent mechanisms were insufficient to prevent pulmonary arterial remodelling.

Combined, the data strongly support that in the highland newborn llama reduced ROCK, increased MYPT1 expression and Ca2+ desensitization in pulmonary tissue, allow an enhanced NO biology to limit hypoxic pulmonary constrictor responses. Blunting of hypoxic pulmonary hypertensive responses may be an adaptive mechanism to life at high altitude.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Plasma Ropivacaine Concentrations Following Local Infiltration Analgesia in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Pharmacokinetic Study to Determine Safety Following Fixed-Dose Administration

Background and Objectives The primary aim of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine in patients undergoing elective total knee arthroplasty with local infiltration analgesia as the primary analgesic method. We also sought to determine the incidence of biochemical toxicity through measurement of plasma ropivacaine concentrations over the first 24 hours postoperatively. Methods This was a prospective, observational study of 15 patients undergoing elective total knee arthroplasty. Local infiltration analgesia was administered by standard technique with 300 mg ropivacaine and epinephrine 5 μg/mL. Total ropivacaine concentrations were taken at specified time intervals in the 24 hours after tourniquet release and analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Fifteen patients were enrolled into the study. The median peak ropivacaine concentration was 0.57 μg/mL, with a range of 0.32 to 0.88 μg/mL, and occurred between 6 and 24 hours. Age (P = 0.04), weight (P = 0.04), creatinine (P = 0.02), and female sex (P = 0.03) were important predictors of peak concentration. Age (P = 0.02), female sex (P = 0.01), and baseline α1 acid glycoprotein concentrations (P = 0.03) were important predictors for the area under the curve from a ropivacaine concentration versus time plot. Conclusions The peak total ropivacaine concentration was below quoted toxic concentrations (2.2 μg/mL) in all patients. This peak occurred later than has previously been described in those undergoing neuraxial or peripheral nerve block, occurring between 6 and 24 hours. The influence of age, weight, and renal function on systemic ropivacaine concentration should be considered when planning local infiltration analgesia. Female sex is a factor that has not previously been associated with peak ropivacaine concentrations. Accepted for publication August 28, 2017. Address correspondence to: Reuben J. Miller, MBChB, Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Middlemore Hospital, Private Bag 93311, Otahuhu, Auckland 1640, New Zealand (e-mail: reuben.j.miller@gmail.com). The authors declare no conflict of interest. This research was funded in part by the Counties Manukau Health TUPU fund and the South Auckland Anaesthetic Research Trust. Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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Epidural Hematoma Following Cessation of a Direct Oral Anticoagulant: A Case Report

Objective In this case report, we describe a case of epidural hematoma following epidural analgesia in a patient with recent cessation of a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC). Case Report An 89-year-old woman requiring upper abdominal surgery presented with multiple comorbidities, including a prior cerebrovascular accident resulting in a left-sided hemiparesis and atrial fibrillation requiring anticoagulation with rivaroxaban. In accordance with our departmental guidelines at the time of procedure, rivaroxaban was discontinued 4 days preoperatively. A thoracic epidural was placed at T8/9 immediately prior to induction. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis was provided with compression devices, and every-12-hour unfractionated heparin initiated 5.5 hours after epidural placement. On postoperative day 2, the patient was noted to have a bilateral motor block, and imaging demonstrated a thoracic epidural hematoma extending from T6 to T11. Preexisting neurological deficits may have delayed detection. With patient agreement, neurosurgery recommended observation rather than surgical decompression because the patient was a poor surgical candidate and limited neurologic recovery was expected. The patient had modest motor recovery over the next few months. Conclusions Guidelines for cessation of DOACs prior to neuraxial techniques are based on pharmacologic half-lives rather than accumulated experience. This case adds to the experience of neuraxial analgesia complications while following these guidelines. Patient risk may be increased by the combination of recent cessation of a DOAC, as well as the cumulative effect of multiple small risk factors. Continued vigilance and reporting of cases of epidural hematomas will enhance our understanding and ultimately improve patient care. Elderly patients and/or patients with prior neurological deficits may present further challenges for early detection and require frequent assessments with comparison to baseline status. Accepted for publication October 4, 2017. Address correspondence to: Melanie Jaeger, MD, FRCPC, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Queen's University, Victory 2, Kingston General Hospital, 76 Stuart St, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7L 2V7 (e-mail: jaegerm@kgh.kari.net). No funding was acquired for preparation or publication of this article. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Copyright © 2018 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

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Issue Information - Editorial Board



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Button Battery Powered Fidget Spinners: A Potentially Deadly New Ingestion Hazard for Children

Toys entering the marketplace may have unrecognized hazard risks until data on injury become known. The fidget spinner is a new popular toy mass marketed to children and is primarily sold without warning labels. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission has recently issued a formal statement on potential safety concerns related to ingestion of the toy parts and other hazards. Button batteries within this toy pose the greatest danger to children as ingestion can lead to lethal injury. We report 2 cases of children who swallowed a button battery from a fidget spinner, causing severe esophageal injury. Various aspects of this type of ingestion important for clinicians to be aware of are reviewed. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Yoseph Gurevich, MD, 1991 Marcus Avenue Suite M100 New Hyde Park, NY 11042 (e-mail: ygurevich@northwell.edu). Received 8 November, 2017 Accepted 29 November, 2017 Drs Khalaf and Gurevich are co-first authors. The authors report no conflicts of interest. © 2018 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,

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Commentary: Button Batteries in Fidget Spinners Is It Time to Push the “Panic Button”?

No abstract available

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Nutrition in Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Position Paper on Behalf of The Porto IBD Group of ESPGHAN

ABSTRACTBackground and aims:A growing body of evidence supports the need for detailed attention to nutrition and diet in children with IBD. We aimed to define the steps in instituting dietary or nutritional management in light of the current evidence and to offer a useful and practical guide to physicians and dieticians involved in the care of paediatric IBD patients.Methods:A group of 20 experts in paediatric IBD participated in an iterative consensus process including 2 face-to-face meetings, following an open call to ESPGHAN Porto, IBD Interest and Nutrition Committee. A list of 41 predefined questions was addressed by working subgroups based on a SR of the literature.Results:A total of 53 formal recommendations and 47 practice points were endorsed with a consensus rate of at least 80% on the following topics: nutritional assessment; nutrition as a primary therapy of paediatric IBD; macronutrients needs; trace Elements, minerals and vitamins; probiotics and prebiotics; specific dietary restrictions; dietary compounds and the risk of IBD.Conclusions:This position paper represents a useful guide to help the clinicians in the management of nutrition issues in children with IBD. Background and aims: A growing body of evidence supports the need for detailed attention to nutrition and diet in children with IBD. We aimed to define the steps in instituting dietary or nutritional management in light of the current evidence and to offer a useful and practical guide to physicians and dieticians involved in the care of paediatric IBD patients. Methods: A group of 20 experts in paediatric IBD participated in an iterative consensus process including 2 face-to-face meetings, following an open call to ESPGHAN Porto, IBD Interest and Nutrition Committee. A list of 41 predefined questions was addressed by working subgroups based on a SR of the literature. Results: A total of 53 formal recommendations and 47 practice points were endorsed with a consensus rate of at least 80% on the following topics: nutritional assessment; nutrition as a primary therapy of paediatric IBD; macronutrients needs; trace Elements, minerals and vitamins; probiotics and prebiotics; specific dietary restrictions; dietary compounds and the risk of IBD. Conclusions: This position paper represents a useful guide to help the clinicians in the management of nutrition issues in children with IBD. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Annamaria Staiano, MD, Department of Transitional Medical Science, Section of Pediatrics, Via S. Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy (e-mail: staiano@unina.it). Received 3 August, 2017 Accepted 6 January, 2018 © 2018 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,

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Fidget Spinner Ingestion

No abstract available

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Cannula cricothyroidotomy and rescue oxygenation with the Rapid-O2™ oxygen insufflation device in the management of a can't intubate/can't oxygenate scenario.

http:--www.aaic.net.au-Linkout-LinkOut.p Related Articles

Cannula cricothyroidotomy and rescue oxygenation with the Rapid-O2™ oxygen insufflation device in the management of a can't intubate/can't oxygenate scenario.

Anaesth Intensive Care. 2018 Jan;46(1):97-101

Authors: Wexler S, Hall K, Chin RY, Prineas SN

Abstract
We describe the successful use of cannula cricothyroidotomy and the Rapid-O2™ oxygen insufflation device (Meditech Systems Ltd, Dorset, UK) for rescue of a can't intubate/can't oxygenate (CICO) scenario in a patient with severe airway haemorrhage post-debridement of laryngeal amyloidosis. This case highlights the practical utility of a cannula technique for CICO rescue when appropriate equipment is used and when institutional measures are taken to prepare for this rare anaesthetic crisis.

PMID: 29361262 [PubMed - in process]



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