Τετάρτη, 24 Απριλίου 2019

Medical

Knowledge, attitude, and practice of breastfeeding: A comparative study of mothers in urban and rural communities of Lagos, Southwest Nigeria
Mobolanle R Balogun, Oluchi A Okpalugo, Adedoyin O Ogunyemi, Adekemi O Sekoni

Nigerian Medical Journal 2017 58(4):123-130

Background: Breastfeeding is a child survival intervention, which is effective in reducing child mortality. This study compared the knowledge, attitude, and practice of breastfeeding among mothers of under-five children in rural and urban communities of Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. Methods: This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Ikeja and Ikorodu, an urban and a rural local government area (LGA) of Lagos state, respectively. A total of 248 mothers of children under 5 years were selected from both areas using multistage sampling technique and subsequently interviewed. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. Chi-squared test was used for urban and rural comparisons. Results: The respondents with good level of knowledge of breastfeeding in the urban and rural areas were 84.7% and 89.5%, respectively (P = 0.256). The overall positive attitude was 52.4% and 57.3% among the urban and rural respondents, respectively (P = 0.444). More than three-quarters (75.8%) of the respondents in the rural LGA and 43.5% of the urban respondents initiated breastfeeding immediately after birth (P < 0.001). Most of the rural respondents who had babies aged 0–24 months (46.8%) were currently breastfeeding their babies compared to 25.9% of their urban counterparts (P = 0.001). Furthermore, 79.8% of the rural respondents had practiced or were currently practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) compared to 29.0% of the urban respondents (P < 0.001), with more urban women citing work resumption as reason for nonpractice of EBF (P = 0.010). The overall good practice was 16.1% and 69.4% among the urban and rural respondents, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Respondents' knowledge about breastfeeding was good, while their attitude was fair. The practice of breastfeeding among urban respondents was however low. Government and nongovernmental agencies should focus on programs that improve the attitude and breastfeeding practice of urban women.


Comparative assessment of some white blood cell and platelet parameters among normotensive and hypertensive subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Chidinma Ijeoma Eziuzo, Bruno Chukwuemeka Chinko, Datonye Victor Dapper

Nigerian Medical Journal 2017 58(4):131-137

Background: Reports comparing the values of white blood cells (WBCs) and platelet parameters among normotensive, newly diagnosed hypertensive, and known hypertensive participants in Nigeria are relatively scarce. This study sought to compare these hematologic parameters of normotensive and hypertensive participants in the Southeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Fifty participants each of normotensive, newly diagnosed hypertensive, and known hypertensive and age- and sex-matched individuals were recruited into the study. Using an automated hematology analyzer, the following hematological parameters were determined in all participants: total WBC; neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts; percentage value of neutrophil and lymphocytes; mean platelet volume (MPV); platelet distribution width; and total lymphocyte count. Results: Significantly higher total WBCs and (absolute) neutrophil counts and lower percentage lymphocyte were observed among known hypertensive male participants, whereas percentage neutrophil was significantly higher among known hypertensive female participants. Platelet count and MPV were significantly higher in hypertensive male participants compared to their normotensive counterparts. MPV was found to be significantly lower in hypertensive female participants compared to normotensive females. Conclusion: The present study reports significantly higher leukocytes, platelet counts, and MPV among hypertensive males and lower MPV among hypertensive females. Regular assessment of hematological parameters may perhaps be useful indicators of the prognosis of hypertension among the study population.


Sociodemographic factors affecting the quality of life of elderly persons attending the general outpatient clinics of a tertiary hospital, South-South Nigeria
Uduak-Obong Morgan Morgan, Etiobong Akpan Etukumana, Festus Abasiubong

Nigerian Medical Journal 2017 58(4):138-142

Background: In the last few decades, the evaluation of the quality of life (QoL) among older adults has become increasingly important in health as well as in social sciences. There has been growing emphasis on the need to understand what influences older people's QoL as it is argued to be of greater value than the traditional outcome measures, such as health status. Aim and Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the sociodemographic factors affecting the QoL of elderly patients attending the General Outpatient Clinics of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH), Uyo. Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Three hundred and ten elderly persons attending the General Outpatient Clinics of the UUTH for medical conditions between July and September 2014 were consecutively recruited for the study. Details of sociodemographic information were taken, and QoL of respondents was assessed using the older persons' QoL questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences-17.0, and the level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Of the three hundred and ten respondents recruited for the study, One hundred and seventy-seven (57.1%) were female and one hundred and thirty-three (42.9%) were male. The female-to-male ratio was 1.3:1. The age range of the respondents was between 60 and 90 years and the mean age (±standard deviation) was 67.4 (±6.6) years. Two hundred and thirty-two respondents (74.8%) had at least primary level of education and one hundred and sixty-one (51.9%) were married. The median monthly income was ₦ 25,500.00 with interquartile range of ₦ 10,000.00 to ₦ 50,000.00. From the study, 85.5% of the elderly reported an overall good QoL. High-income grade (P = 0.019), high social class (P = 0.036), and high level of education (P < 0.001) were the factors associated with good QoL in this study on univariate analysis. Conclusion: A high percentage of respondents reported an overall good QoL. High-income grade, high social class, and high level of education were the factors associated with good QoL.


Dysmenorrhea and its effects on school absenteeism and school activities among adolescents in selected secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria
Damilola M Femi-Agboola, Olutoyin O Sekoni, Olayinka O Goodman

Nigerian Medical Journal 2017 58(4):143-148

Background: Menstruation can be associated with dysmenorrhea that may affect daily activities. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, effects on school activities, and associated school absenteeism among secondary school girls in Ibadan, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was among 460 students from all girls' only secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, using a cluster sampling method. Data were collected using questionnaires and focus group discussions. The severity of dysmenorrhea was categorized as mild, moderate, and severe. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests performed to determine significant associations. Level of statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and school absenteeism was 73% and 13.1%, with the severity of dysmenorrhea being 37.5%, 43.8%, and 18.8% for mild, moderate, and severe dysmenorrhea. Other school activities affected were as follows: class concentration, class participation, social, and sports activities (17.6%, 12.2%, 10.9%, and 4.6%). Main sources of medication for pain relief were family (15.8%) and self (13.7%). Age and duration of menstruation predicted dysmenorrhea (odds ratio [OR] =3.5, confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–9.7, P = 0.019), (OR = 1.7, CI = 1.1–2.6, P = 0.022), whereas severe dysmenorrhea predicted school absenteeism (OR = 4.2, CI = 1.7–9.9, P = 0.001). Respondents opined that analgesic drugs should be available in school to prevent school absenteeism. Conclusion: Prevalence of dysmenorrhea was high and severe dysmenorrhea played a role in school absenteeism. Health education should be provided to address the dangers of self-medication while drugs for pain relief should be available in schools.