Τρίτη, 29 Αυγούστου 2017

Chromosome biology: Different turfs for cohesin and condensin

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.71

Author: Eytan Zlotorynski



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2x2OFYc
via IFTTT

Model organisms: New tools, new insights — probing social behaviour in ants

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.70

Author: Dorothy Clyde



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2x3cHT4
via IFTTT

Genetic engineering: Pigs without PERVs

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.73

Author: Linda Koch



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vDbZrP
via IFTTT

Beyond editing to writing large genomes

Nature Reviews Genetics. doi:10.1038/nrg.2017.59

Authors: Raj Chari & George M. Church



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vDvq3S
via IFTTT

Surface EMG signals in very late-stage of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a case study

Robotic arm supports aim at improving the quality of life for adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by augmenting their residual functional abilities. A critical component of robotic arm supports is th...

from Rehabilitation via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2x2Ty3u
via IFTTT

Encephalopathy caused by novel mutations in the CMP-sialic acid transporter, SLC35A1

Transport of activated nucleotide-sugars into the Golgi is critical for proper glycosylation and mutations in these transporters cause a group of rare genetic disorders termed congenital disorders of glycosylation. We performed exome sequencing on an individual with a profound neurological presentation and identified rare compound heterozygous mutations, p.Thr156Arg and p.Glu196Lys, in the CMP-sialic acid transporter, SLC35A1. Patient primary fibroblasts and serum showed a considerable decrease in the amount of N- and O-glycans terminating in sialic acid. Direct measurement of CMP-sialic acid transport into the Golgi showed a substantial decrease in overall rate of transport. Here we report the identification of the third patient with CMP-sialic acid transporter deficiency, who presented with severe neurological phenotype, but without hematological abnormalities.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vqf0jm
via IFTTT

Factors related to home health-care transition in trisomy 13

Trisomy 13 (T13) is accompanied by severe complications, and it can be challenging to achieve long-term survival without aggressive treatment. However, recently, some patients with T13 have been receiving home care. We conducted this study to investigate factors related to home health-care transition for patients with T13.We studied 28 patients with T13 born between January 2000 and December 2014. We retrospectively compared nine home care transition patients (the home care group) and 19 patients that died during hospitalization (the discharge at death group). The median gestational age of the patients was 36.6 weeks, with a median birth weight of 2,047 g. Currently, three patients (11%) have survived, and 25 (89%) have died. The home care group exhibited a significantly longer gestational age (38.9 vs. 36.3 weeks, p = 0.039) and significantly larger occipitofrontal circumference Z score (−0.04 vs. −0.09, p = 0.019). Congenital heart defects (CHD) was more frequent in the discharge at death group, with six patients in the home care group and 18 patients in the discharge at death group (67% vs. 95%, p = 0.047), respectively. Survival time was significantly longer in the home care group than in the discharge at death group (171 vs. 19 days, p = 0.012). This study has shown that gestational age, occipitofrontal circumference Z score at birth, and the presence of CHD are helpful prognostic factors for determining treatment strategy in patients with T13.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vIhbKq
via IFTTT

Discovery of a Novel Stem Rust Resistance Allele in Durum Wheat That Exhibits Differential Reactions to Ug99 Isolates

Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses on susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot. Though several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effective against emerging virulent races have not been described. Durum line 8155-B1 confers resistance against the P. graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the variant race of the Ug99 race group with additional virulence to wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr24. However, 8155-B1 does not confer resistance to the first-described race in the Ug99 race group: TTKSK. We mapped a single gene conferring resistance in 8155-B1 against race TTKST, Sr8155B1, to chromosome arm 6AS by utilizing Rusty/8155-B1 and Rusty*2/8155-B1 populations and the 90K Infinium iSelect Custom bead chip supplemented by KASP assays. One marker, KASP_6AS_IWB10558, cosegregated with Sr8155B1 in both populations and correctly predicted Sr8155B1 presence or absence in 11 durum cultivars tested. We confirmed the presence of Sr8155B1 in cultivar Mountrail by mapping in the population Choteau/Mountrail. The marker developed in this study could be used to predict the presence of resistance to race TTKST in uncharacterized durum breeding lines and also to combine Sr8155B1 with resistance genes effective to Ug99 such as Sr13. The map location of Sr8155B1 cannot rule out the possibility that this gene is an allele at the Sr8 locus. However, race specificity indicates that Sr8155B1 is different from the known alleles Sr8a and Sr8b.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vD6SYU
via IFTTT

Whole Genome Sequencing-Based Mapping and Candidate Identification of Mutations from Fixed Zebrafish Tissue

As forward genetic screens in zebrafish become more common, the number of mutants that cannot be identified by gross morphology or through transgenic approaches, such as many nervous system defects, has also increased. Screening for these difficult to visualize phenotypes demands techniques such as whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) or antibody staining, which require tissue fixation. To date, fixed tissue has not been amenable for generating libraries for whole genome sequencing (WGS). Here, we describe a method for utilizing genomic DNA from fixed tissue and a bioinformatics suite for WGS-based mapping of zebrafish mutants. We tested our protocol using two known zebrafish mutant alleles, gpr126st49 and egr2bfh227, both of which cause myelin defects. As further proof of concept we mapped a novel mutation, stl64, identified in a zebrafish WISH screen for myelination defects. We linked stl64 to chromosome 1 and identified a candidate nonsense mutation in the F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (fbxw7) gene. Importantly, stl64 mutants phenocopy previously described fbxw7vu56 mutants, and knock-down of fbxw7 in wild-type animals produced similar defects, demonstrating that stl64 disrupts fbxw7. Together, these data show that our mapping protocol can map and identify causative lesions in mutant screens which require tissue fixation for phenotypic analysis.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2x2WltE
via IFTTT

A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Ancestry and Admixture in the Colombian Populations of Choco and Medellin

At least twenty percent of Colombians identify as having African ancestry, yielding the second largest population of Afro-descendants in Latin America. To date, there have been relatively few studies focused on the genetic ancestry of Afro-Latino populations. We report a comparative analysis of the genetic ancestry of Chocó, a state located on Colombia's Pacific coast with a population that is >80% Afro-Colombian. We compared genome-wide patterns of genetic ancestry and admixture for Chocó to six other admixed American populations, with an emphasis on a Mestizo population from the nearby Colombian city of Medellín. One hundred sample donors from Chocó were genotyped across 610,545 genomic sites and compared to 94 publicly available whole genome sequences from Medellín. At the continental level, Chocó shows mostly African genetic ancestry (76%) with a nearly even split between European (13%) and Native American (11%) fractions, whereas Medellín has primarily European ancestry (75%), followed by Native American (18%) and African (7%). Sample donors from Chocó self-identify as having more African ancestry, and conversely less European and Native American ancestry, than can be genetically inferred, as opposed to what we previously found for Medellín, where individuals tend to over-estimate levels of European ancestry. We developed a novel approach for subcontinental ancestry assignment, which allowed us to characterize subcontinental source populations for each of the three distinct continental ancestry fractions separately. Despite the clear differences between Chocó and Medellín at the level of continental ancestry, the two populations show overall patterns of subcontinental ancestry that are highly similar. Their African subcontinental ancestries are only slightly different, with Chocó showing more exclusive shared ancestry with the modern Yoruba (Nigerian) population and Medellín having relatively more shared ancestry with West African populations in Sierra Leone and Gambia. Both populations show very similar Spanish ancestry within Europe and virtually identical patterns of Native American ancestry, with main contributions from the Embera and Waunana tribes. When the three subcontinental ancestry components are considered jointly, the populations of Chocó and Medellín are shown to be most closely related, to the exclusion of the other admixed American populations that we analyzed. We consider the implications of the existence of shared subcontinental ancestries for Colombian populations that appear, at first glance, to be clearly distinct with respect to competing notions of national identity that emphasize ethnic mixing (mestizaje) versus group-specific identities (multiculturalism).



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vCUxnj
via IFTTT

Genetic Dissection of Trabecular Bone Structure with Mouse Inter-subspecific Consomic Strains

Trabecular bone structure has an important influence on bone strength, but little is known about its genetic regulation. To elucidate the genetic factor(s) regulating trabecular bone structure, we compared the trabecular bone structure of two genetically remote mouse strains, C57BL/6J and Japanese wild mouse-derived MSM/Ms. Phenotyping by X-ray micro-CT revealed that MSM/Ms has structurally more fragile trabecular bone than C57BL/6J. Toward identification of genetic determinants for the difference in fragility of trabecular bone between the two mouse strains, we employed phenotype screening of consomic mouse strains in which each C57BL/6J chromosome is substituted by its counterpart from MSM/Ms. The results showed that many chromosomes affect trabecular bone structure, and that the consomic strain B6-Chr15MSM, carrying MSM/Ms-derived Chromosome 15, has the lowest values for the parameters BV/TV, Tb.N and Conn.D and the highest values for the parameters Tb.Sp and SMI. Subsequent phenotyping of sub-consomic strains for Chromosome 15 (Chr15) mapped four novel trabecular bone structure-related QTLs (Tbsq1-4) on mouse Chr15. These results collectively indicate that genetic regulation of trabecular bone structure is highly complex, and that even in the single Chr15, the combined action of the four Tbsqs controls the fragility of trabecular bone. Given that Tbsq4 is syntenic to Human Chr 12q12-13.3, where several bone-related SNPs are assigned, further study of Tbsq4 should facilitate our understanding of the genetic regulation of bone formation in human.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2x2UqoO
via IFTTT

Effect of body posture on chewing behaviors in healthy volunteers

Abstract

Mastication is essential to the eating process, and forms an important part of feeding behavior. Many factors related to the food bolus, such as bolus texture and size, are known to influence mastication. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of body posture on (1) chewing duration prior to the first swallow and (2) patterns of mastication-related EMG activity. We asked 10 healthy adults to chew 8 g of steamed rice with barium sulfate while we recorded masseter, suprahyoid, and infrahyoid muscle activity and simultaneously collected videofluorographic images. Participants chewed in either an upright or reclining position. Chewing duration, which was defined as the time from the start of mastication to the first swallow, was not different between the positions. However, the variability of chewing duration was larger in the upright vs. reclining position, and the chewing duration in the reclining position was distributed around 15 s. Masseter activity gradually decreased in a time dependent manner and was significantly larger at the early vs. late stage of mastication. Suprahyoid activity was significantly larger at the early vs. middle stage of mastication in the upright position only. Finally, masseter activity per second was negatively correlated with changes in chewing duration, i.e., the larger the increase in chewing duration in the reclining position, the more the decrease in masseter activity per second. These results suggest that position-dependent changes in chewing behaviors, as described by chewing duration and EMG activity, may vary among participants.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



from Rehabilitation via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2iHyTMQ
via IFTTT

Jaw sensorimotor control in healthy adults and effects of aging

Summary

The orofacial sensorimotor system is a unique system significantly distinguished from the spinal sensorimotor system. The jaw muscles are involved in mastication, swallowing and articulatory speech movements and their integration with respiration. These sensorimotor functions are vital for sustaining life and necessitate complex neuromuscular processing to provide for exquisite sensorimotor control of numerous orofacial muscles. The function of the jaw muscles in relation to sensorimotor control of these movements may be subject to aging-related declines. This review will focus on peripheral, brainstem and higher brain centre mechanisms involved in reflex regulation and sensorimotor coordination and control of jaw muscles in healthy adults. It will outline the limited literature bearing on age-related declines in jaw sensorimotor functions and control including reduced biting forces and increased risk of impaired chewing, speaking and swallowing. The mechanisms underlying these alterations include age-related degenerative changes within the peripheral neuromuscular system and in brain regions involved in the generation and control of jaw movements. In light of the vital role of jaw sensorimotor functions in sustaining life, normal aging involves compensatory mechanisms that utilize the neuroplastic capacity of the brain and the recruitment of additional brain regions involved in sensorimotor performance and closely associated functions (e.g., cognition and memory). However, these regions are themselves susceptible to detrimental age-related changes. Thus, better understanding of the peripheral and central mechanisms underlying age-related sensorimotor impairment is crucial for developing improved treatment approaches to prevent or cure impaired jaw sensorimotor functions and to thereby improve health and quality of life.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



from Rehabilitation via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2goh6cT
via IFTTT

Changes in psychological health, subjective food intake ability, and oral health-related quality of life during orthodontic treatment

Abstract

Background

Assessing changes in patient's psychological health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) over time during orthodontic treatment may help clinicians to treat patients more carefully.

Objectives

To evaluate changes in mental health, self-reported masticatory ability, and OHRQoL during orthodontic treatment in adults.

Methods

This prospective study included 66 adults (30 men, 36 women; mean age, 24.2 ± 5.2 years). Each patient completed the Korean versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, key subjective food intake ability (KFIA) test for five key foods, and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K) at baseline (T0), 12 months after treatment initiation (T1), and debonding (T2).

Results

All variables changed with time. Self-esteem and the total OHIP-14K score significantly decreased and increased, respectively, at T1, with a particular increase in the psychological and social disabilities scores. There were no significant differences in any questionnaire scores before and after treatment. The total OHIP-14K score was positively correlated with trait anxiety and depression, and negatively correlated with self-esteem and KFIA at T0, regardless of the treatment duration. Older patients showed a significant increase in the total OHIP-14K score at T1 and T2. OHRQoL worsened with an increase in the treatment duration.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that OHRQoL temporarily deteriorates, with the development of psychological and social disabilities, during orthodontic treatment. This is related to the baseline age, psychological health, and self-reported masticatory function. However, patients recover once the treatment is complete.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



from Rehabilitation via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2iGo8Kx
via IFTTT

Masticatory performance-related factors in preschool children: Establishing a method to assess masticatory performance in preschool children using colour-changeable chewing gum

Abstract

Background

A knowledge gap regarding masticatory performance in preschool children exists, which in turn delays intervention for preventive care; therefore, a method to easily assess performance is needed.

Objective

To investigate the feasibility of assessing masticatory performance using colour-changeable chewing gum, and to investigate masticatory performance-related factors in preschool children.

Methods

This cross-sectional survey was conducted in two childcare facilities and our laboratory. First, a one-third quantity of colour-changeable chewing gum was masticated by six adults to assess the nature and progression of colour changes in this quantity. Then, masticatory performance in 370 children 4 to 6 years of age was assessed using the same quantity of colour-changeable chewing gum (60 chew strokes). The maximum bite force, body height, weight, age, and number of healthy teeth were recorded. A t-test was performed to determine whether gum-chewing experience or lack thereof produced a significant difference in masticatory performance. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was then determined for masticatory performance assessment values and other factors solely for children with gum-chewing experience.

Results

Measurements from 259 children were obtained. Children with gum-chewing experience demonstrated significantly higher assessment values, and were deemed to have been correctly assessed. A very weak but significant positive correlation was observed only between masticatory performance and the number of healthy teeth.

Conclusions

The masticatory performance of preschool children was easily assessed using colour-changeable chewing gum. The assessment values demonstrated significant correlation with the number of healthy teeth, but not with maximum bite force, body height, weight, or age.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



from Rehabilitation via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2goJDiz
via IFTTT

Depressive Symptoms Account for Differences between Self-reported Versus Polysomnographic Assessment of Sleep Quality in Women with Myofascial TMD

Abstract

Background

Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients report poor sleep quality on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). However, polysomnographic (PSG) studies show meager evidence of sleep disturbance on standard physiological measures.

Objective

The present aim was to analyze self-reported sleep quality in TMD as a function of myofascial pain, PSG parameters, and depressive symptomatology.

Methods

PSQI scores from 124 women with myofascial TMD and 46 matched controls were hierarchically regressed onto TMD presence, ratings of pain intensity and pain-related disability, in-lab PSG variables, and depressive symptoms (Symptoms Checklist-90).

Results

Relative to controls, TMD cases had higher PSQI scores, representing poorer subjective sleep, and more depressive symptoms (both P < 0.001). Higher PSQI scores were strongly predicted by more depressive symptoms (P < 0.001, R2 = 26%). Of 19 PSG variables, two had modest contributions to higher PSQI scores: longer REM latency in TMD cases (P = 0.01, R2 = 3%) and more awakenings in all participants (P = 0.03, R2 = 2%). After accounting for these factors, TMD presence and pain ratings were not significantly related to PSQI scores.

Conclusion

These results show that reported poor sleep quality in TMD is better explained by depressive symptoms than by PSG-assessed sleep disturbances or myofascial pain. As TMD cases lacked typical PSG features of clinical depression, the results suggest a negative cognitive bias in TMD and caution against interpreting self-report sleep measures as accurate indicators of PSG sleep disturbance. Future investigations should take account of depressive symptomatology when interpreting reports of poor sleep.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.



from Rehabilitation via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2iFAQcC
via IFTTT

Magnetic Resonance Index of activity (MaRIA) and Clermont score are highly and equally effective MRI indices in detecting mucosal healing in Crohn’s disease

Magnetic resonance index of activity (MaRIA) and Clermont score are currently the two main MRI indices that have been validated compared to endoscopy in Crohn's disease (CD).

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xw4AfB
via IFTTT

Magnetic Resonance Index of activity (MaRIA) and Clermont score are highly and equally effective MRI indices in detecting mucosal healing in Crohn’s disease

Magnetic resonance index of activity (MaRIA) and Clermont score are currently the two main MRI indices that have been validated compared to endoscopy in Crohn's disease (CD).

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xw4AfB
via IFTTT

Substance Use by Immigrant Generation in a U.S.-Mexico Border City

Abstract

Immigrant generation status has an impact on substance use, with lower use rates for recent immigrants. Substance use surveillance data are reported at the national and state levels; however, no systematic collection of data exists at the city level for the general population. In particular, rates of substance use have not been published for El Paso, Texas. The aims of this study are to estimate the prevalence of substance use among Hispanics in El Paso and to determine the association between substance use and immigrant generation. Hispanic residents of El Paso (N = 837) were interviewed. Demographic, immigration, and substance use data were collected. Bivariate analysis indicated that substance use increased as immigrant generation increased, while perceived problems with substance use decreased. In comparison to Texas and national data, our data showed that the rates of tobacco, marijuana, and illicit drug use were lower among young adults in El Paso.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gouZYu
via IFTTT

Cuban Americans (CAs) and Type 2 Diabetes: An Integrative Review of the Literature

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in Hispanics but few studies have been done to differentiate diabetes effects in Hispanic subgroups, such as Cuban Americans. The purpose of this review was to characterize the studies conducted on Cuban Americans with type 2 diabetes with the aim of updating knowledge related to physiologic factors, psychologic factors, and diabetes selfmanagement. An extensive literature search located 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria for this review. Previous studies provided consistent evidence demonstrating the influence of lifestyle, metabolic, and psychosocial risk factors that lead to poorer outcomes for CAs. No intervention studies were found examining the effect of treatment and education on diabetes control. Future research is needed to determine how these factors associated with diabetes can be used in lowering risks and improving health outcomes for Cuban Americans.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wgdfEl
via IFTTT

Erratum to: Black–White Health Inequalities in Canada



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2go2lXC
via IFTTT

Mexican Sobadores in North Carolina: Manual Therapy in a New Settlement Context

Abstract

Latino immigrants to the New Settlement area of the southeastern United States face structural and cultural obstacles to accessing the conventional health care system, and come from areas with long traditions of medical treatments from healers without professional training or licensure. Little is known about the use of such healers in New Settlement areas. This study focuses on sobadores, healers who use manipulative therapy. Goals were to describe sobadores practicing in North Carolina, including their background, conditions treated, and their understanding of the pathophysiology of their patients' conditions and how their treatments work. The paper also describes who sobadores treat and sobadores' understanding of where their treatment fits into patients' pursuit of relief from symptoms. This focused ethnography draws from in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with six sobadores from Mexico practicing in North Carolina. These sobadores appear to meet both structural and cultural needs for healthcare in the immigrant Latino population.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wgbBT8
via IFTTT

Colorectal Cancer Screening Preferences among Black and Latino Primary Care Patients

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in the U.S. have historically been lower among blacks and Latinos than whites. The advent of a new stool-based test, Cologuard, calls for research to determine which CRC screening test minority individuals might prefer. Ninety black and Latino patients who had undergone screening colonoscopy were personally educated about four CRC screening tests and subsequently asked about their test preference, attributes that influenced preference, and strength of preference. Cologuard (31.1 %) and colonoscopy (64.4 %) were preferred over computerized tomographic colonography and fecal immunochemical tests. Preference was influenced by distinct test attributes. Individuals who selected Cologuard over colonoscopy were more likely to be >60 and have greater strength of test preference. There was an overriding preference for Cologuard and colonoscopy among black and Latino individuals who had undergone screening colonoscopy. To further improve CRC screening in these populations, patient preferences should guide recommendations.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wgHZVD
via IFTTT

Psychosocial Factors Associated with Alcohol Use Among Hispanic Youth

Abstract

This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, school experiences, depression, legal involvement and social norms predicted recent alcohol use and binge drinking among a national sample of Hispanic youth. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed (N = 3457). Unadjusted odds ratios were computed via univariate logistic regression analyses and significant variables were retained and included in the multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results indicated that in the past 30 days, 13.8 % of Hispanic youth drank alcohol and 8.0 % binge drank. Hispanic youth at highest risk for alcohol use were 16–17 years of age, experienced authoritarian parenting, lacked positive school experiences, had legal problems, and felt that most students at their school drank alcohol. Results should be considered when developing and implementing alcohol prevention efforts for Hispanic youth. Multiple approaches integrating family, school, and peers are needed to reduce use.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gnelbQ
via IFTTT

Erratum to: Ethnic/Racial Disparities in the Fetal Growth Outcomes of Ecuadorian Newborns



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2aiA4Ju
via IFTTT

Healthcare Disparities in Hispanic Diabetes Care: A Propensity Score-Matched Study

Abstract

Hispanics represent the largest minority group in the US. Research has shown that the ethnic minority especially Hispanics have a disproportionate burden of illness associated with diabetes mellitus. However, many have been focused on small sample sizes with potential selection bias. This study aims to examine the ethnicity disparity in health care utilization and expenditures between Hispanic and non-Hispanics after controlling for confounding variables. Cross-sectional with propensity score-matched design. The study revealed that Hispanics with diabetes had higher poverty rates, lower education, less physical activity, and less health care utilization/expenditures than did non-Hispanics. The assessment of ethnicity differences in health care is challenging because of the potential biases that require careful adjustment. This study successfully identified and controlled for confounding bias and concluded the Hispanics disparity in health care utilization still exists.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gndCaC
via IFTTT

Correlates of Dominicans’ Identification of Cancer as a Worrisome Health Problem

Abstract

There is a paucity of studies centering on the correlates of cancer worry among Hispanics from the Dominican Republic and the potential informatics strategies to address such worries. Data were analyzed using descriptive and correlational statistics, and logistic regression with the dependent variable of cancer worry. Independent variables for the regression were: age, gender, marital status, education, socioeconomic status, previous diagnosis of cancer, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and chronic burden. Four variables significantly increased cancer worry: married marital status (OR = 1.19 [95% CI 1.01, 1.41]), younger age (OR = .992 [95% CI 0.987, 0.997]), less depression (OR = .96 [95% CI 0.94, 0.98]), and cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.12 [95% CI 1.24, 3.65]). New knowledge was generated on the contextual factors that influence these health concerns in a major Hispanic sub-group. Implications for practice, research and education are discussed.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wgcM4G
via IFTTT

Beyond Race/Ethnicity: Skin Color and Cardiometabolic Health Among Blacks and Hispanics in the United States

Abstract

We investigated whether darker interviewer-ascribed skin color is associated with worse cardiometabolic health among young adult Blacks and Hispanics in the United States. Our sample was comprised of 2,128 non-Hispanic Blacks and 1603 Hispanics aged 24-32, who were in high school in the United States in 1994. We used logistic and OLS regression to predict obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiometabolic risk. We tested the interaction between Hispanic immigrant generation and ascribed skin color. Darker ascribed skin color predicted worse cardiometabolic health among both young adult Blacks and Hispanics. Among Hispanics, the associations were strongest among third and higher generation respondents. Our findings suggest that among US Blacks and Hispanics how individuals are perceived by others via their skin color is significantly associated with their health and well-being. Gradients in cardiometabolic health in young adulthood will likely contribute to gradients in cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality later in life.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gp3fmn
via IFTTT

Decomposing the Household Food Insecurity Gap for Children of U.S.-Born and Foreign-Born Hispanics: Evidence from 1998 to 2011

Abstract

Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-K, multivariate analysis, state fixed effects, and regression decomposition, we examine changes in food insecurity for Hispanic kindergarteners between 1998 and 2011, a time period of rapid immigration and political/socio-economic changes. During this time the household food insecurity gap between children of U.S.-born and foreign-born mothers increased by almost 7 percentage points. The factors—child, family, and state—that contributed to the nativity gap differed over time. In both periods, lower familial resources among immigrant families, i.e. endowment effects, contributed to the gap; this was the main component of the gap in 2011 but only one component in 1998. In 1998, heterogeneity in state effects was positively associated with the nativity food insecurity gap. This means that children of foreign-born mothers experience higher household food insecurity than do children of U.S.-born mothers in the same state, even after controlling for child and family characteristics. In 2011, almost half of the gap remained unexplained. This unexplained portion could be driven by differential effects of the Great Recession, growing anti-immigrant sentiment, and/or the relatively large share of unauthorized immigrants in 2011.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wfzh9W
via IFTTT

Local-Level Immigration Enforcement and Food Insecurity Risk among Hispanic Immigrant Families with Children: National-Level Evidence

Abstract

Local-level immigration enforcement generates fear and reduces social service use among Hispanic immigrant families but the health impacts are largely unknown. We examine the consequence of 287(g), the foundational enforcement program, for one critical risk factor of child health—food insecurity. We analyze nationally representative data on households with children from pooled cross-sections of the Current Population Survey Food Supplemental Survey. We identify the influence of 287(g) on food insecurity pre-post-policy accounting for metro-area and year fixed-effects. We find that 287(g) is associated with a 10 percentage point increase in the food insecurity risk of Mexican non-citizen households with children, the group most vulnerable to 287(g). We find no evidence of spillover effects on the broader Hispanic community. Our results suggest that local immigration enforcement policies have unintended consequences. Although 287(g) has ended, other federal-local immigration enforcement partnerships persist, which makes these findings highly policy relevant.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gmDmna
via IFTTT

Associations Between Objective and Self-Report Measures of Traffic and Crime Safety in Latino Parents of Preschool Children

Abstract

Differences in subjective and objective safety may be explained by moderators that shape parental perceptions of the environment. This study examined associations between subjective and objective measures of traffic and crime safety in preschool parents (N = 240) and potential moderators. Community cohesion, social control, and physical activity parenting practices were measured. Objective measures of crime and traffic were measured at the block-group level. Linear models revealed perceived traffic was negatively associated with the traffic hazards (b = −0.03; 95 % CI: −0.05, −0.01; p = .041). Acculturation moderated the relationship between perceptions of disorder and crime (b = 0.001; 95 % CI: 0.000, 0.003; p = .044). Poor community cohesion moderated the relationship between perceptions of disorder and crime (b = 0.0015; 95 % CI: 0.0002, 0.0028; p = .028). Perceived traffic safety was associated with the traffic hazard index in parents of boys (b = −0.04; 95 % CI: −0.07, −0.01; p = .027). Acculturation and community cohesion can be used to align misperceptions of safety to actual safety to promote outdoor play.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gnrPUG
via IFTTT

Effect of whisker geometry on contact force produced by vibrissae moving at different velocities

Rats and mice are able to perform a variety of subtle tactile discriminations with their mystacial vibrissae. Increasingly, the design and interpretation of neurophysiological and behavioral studies are inspired by and linked to a more precise understanding of the detailed physical properties of the whiskers and their associated hair follicles. Here we used a piezoelectric sensor (bimorph) to examine how contact forces are influenced by the geometry of individual whisker hairs. For a given point along a whisker, bimorph signals are linearly related to whisker movement velocity. The slope of this linear function, called velocity sensitivity (VS), diminishes nonlinearly as whisker diameter decreases. Whiskers differ in overall length, thickness, and proximal-distal taper. Thus VS varies along an individual whisker and among different whiskers on the mystacial pad. Thinner, shorter whiskers, such as those located rostrally in rats and those in mice, have lower overall VSs, rendering them potentially less effective for mediating discriminations that rely on subtle velocity cues. The nonlinear effect of diameter combined with the linear effect of arc length produces radial distance tuning curves wherein small differences in the proximal-distal location of impacts yields larger differences in signal magnitude. Such position-dependent cues could contribute to the localization of objects near the face. Proximal-to-distal changes in contact location during whisking sweeps could also provide signals that aid texture discrimination.

NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study describes the geometry of facial whiskers distributed across the mystacial pad with emphasis on velocity encoding of object strikes. Findings indicate how the shapes, lengths, and thicknesses of individual hairs can contribute to sophisticated vibrissa-based tactile discrimination.



from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wQHALa
via IFTTT

Integration of visual and tactile information in reproduction of traveled distance

In the natural world, self-motion always stimulates several different sensory modalities. Here we investigated the interplay between a visual optic flow stimulus simulating self-motion and a tactile stimulus (air flow resulting from self-motion) while human observers were engaged in a distance reproduction task. We found that adding congruent tactile information (i.e., speed of the air flow and speed of visual motion are directly proportional) to the visual information significantly improves the precision of the actively reproduced distances. This improvement, however, was smaller than predicted for an optimal integration of visual and tactile information. In contrast, incongruent tactile information (i.e., speed of the air flow and speed of visual motion are inversely proportional) did not improve subjects' precision indicating that incongruent tactile information and visual information were not integrated. One possible interpretation of the results is a link to properties of neurons in the ventral intraparietal area that have been shown to have spatially and action-congruent receptive fields for visual and tactile stimuli.

NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows that tactile and visual information can be integrated to improve the estimates of the parameters of self-motion. This, however, happens only if the two sources of information are congruent—as they are in a natural environment. In contrast, an incongruent tactile stimulus is still used as a source of information about self-motion but it is not integrated with visual information.



from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xKXTW1
via IFTTT

P379 Assessment of cognitive function in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: An event related EEG desynchronization and synchronization study

Quantitative analysis of brain responses to cognitive tasks using event related desynchronization (ERD) and event related synchronization (ERS) and correlation the results with scores of neuropsychological tests in patients with BCECTS.

from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wHuOhw
via IFTTT

P378 Quantitative electroencephalographic and psychometric analysis of possible cognitive decline in healthy elderly subjects

Numerous studies have been done to investigate aging and age-related changes (ARCs) which refer to the deterioration in the biologic processes occurring with senescence. We aimed to assess cognitive functions in normal elderly subjects using electrophysiological studies, including power of brain activity and psychometric cognitive assessment scales.

from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wm7rHN
via IFTTT

P377 Inappropriate sexual behavior as an initial clinical feature in progressive supranuclear palsy: Case report

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a parkinsonian syndrome that typically affects gait and oculomotor control. Early clinical features of PSP are cognitive impairment and nonspecific affective, behavioral disturbances, personality changes, memory defects, depression, apathy, or euphoria, whereas hypersexuality is rare in PSP. Dopamine agonists are the major risk factor triggering hypersexuality in patients with PSP. In this article, we report a patient presented with hypersexual behavior as an initial symptom before using dopamine agonists as a treatment.

from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wGXOpr
via IFTTT

Innovation Zone - Mercury Medical Small Adult CPR2 Bag

coming_soon.png



from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wGJltC
via IFTTT

Innovation Zone - Mercury Medical Small Adult CPR2 Bag

coming_soon.png



from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wGJltC
via IFTTT

Innovation Zone - Mercury Medical Small Adult CPR2 Bag

coming_soon.png



from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wGJltC
via IFTTT

How to remove the most common uniform stains

Despite your best efforts, blood stains, food grease and the not-so-fun vomit tinge happen from time to time

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vpufsE
via IFTTT

Innovation Zone - Mercury Medical Small Adult CPR2 Bag

coming_soon.png



from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wGJltC
via IFTTT

Primary Care Providers’ Perceptions of Young Cambodian American Female Patients

Abstract

There are significant health disparities among Southeast Asian Americans. As an initial step toward understanding the psychosocial factors associated with these disparities, the present study examined primary care providers' perspectives of health status, healthcare utilization, health-related behaviors, and stressors among one subset of Southeast Asian Americans—Cambodian American women between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Interviews with five primary care providers indicated that cultural, historical, psychological and social issues were associated with health outcomes and health behaviors. Results also pointed to clinical considerations and research directions that would improve treatment and understanding of health problems among young Cambodian American women.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wPTh4w
via IFTTT

In vivo loss-of-function screens identify KPNB1 as a new druggable oncogene in epithelial ovarian cancer [Genetics]

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a deadly cancer, and its prognosis has not been changed significantly during several decades. To seek new therapeutic targets for EOC, we performed an in vivo dropout screen in human tumor xenografts using a pooled shRNA library targeting thousands of druggable genes. Then, in follow-up...

from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2x1nnBl
via IFTTT

Optimized strategy for in vivo Cas9-activation in Drosophila [Genetics]

While several large-scale resources are available for in vivo loss-of-function studies in Drosophila, an analogous resource for overexpressing genes from their endogenous loci does not exist. We describe a strategy for generating such a resource using Cas9 transcriptional activators (CRISPRa). First, we compare a panel of CRISPRa approaches and demonstrate...

from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vBBJoD
via IFTTT

Accurate RNA consensus sequencing for high-fidelity detection of transcriptional mutagenesis-induced epimutations [Genetics]

Transcriptional mutagenesis (TM) due to misincorporation during RNA transcription can result in mutant RNAs, or epimutations, that generate proteins with altered properties. TM has long been hypothesized to play a role in aging, cancer, and viral and bacterial evolution. However, inadequate methodologies have limited progress in elucidating a causal association....

from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2x1lEMj
via IFTTT

Feedback amplification loop drives malignant growth in epithelial tissues [Genetics]

Interactions between cells bearing oncogenic mutations and the surrounding microenvironment, and cooperation between clonally distinct cell populations, can contribute to the growth and malignancy of epithelial tumors. The genetic techniques available in Drosophila have contributed to identify important roles of the TNF-α ligand Eiger and mitogenic molecules in mediating these...

from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vBJ0ok
via IFTTT

Golfers, staff save man in cardiac arrest

When the golfer dropped, players immediately called 911, started performing CPR and contacted the course clubhouse

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vphwX1
via IFTTT

Exercise-related sensations contribute to decrease power during repeated cycle sprints with limited influence on neural drive

Abstract

Purposes

We manipulated the inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) to examine the effects of physiological perturbations on exercise-related sensations and the neural drive of the quadriceps during repeated, brief, maximal cycle sprints.

Methods

Nine active males completed a repeated sprint cycle protocol (10 × 4-s maximal sprints with 30 s of passive recovery) in normoxia (NM; FiO2 0.21) and severe normobaric hypoxia (HY; FiO2 0.13). Peak power, quadriceps Root Mean Squared electromyography (RMS EMG), physiological (heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation, blood lactate concentration) and perceptual responses were recorded.

Results

The 10 sprints in HY were associated with lower arterial oxygen saturation values compared to NM [80.7 ± 0.9 vs. 95.6 ± 0.6%; P < 0.001; effect size (ES) = 0.98], higher blood lactate values (11.9 ± 0.4 vs. 9.9 ± 0.9 mmol L−1; P = 0.05; ES = 0.36), and greater exercise-related sensations (~36%; P < 0.001; ES > 0.47). Mean power for sprints 1–10 were lower (−13 ± 3%; P = 0.001; ES = 0.79), and sprint decrement was more pronounced in HY compared to NM (21.4 ± 3.7 vs. 13.2 ± 2.7%; P = 0.003). There was a 17% decrease in RMS EMG activity from the first to the last sprint (P < 0.001; ES = 0.65), independent of condition (P = 0.597; ES = 0.04).

Conclusions

Despite severe hypoxia exacerbating both physiological and perceptual perturbations, the performance decrement observed during the repeated sprint protocol did not coincide with an accentuated decline in RMS EMG activity. These data suggest that higher-than-normal exercise-related sensations or perceptions coincide with fatigue during repeated sprinting, independent of changes in neural drive, when the task characteristics are known beforehand.



from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2gmzx1D
via IFTTT

Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Fitness, Fat Mass and Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Children with Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Abstract

Background

Paediatric obesity significantly increases the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases across the lifespan. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) could mitigate this risk. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves CRF in clinical adult populations but the evidence in paediatric obesity is inconsistent.

Objectives

The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of a 12-week, HIIT intervention for increasing CRF and reducing adiposity in children with obesity.

Methods

Children with obesity (n = 99, 7–16 years old) were randomised into a 12-week intervention as follows: (1) HIIT [n = 33, 4 × 4-min bouts at 85–95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), interspersed with 3 min of active recovery at 50–70% HRmax, 3 times/week] and nutrition advice; (2) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) [n = 32, 44 min at 60–70% HRmax, 3 times/week] and nutrition advice; and (3) nutrition advice only (nutrition) [n = 34]. CRF was quantified through a maximal exercise test ( \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_ }} \) ) while adiposity was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air-displacement plethysmography.

Results

HIIT stimulated significant increases in relative \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_ }} \) compared with MICT (+3.6 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 1.1–6.0, P = 0.004) and the nutrition intervention (+5.4 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.9–7.9, P = 0.001). However, the intervention had no significant effect on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body composition or cardiometabolic biomarkers (P > 0.05).

Conclusion

A 12-week, HIIT intervention was highly effective in increasing cardiorespiratory fitness when compared with MICT and nutrition interventions. While there were no concomitant reductions in adiposity or blood biomarkers, the cardiometabolic health benefit conferred through increased CRF should be noted.

Clinical trials registration number

Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01991106.



from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wZT1z8
via IFTTT

Are the Current Guidelines on Caffeine Use in Sport Optimal for Everyone? Inter-individual Variation in Caffeine Ergogenicity, and a Move Towards Personalised Sports Nutrition

Abstract

Caffeine use is widespread in sport, with a strong evidence base demonstrating its ergogenic effect. Based on existing research, current guidelines recommend ingestion of 3–9 mg/kg approximately 60 min prior to exercise. However, the magnitude of performance enhancement following caffeine ingestion differs substantially between individuals, with the spectrum of responses ranging between highly ergogenic to ergolytic. These extensive inter-individual response distinctions are mediated by variation in individual genotype, environmental factors, and the legacy of prior experiences partially mediated via epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we briefly review the drivers of this inter-individual variation in caffeine response, focusing on the impact of common polymorphisms within two genes, CYP1A2 and ADORA2A. Contemporary evidence suggests current standardised guidelines are optimal for only a sub-set of the athlete population. Clearer understanding of the factors underpinning inter-individual variation potentially facilitates a more nuanced, and individually and context-specific customisation of caffeine ingestion guidelines, specific to an individual's biology, history, and competitive situation. Finally, we identify current knowledge deficits in this area, along with future associated research questions.



from Sports Medicine via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vANETy
via IFTTT

Short-term peripheral sensitization by brief exposure to pheromone components in Spodoptera littoralis

Abstract

In insects, the olfactory system displays a high degree of plasticity. In Spodoptera littoralis, pre-exposure of males to the sex pheromone has been shown to increase the sensitivity of the olfactory sensory neurons at peripheral level. In this study, we have investigated this sensitization effect by recording the electroantennographic responses of male antennae to the major sex pheromone component (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate and to the minor components (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate. Responses to the conjugated diene acetate at 1 and 10 µg and to the unconjugated ester at 10 µg at three different times (11, 22 and 33 min) after pre-exposure (T = 0 min) were significantly higher than those at T = 0, whereas no increase of sensitivity to the pheromone was elicited by any dose of the minor monoene acetate. In addition, pre-exposed antennae to sub-threshold amounts (0.1, 1 and 10 ng) of the major pheromone component also induced an increased response to the chemical at different times (5 and 15 min) after exposure. Our results revealed that pre-exposed isolated antennae display a short-term higher sensitivity at the peripheral level when compared to naive antennae. In addition, we provide evidence of a peripheral sensitization mediated not only by the major pheromone component, but also by the minor unconjugated diene acetate, and the induction of this sensitivity appears to be dependent on the pre-exposure dose and the time span between pre-exposure and subsequent recordings. Possible implications of the sensitization effect displayed by the minor component for a more effective discrimination of the pheromone bouquets of other closely related species are highlighted.



from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wlmUYh
via IFTTT

SMN regulation in SMA and in response to stress: new paradigms and therapeutic possibilities

Abstract

Low levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein cause the neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMA is a pediatric disease characterized by spinal motor neuron degeneration. SMA exhibits several levels of severity ranging from early antenatal fatality to only mild muscular weakness, and disease prognosis is related directly to the amount of functional SMN protein that a patient is able to express. Current therapies are being developed to increase the production of functional SMN protein; however, understanding the effect that natural stresses have on the production and function of SMN is of critical importance to ensuring that these therapies will have the greatest possible effect for patients. Research has shown that SMN, both on the mRNA and protein level, is highly affected by cellular stress. In this review we will summarize the research that highlights the roles of SMN in the disease process and the response of SMN to various environmental stresses.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vA7uOP
via IFTTT

A comparison of the video laryngoscopes with Macintosh laryngoscope for nasotracheal intubation.

A comparison of the video laryngoscopes with Macintosh laryngoscope for nasotracheal intubation.

Asian J Anesthesiol. 2017 Mar;55(1):17-21

Authors: Tseng KY, Lu IC, Shen YC, Lin CH, Chen PN, Cheng KI

Abstract
Nasotracheal intubation (NTI) is usually required in patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery. Though video-scopes have been demonstrated to perform well in oral endotracheal intubation, limited information is available concerning NTI. The aim of the study is to compare the efficiency of video-scopes and the traditional direct laryngoscopy in NTI. One hundred and eight patients scheduled for elective oro-maxillofacial surgery under nasotracheal intubation general anesthesia were randomly allocated into one of 3 groups of GlideScope, Pentax AirWay Scope, or Macintosh laryngoscope respectively. The primary outcome measures were total intubation time and each separate time interval (time A: for placement for the nasotracheal tube from selected nostril to oropharynx; time B: for use of devices to view the glottic opening; time C: for advancing nasotracheal tube from oropharynx into trachea and removing the scope from the oral cavity). The secondary outcomes were measurement of scores of modified naso-intubation difficulty scale (MNIDS) and attempts at intubation.
RESULTS: Mean total intubation time and time C interval were taken with GlideScope (33.1 s and 9.7 s), Pentax (38.4 s and 12.9 s), and Macintosh (42.2 s and 14.9 s) respectively. There was a significant difference among the groups (total time, P = 0.03; time C, P = 0.02). The median score of MNIDS was significantly lower using GlideScope or Pentax compared with using Macintosh in NTI (P = 0.037) and difficult intubation grading by MNIDS presented as easier in the GlideScope group than in the Macintosh group (0.016). Using GlideScope, intubation was successful at the first attempt in 80% patients whereas only 65% and 72.5% with the Pentax and Macintosh (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: As compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope, the GlideScope video laryngoscope facilitated nasotracheal intubations with shortened intubation time and reduced intubation difficulty in patients undergoing oromaxillofacial surgery.

PMID: 28846537 [PubMed - in process]



from Anaesthesiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xtGYIr
via IFTTT

NHTSA to host webinar on patient, EMS provider safety

By EMS1 Staff WASHINGTON — The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration will host a webinar discussing lights and siren use and fatigue in EMS providers. Two recent projects reviewed evidence in order to develop recommendations for improving the safety of EMS patients as well as EMS providers. The lead investigators on the projects will share the data in the webinar and how you can incorporate ...

from EMS via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wleoIV
via IFTTT

Congenital neurodevelopmental anomalies in pediatric and young adult cancer

Congenital anomalies that are diagnosed in at least 120,000 US infants every year are the leading cause of infant death and contribute to disability and pediatric hospitalizations. Several large-scale epidemiologic studies have provided substantial evidence of an association between congenital anomalies and cancer risk in children, suggesting potential underlying cancer-predisposing conditions and the involvement of developmental genetic pathways. Electronic medical records from 1,107 pediatric, adolescent, and young adult oncology patients were reviewed. The observed number (O) of congenital anomalies among children with a specific pediatric cancer subtype was compared to the expected number (E) of anomalies based on the frequency of congenital anomalies in the entire study population. The O/E ratios were tested for significance using Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to compare overall and neurological malignancy survival rates following tumor diagnosis. Thirteen percent of patients had a congenital anomaly diagnosis prior to their cancer diagnosis. When stratified by congenital anomaly subtype, there was an excess of neurological anomalies among children with central nervous system tumors (O/E = 1.56, 95%CI 1.13–2.09). Male pediatric cancer patients were more likely than females to have a congenital anomaly, particularly those <5 years of age (O/E 1.35, 95%CI 0.97–1.82). Our study provides additional insight into the association between specific congenital anomaly types and pediatric cancer development. Moreover, it may help to inform the development of new screening policies and support hypothesis-driven research investigating mechanisms underlying tumor predisposition in children with congenital anomalies.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wGhFVY
via IFTTT

The Association Between Acculturation and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Ghanaian and Nigerian-born African Immigrants in the United States: The Afro-Cardiac Study

Abstract

The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in ethnic minorities in the United States (US) is high. Acculturation may worsen or improve cardiovascular health in immigrants. We sought to examine the association between acculturation and elevated cardiovascular disease risk in African immigrants, a growing immigrant population in the US. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Ghanaian and Nigerian born-African immigrants in the US. To determine whether acculturation was associated with having elevated CVD risk (defined as ≥3 CVD risk factors or Pooled Cohort Equations score ≥7.5%), we performed unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses. For both outcomes, sex-specific models were fitted. Participants (N = 253) were aged 35–74 years and resided in Baltimore–Washington-D.C. The mean age (SD) was 49.5 (9.2) years and 58% were female. Residing in the US for ≥10 years was associated with an almost fourfold (95% CI 1.05–14.35) and eightfold (95% CI 2.09–30.80) greater odds of overweight/obesity and elevated CVD risk respectively in males. Females residing in the US for ≥10 years had 2.60 times (95% CI 1.04–6.551) greater odds of hypertension than newer residents. Participants were classified according to acculturation strategies: Integrationists, 166 (66%); Traditionalists, 80 (32%); Marginalists, 5 (2%); and Assimilationists, 2 (1%). Integrationists had a 0.46 (95% CI 0.24–0.87) lower odds of having ≥3 CVD risk factors and 0.38 (95% CI 0.18–0.78) lower odds of having elevated CVD risk (Pooled Cohort Equations score ≥7.5%) than Traditionalists. Although longer length of stay was associated with CVD risk, Integrationists had lower CVD risk than Traditionalists. Our results suggest that coordinated public health responses to the epidemic of CVD risk factors in the US should target this understudied population. Acculturation should be considered as a meaningful contributor of increased CVD risk and acculturation strategies may be used to tailor interventions in African immigrants. Promoting successful integration may reduce immigrants' CVD risk.



from Health via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2xIV33J
via IFTTT

Take time: odor coding capacity across sensory neurons increases over time in Drosophila

Abstract

Due to the highly efficient olfactory code, olfactory sensory systems are able to reliably encode enormous numbers of olfactory stimuli. The olfactory code consists of combinatorial activation patterns across sensory neurons, thus its capacity exceeds the number of involved classes of sensory neurons by a manifold. Activation patterns are not static but vary over time, caused by the temporally complex response dynamics of the individual sensory neuron responses. We systematically analyzed the temporal dynamics of olfactory sensory neuron responses to a diverse set of odorants. We find that response dynamics depend on the combination of sensory neuron and odorant and that information about odorant identity can be extracted from the time course of the response. We also show that new response dynamics can arise when mixing two odorants. Our data show that temporal dynamics of odorant responses are able to significantly enhance the coding capacity of olfactory sensory systems.



from Physiology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2iFaIyw
via IFTTT

An efficient and tunable parameter to improve variant calling for whole genome and exome sequencing data

Abstract

Next generation sequencing (NGS) has traditionally been performed in various fields including agricultural to clinical and there are so many sequencing platforms available in order to obtain accurate and consistent results. However, these platforms showed amplification bias when facilitating variant calls in personal genomes. Here, we sequenced whole genomes and whole exomes from ten Korean individuals using Illumina and Ion Proton, respectively to find the vulnerability and accuracy of NGS platform in the GC rich/poor area. Overall, a total of 1013 Gb reads from Illumina and ~39.1 Gb reads from Ion Proton were analyzed using BWA-GATK variant calling pipeline. Furthermore, conjunction with the VQSR tool and detailed filtering strategies, we achieved high-quality variants. Finally, each of the ten variants from Illumina only, Ion Proton only, and intersection was selected for Sanger validation. The validation results revealed that Illumina platform showed higher accuracy than Ion Proton. The described filtering methods are advantageous for large population-based whole genome studies designed to identify common and rare variations associated with complex diseases.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2x0hTH1
via IFTTT

Predictors of high healthcare costs in elderly patients with liver cancer in end-of-life: A longitudinal population-based study

BMC Cancer

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vFzUpK
via IFTTT

US FDA steps up scrutiny of stem-cell therapies

Reuters Health News

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vnp50d
via IFTTT

Greater hypertrophy can be achieved with associating liver partition with portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy compared to conventional staged hepatectomy, but with a higher price to pay?

The American Journal of Surgery

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vFH5hK
via IFTTT

Providers still largely in the dark about MACRA as reporting deadline nears

Healthcare Finance News

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vo3XHc
via IFTTT

Digestive decontamination in burn patients: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials and observational studies

Burns

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vFw8gi
via IFTTT

A phase II study of modified docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1 (mDCS) chemotherapy for unresectable advanced gastric cancer

Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vnkPy9
via IFTTT

Exploring conditions for redistribution of anti-TNFs to reduce spillage. A study on the quality of anti-TNF home storage

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vFH51e
via IFTTT

Thirty-day hospital readmission after restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis at a high-volume center

Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vnT9Jj
via IFTTT

Unrestricted faecal calprotectin testing performs poorly in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in patients in primary care

Journal of Clinical Pathology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vFF9pB
via IFTTT

Rare clinically significant hepatic events and hepatitis B reactivation occur more frequently following rather than during direct-acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C: Data from a national US cohort

Journal of Viral Hepatitis

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vnSzLO
via IFTTT

Incidence of primary biliary cholangitis in a rural midwestern population

Clinical Medicine & Research

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vFFpon
via IFTTT

Efficacy and safety of apatinib treatment for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

OncoTargets and Therapy

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vo3XqG
via IFTTT

Gilead to buy Kite for promising cancer therapies in $12 billion deal

Reuters Health News

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vFw7ce
via IFTTT

Time Trends and Predictors of Acute Gastroenteritis in the United States: Results From National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vnp2Bz
via IFTTT

Pulmonary function changes after radiotherapy for lung or esophageal cancer: A systematic review focusing on dose-volume parameters

The Oncologist

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vG0XkK
via IFTTT

Diminished accuracy of biomarkers of fibrosis in low replicative chronic hepatitis B

BMC Gastroenterology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vnKpmx
via IFTTT

N-acetylcysteine and prednisolone treatment improved serum biochemistries in suspected flupirtine cases of severe idiosyncratic liver injury

Liver International

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vFBlEG
via IFTTT

Serum Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein predicts hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and recurrence in nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy for chronic hepatitis B

Journal of Gastroenterology

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vnT88d
via IFTTT

The role of surgery and adjuvant therapy in lymph node-positive cancers of the gallbladder and intrahepatic bile ducts

Cancer

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vFlwOz
via IFTTT

Clinical applications of dendritic cells–cytokine-induced killer cells mediated immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer: An up-to-date meta-analysis

OncoTargets and Therapy

from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vo6wJn
via IFTTT

Association of rs1057035polymorphism in microRNA biogenesis pathway gene ( DICER1 ) with azoospermia among Iranian population

Abstract

Since genes involved in microRNA biogenesis pathways have a main role in impaired spermatogenesis, in this research, we evaluated different genotypes frequency of seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DICER1 and DROSHA genes. Different genotypes frequency of DICER1 (rs12323635, rs1057035, rs13078 and rs3742330) and DROSHA (rs10719, rs642321 and rs2291102) were determined by sequencing method in 385 infertile men and 120 fertile controls. It was found that CC genotype (P = 0.000) and C allele (P = 0.0) of rs1057035 T > C polymorphism were associated with idiopathic male infertility (azoospermia). Gene expression study in blood and testis samples was done by real time PCR technique. Our results showed significant under expression of DICER1 gene in blood and testis tissues of azoospermic samples (P < 0.05), but we did not observed significant difference in expression ratio between infertile men with and without C allele of rs1057035 SNP (P > 0.05). The results of this study showed that among the studied variants, only one of them in DICER1 might be associated with azoospermia, but additional studies needs in different populations and ethnics.



from Genetics via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2vnhDSV
via IFTTT

The Serrated Polyp Pathway: Is It Time to Alter Surveillance Guidelines?

Abstract

Purpose of Review

In this manuscript, we review current surveillance guidelines for serrated polyps (SPs) and discuss how recent studies inform the selection of appropriate surveillance intervals for patients with SPs.

Recent Findings

Large and/or proximal SPs, particularly sessile serrated polyps (SSPs), are associated with increased risk of both synchronous and metachronous neoplasia, including advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). Persons harboring multiple SSPs or dysplastic SSPs are at the highest risk. Moreover, a high percentage of large and/or proximal SPs are reclassified as SSPs when read by trained gastrointestinal pathologists, even if they were originally reported as hyperplastic polyps. These findings support the adoption of surveillance guidelines that prescribe closer surveillance of large and/or proximal SPs, regardless of subtype.

Summary

SSPs remain a challenge to reliably identify, resect, and diagnose via histology. The increased risk of future neoplasia in patients with SSPs is likely driven by a combination of underdetection, inadequate removal, misclassification, and biology. Until further evidence emerges, we support guidelines that recommend close surveillance of patients with a history of large and/or proximal SPs and SSPs specifically in order to mitigate the threat of interval CRC.



from Gastroenterology via xlomafota13 on Inoreader http://ift.tt/2wesnlC
via IFTTT