Σάββατο, 23 Ιουνίου 2018

Performance of Electrical Velocimetry for Noninvasive Cardiac Output Measurements in Perioperative Patients After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Background: Fluid therapy guided by cardiac output measurements is of particular importance for adequate cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in neurosurgical patients. We examined the usefulness of a noninvasive electrical velocimetry (EV) device based on the thoracic bioimpedance method for perioperative hemodynamic monitoring in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients and Methods: In total, 18 patients who underwent surgical clipping or endovascular coiling for ruptured aneurysms were examined prospectively. Simultaneous cardiac index (CI) measurements obtained with EV (CIEV) and reference transpulmonary thermodilution (CITPTD) were compared. A total of 223 pairs of data were collected. Results: A significant correlation was found between CIEV and CITPTD (r=0.86; P

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Dilated Pupil as a Diagnostic Component of Brain Death—Does it Really Matter?

No abstract available

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Gratitude intervention modulates P3 amplitude in a temporal discounting task

Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Andrea L. Patalano, Sydney L. Lolli, Charles A. Sanislow
Gratitude has been shown to reduce economic impatience. In particular, individuals induced to experience heightened gratitude are more willing to choose delayed larger rewards over immediate smaller rewards (i.e., they have lower discounting rates) than those in a neutral condition. Using the event-related potential (ERP) method, we investigated the relation between gratitude level and neurophysiological correlates. Of interest was motivated information processing, as indexed by the P3 component. Participants were administered a gratitude or a neutral mood induction followed by a temporal discounting task (choosing between a fixed immediate reward versus a future reward that varied across trials) while electroencephalogram (EEG) activity was recorded. Individuals in the gratitude condition had greater P3 amplitude, suggesting greater attention to the future-reward option (the choice option that varied across trials), even when this option was not selected, and providing the first evidence of gratitude-induced changes in electrophysiological activity.



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Molecular Imaging in Gastroenterology: a route for personalized endoscopy

With the rapid expansion and diversification of the repertoire of biological agents utilized in inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer and the increase in oncological patients in gastroenterology, visualization of single receptor or molecular target expression and the subsequent initiation of expression tailored therapy are gaining increasing attention. Through the combination of utilizing fluorescently labelled probes with high specificity towards defined molecular targets and their subsequent detection and visualisation with endoscopic devices, molecular imaging is a new emerging field focussing on the receptor expression within the mucosa on a cellular level rather than on macroscopic changes.

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Impact of radiotracer injection latency and seizure duration on subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM) performance in children

Localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation is crucial for successful outcome and usually requires multiple investigations. It has been described that seizure activity is associated with transient focal increased cerebral blood flow in the involved cortical region (Horsley, 1892, Penfield, 1939). Subtraction ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) co-registered to magnetic resonance imaging (SISCOM), which demonstrates regional differences in cerebral blood flow based on a differential between ictal and interictal perfusion imaging, has been shown to help improve the accuracy of epileptic focus localization, particularly in adult population (O'Brien et al., 1998b, O'Brien et al., 1999, Spanaki et al., 1999b, Kaiboriboon et al., 2002, O'Brien et al., 2004).

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Bibliometrics of Fifty Most-Cited Articles on the Mental Health of Immigrants Living in the United States

Abstract

The premise of our study was to identify the 50 most frequently cited articles on the mental and behavioral health of immigrant and refugee populations in the USA using the Thomas Reuters' WOS database. Articles were reviewed for inclusion by a panel comprised of two specialist physicians and a political scientist. Citations ranged from 69 to 520. Almost half of all articles (n = 23) focus on Hispanic populations. 32 articles employed a cross-sectional study design. Sample sizes ranged from 8,000,000 to 20. Over half of all (n = 30) articles were published between 2000 and 2012 in 22 journals, covering 38 research areas. The total number of institutional affiliations was 148, averaging at 3 per article. Our recommendations state: diversify sampling in terms of ethnic and racial backgrounds; develop a uniform instrument for immigrant and refugee mental health; and conduct comparative studies to examine the differences in the mental health among diverse communities.



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Effects of epidural anesthesia on postoperative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic gynecological surgery: a randomized controlled trial

Abstract

Purpose

Patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery are susceptible to postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We hypothesized that a combination of epidural and general anesthesia to minimize intraoperative opioid administration would reduce the incidence of PONV following laparoscopic gynecological surgery.

Methods

Women undergoing elective laparoscopic gynecological surgery were randomly assigned to receive general anesthesia alone (group G, n = 45) or general anesthesia with epidural anesthesia (group GE, n = 45). Patients in group G received fentanyl and remifentanil for intraoperative analgesia, and those in group GE received single-shot ropivacaine at the time of induction of anesthesia. The primary outcome was the incidence of PONV within 24 h of surgery. Secondary outcomes included the use of rescue metoclopramide within 24 h of surgery and the time to first incidence of PONV and first use of rescue metoclopramide.

Results

The incidence of PONV within 24 h of surgery was 60.0% in group G and 44.4% in group GE [relative risk (RR): 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23–1.23, p = 0.14]. There were no intergroup differences in the use of rescue metoclopramide (40.0% in group G, 24.4% in group GE, RR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.20–1.20, p = 0.11) and the time to first incidence of PONV and first use of rescue metoclopramide (p = 0.20 and 0.12, respectively).

Conclusion

Minimizing intraoperative opioid administration by combining epidural and general anesthesia did not reduce the 24-h incidence of PONV or rescue metoclopramide use after laparoscopic gynecological surgery.



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Disparities in Risk Factors and Birth Outcomes Among American Indians in North Dakota

Abstract

Objectives High infant mortality rates among American Indians in North Dakota contribute to a 20-year gap in average age at death compared to whites. Geographic- and race-specific health disparities data to drive policy making and interventions are not well disseminated. The current study examines prenatal risk factors and birth outcomes between American Indian and whites in North Dakota. Methods A retrospective descriptive analysis of North Dakota live births from 2007 to 2012 was conducted. Period prevalence and prevalence ratios were calculated. Results The infant mortality rate from 2010 to 2012 for infants born to American Indian women was 3.5 times higher than whites. Racial disparities existed in education, teen births, tobacco use during pregnancy, and breastfeeding initiation. Disparities widened for inadequate prenatal care, illegal drug use during pregnancy, and infant mortality from 2007–2009 to 2010–2012 and narrowed for sexually transmitted infections and alcohol use during pregnancy. Conclusions for Practice American Indians are disproportionately affected by poor pregnancy and birth outcomes in North Dakota. Future geographic-specific American Indian research is warranted to aid current and future public health interventions.



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Comparison of peak oxygen uptake and exercise efficiency between upper-body poling and arm crank ergometry in trained paraplegic and able-bodied participants

Abstract

Purpose

To compare peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and exercise efficiency between upper-body poling (UBP) and arm crank ergometry (ACE) in able-bodied (AB) and paraplegic participants (PARA).

Methods

Seven PARA and eleven AB upper-body trained participants performed four 5-min submaximal stages, and an incremental test to exhaustion in UBP and ACE. VO2peak was the highest 30-s average during the incremental test. Metabolic rate (joule/second = watt) at fixed power outputs of 40, 60, and 80 W was estimated using linear regression analysis on the original power-output-metabolic-rate data and used to compare exercise efficiency between exercise modes and groups.

Results

VO2peak did not significantly differ between UBP and ACE (p = 0.101), although peak power output was 19% lower in UBP (p < 0.001). Metabolic rate at fixed power outputs was 24% higher in UBP compared to ACE (p < 0.001), i.e., exercise efficiency was lower in UBP. PARA had 24% lower VO2peak compared to AB (p = 0.010), although there were no significant differences in peak power output between PARA and AB (p = 0.209).

Conclusions

In upper-body-trained PARA and AB participants, VO2peak did not differ between UBP and ACE, indicating that these two test modes tax the cardiovascular system similarly when the upper body is restricted. As such, the 19% lower peak power output in UBP compared to ACE may be explained by the coinciding lower efficiency.



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Effective Home Visiting Training: Key Principles and Findings to Guide Training Developers and Evaluators

Abstract

Purpose Home visiting programs have produced inconsistent outcomes. One challenge for the field is the design and implementation of effective training to support home visiting staff. In part due to a lack of formal training, most home visitors need to develop the majority of their skills on the job. Home visitors typically receive training in their agency's specific model (e.g., HFA, NFP) and, if applicable, curriculum. Increasingly, states and other home visiting systems are developing and/or coordinating more extensive training and support systems beyond model-specific and curricula trainings. To help guide these training efforts and future evaluations of them, this paper reviews research on effective training, particularly principles of training transfer and adult learning. Description Our review summarizes several meta-analyses, reviews, and more recent publications on training transfer and adult learning principles. Assessment Effective training involves not only the introduction and modeling of concepts and skills but also the practice of, evaluation of, and reflection upon these skills. Further, ongoing encouragement of, reward for, and reflection upon use of these skills, particularly by a home visitor's supervisor, are critical for the home visitor's continued use of these skills with families. Conclusion Application of principles of adult learning and training transfer to home visiting training will likely lead to greater transfer of skills from the training environment to work with families. The involvement of both home visitors and their supervisors in training is likely important for this transfer to occur.



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Interdisciplinary Community-Based Oral Health Program for Women and Children at WIC

Abstract

Objectives To evaluate the women, infants, and children (WIC) Oral Health Program in a county in Florida. Methods The non-traditional interdisciplinary program of the current study was designed to reach at-risk populations with untreated dental diseases and limited access to care; it provides oral health education, dental screenings, preventive dental services, and referrals for women, children, and families at WIC offices. We evaluated the health status of patients enrolled in the program and the services provided. Results From 2013 to 2016, the program provided dental screenings for 576 children and 180 women. Caries prevalence for 3–5 year olds was 46.0%. Only 6.6% (12/114) of pregnant women were eligible for comprehensive dental care under Medicaid (< 21 years). Further, 71.2% (47/66) of all pregnant women had unmet dental care needs. Conclusions for Practice Our results suggested that many children and women had untreated dental diseases and need preventive services and dental care. Also, many pregnant women were not covered by Medicaid. This program demonstrates that collaboration with the WIC program can improve access to oral health services for underserved populations.



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Home Visitations for Delivering an Early Childhood Obesity Intervention in Denver: Parent and Patient Navigator Perspectives

Abstract

Objective This qualitative study explored parent and patient navigator perspectives of home visitation as part of a childhood obesity program in a low-income, largely Latino population. Methods Three patient navigators and 25 parents who participated in a home-based, childhood obesity program participated in focus groups or interviews. Emergent themes were identified through content analysis of qualitative data. Results Three overall themes were identified. Patient navigators and parents perceived: (1) enabling characteristics of home-based program delivery which facilitated family participation and/or behavior change (i.e., convenience, increased accountability, inclusion of household members, delivery in a familiar, intimate setting, and individualized pace and content); (2) logistic and cultural challenges to home-based delivery which reduced family participation and program reach (i.e., difficulties scheduling visits, discomfort with visitors in the home, and confusion about the patient navigator's role); and (3) remediable home-based delivery challenges which could be ameliorated by additional study staff (e.g., supervision of children, safety concerns) or through organized group sessions. Both patient navigators and participating parents discussed an interest in group classes with separate, supervised child-targeted programming and opportunities to engage with other families for social support. Conclusions for Practice A home visitation program delivering a pediatric obesity prevention curriculum in Denver was convenient and held families accountable, but posed scheduling difficulties and raised safety concerns. Conducting home visits in pairs, adding obesity prevention curriculum to existing home visiting programs, or pairing the convenience of home visits with group classes may be future strategies to explore.



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The impact of low body mass index on postoperative outcomes in pancreatectomy patients: a retrospective analysis of Japanese administrative data

Abstract

Purpose

To comparatively examine in-hospital mortality among different underweight body mass index (BMI) categories in pancreatic cancer patients after pancreatectomy in Japan.

Methods

We conducted a large-scale multi-center retrospective cohort study of adult patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent pancreatectomy between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2016. Patients were classified according to BMI as follows: normal BMI (18.50–24.99 kg/m2), mild thinness (17.00–18.49 kg/m2), moderate thinness (16.00–16.99 kg/m2), and severe thinness (< 16.00 kg/m2). A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed with in-hospital mortality as the dependent variable and BMI groups as the main independent variable of interest.

Results

We analyzed 6173 patients from 332 hospitals. The results showed that the severe thinness group had a longer postoperative hospital stay (34.4 ± 25.6 days) and higher incidence of postoperative pneumonia (5.5%) than the other groups. The generalized estimating equations accounted for patient demographics, surgical procedure, anesthetic technique, activities of daily living score, and Charlson comorbidity index as covariates. Relative to the normal BMI group, the odds ratios for in-hospital mortality were 0.57 (95% confidence interval: 0.26–1.24; P = 0.16) in the mild thinness group, 1.49 (0.64–3.48; P = 0.36) in the moderate thinness group, and 2.54 (1.05–6.08; P = 0.04) in the severe thinness group.

Conclusion

Severe thinness was significantly associated with a higher risk of mortality, and extremely low BMI should be considered a risk factor in pancreatectomy patients.



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Genome-wide association study on chicken carcass traits using sequence data imputed from SNP array

Abstract

Chicken carcass traits are economically important for the chicken industry. Detecting which genes affect chicken carcass traits is of great benefit to the genetic improvement of this important agricultural species. To investigate the genetic mechanism of carcass traits in chickens, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS). A total of 435 Chinese indigenous chickens were phenotyped for carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight with giblets (EWG), and eviscerated weight (EW) after slaughter at 91 days and were genotyped using a 600-K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array. Twenty-four birds were selected for sequencing, and the 600 K SNP panel data were imputed to sequence data with the 24 birds as the reference. Univariate GWASs were performed with GEMMA software using the whole genome sequence data imputed from SNP chip data. Finally, 3, 25, and 63 suggestively significant SNPs were identified to be associated with carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight with giblets (EWG), and eviscerated weight (EW), respectively. Six candidate genes, RNF219, SCEL, MYCBP2, ETS1, APLP2, and PRDM10 were detected. SCEL and MYCBP2 were potentially associated with these three traits, RNF219 and APLP2 were potentially associated with EWG and EW, and ETS1 and PRDM10 were only potentially associated with EWG and EW, respectively. Compared with forefathers' research, 10 reported QTLs associated with CW were located within a 5-Mb distance near the SNPs with P value lower than 1×10−5. This study enriched the knowledge of the genetic mechanisms of chicken carcass traits.



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Perioperative Management in Hepatic Resections: Comparative Effectiveness of Neuraxial Anesthesia and Disparity of Care Patterns

BACKGROUND: Complication rates after hepatic resection can be affected by management decisions of the hospital care team and/or disparities in care. This is true in many other surgical populations, but little study has been done regarding patients undergoing hepatectomy. METHODS: Data from the claims-based national Premier Perspective database were used for 2006 to 2014. The analytical sample consisted of adults undergoing partial hepatectomy and total hepatic lobectomy with anesthesia care consisting of general anesthesia (GA) only or neuraxial and GA (n = 9442). The key independent variable was type of anesthesia that was categorized as GA versus GA + neuraxial. The outcomes examined were clinical complications and health care resource utilization. Unadjusted bivariate and adjusted multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the effects of the different types of anesthesia on clinical complications and health care resource utilization after controlling for patient- and hospital-level characteristics. RESULTS: Approximately 9% of patients were provided with GA + neuraxial anesthesia during hepatic resection. In multivariate analyses, no association was observed between types of anesthesia and clinical complications and/or health care utilization (eg, admission to intensive care unit). However, patients who received blood transfusions were significantly more likely to have complications and intensive care unit stays. In addition, certain disparities of care, including having surgery in a rural hospital, were associated with poorer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Neuraxial anesthesia utilization was not associated with improvement in clinical outcome or cost among patients undergoing hepatic resections when compared to patients receiving GA alone. Future research may focus on prospective data sources with more clinical information on such patients and examine the effects of GA + neuraxial anesthesia on various complications and health care resource utilization. Accepted for publication May 14, 2018. Funding: None. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Reprints will not be available from the authors. Address correspondence to Jeron Zerillo, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L Levy Pl, New York, NY 10029. Address e-mail to jeron.zerillo@mountsinai.org. © 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society

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Variable Ventilation Associated With Recruitment Maneuver Minimizes Tissue Damage and Pulmonary Inflammation in Anesthetized Lung-Healthy Rats

BACKGROUND: Recruitment maneuver and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be used to counteract intraoperative anesthesia-induced atelectasis. Variable ventilation can stabilize lung mechanics by avoiding the monotonic tidal volume and protect lung parenchyma as tidal recruitment is encompassed within the tidal volume variability. METHODS: Forty-nine (7 per group) male Wistar rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. A recruitment maneuver followed by stepwise decremental PEEP titration was performed while continuously estimating respiratory system mechanics using recursive least squares. After a new recruitment, animals were ventilated for 2 hours in volume-control with monotonic (VCV) or variable (VV) tidal volumes. PEEP was adjusted at a level corresponding to the minimum elastance or 2 cm H2O above or below this level. Lungs were harvested for histologic analysis (left lung) and cytokines measurement (right lung). Seven animals were euthanized before the first recruitment as controls. RESULTS: A time-dependent increase in respiratory system elastance was observed and significantly minimized by PEEP (P

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High-Fidelity Simulation Nurse Training Reduces Unplanned Interruption of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Sessions in Critically Ill Patients: The SimHeR Randomized Controlled Trial

BACKGROUND: Although continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is common, unplanned interruptions (UI) often limit its usefulness. In many units, nurses are responsible for CRRT management. We hypothesized that a nurse training program based on high-fidelity simulation would reduce the rate of interrupted sessions. METHODS: We performed a 2-phase (training and evaluation), randomized, single-center, open study: During the training phase, intensive care unit nurses underwent a 6-hour training program and were randomized to receive (intervention) or not (control) an additional high-fidelity simulation training (6 hours). During the evaluation phase, management of CRRT sessions was randomized to either intervention or control nurses. Sessions were defined as UI if they were interrupted and the interruption was not prescribed in writing more than 3 hours before. RESULTS: Study nurses had experience with hemodialysis, but no experience with CRRT before training. Intervention nurses had higher scores than control nurses on the knowledge tests (grade, median [Q1–Q3], 14 [10.5–15] vs 11 [10–12]/20; P = .044). During a 13-month period, 106 sessions were randomized (n = 53/group) among 50 patients (mean age 70 ± 13 years, mean simplified acute physiology II score 69 [54–96]). Twenty-one sessions were not analyzed (4 were not performed and 17 patients died during sessions). Among the 42 intervention and 43 control sessions analyzed, 25 (59%) and 38 (88%) were labeled as UI (relative risk [95% CI], 0.67 [0.51–0.88]; P = .002). Intervention nurses required help significantly less frequently (0 [0–1] vs 3 [1–4] times/session; P

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Perioperative Hydroxyethyl Starch: A Potential Threat to a Patient Safety

No abstract available

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Propofol Attenuates the Myocardial Protection Properties of Desflurane by Modulating Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

BACKGROUND: Desflurane and propofol are cardioprotective, but relative efficacy is unclear. The aim was to compare myocardial protection of single, simultaneous, and serial administration of desflurane and propofol. METHODS: Sixty New Zealand White rabbits and 65 isolated Sprague Dawley rat hearts randomly received desflurane, propofol, simultaneous desflurane and propofol, or sequential desflurane then propofol. Rabbits were subdivided to receive either ischemia-reperfusion with temporary occlusion of the left anterior descending artery or a time-matched, nonischemic perfusion protocol, whereas rat hearts were perfused in a Langendorff model with global ischemia-reperfusion. End points were hemodynamic, functional recovery, and mitochondrial uptake of 3H-2-deoxy-D-glucose as an indicator of mitochondrial permeability transition. RESULTS: In rabbits, there were minimal increases in preload-recruitable stroke-work with propofol(P

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Electroencephalographic Arousal Patterns Under Dexmedetomidine Sedation

BACKGROUND: The depth of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation is difficult to assess without arousing the patient. We evaluated frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) as an objective measure of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation. Our aims were to characterize the response patterns of EEG during a wide range of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation and to determine which spectral power best correlated with assessed levels of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation. METHODS: Sedline EEG sensor was positioned on the forehead of 16 volunteers. Frontal EEG data were collected at 250 Hz using the Sedline monitor. A computer-controlled infusion pump was used to infuse dexmedetomidine to four 15-minute target plasma concentrations of 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 ng/mL. Arterial blood samples for dexmedetomidine plasma concentration and sedation (self-reported numerical rating scale) and arousal were measured at baseline and at the end of each infusion step. The EEG signal was used to estimate spectral power in sequential 4-second data segments with 75% overlap for 3 power bands: delta = 0.5–1.5 Hz, alpha = 9–14 Hz, beta = 15–24 Hz. We quantified the relationships among the plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine, level of sedation, and various EEG parameters. RESULTS: EEG data at the end of the dexmedetomidine infusion steps show progressive loss of high frequencies (beta) and increase in alpha and delta powers, with increasing dexmedetomidine concentrations. Beta prearousal spectral power was best in predicting dexmedetomidine-induced level of sedation (R = −0.60, 95% CI, −0.43 to −0.75). The respective values for delta and alpha powers were R = 0.28 (95% CI, 0.03–0.45) and R = 0.16 (95% CI, −0.09 to 0.38). When the beta power has dropped below −16 dB or the delta power is above 15 dB, the subjects show moderate to deep levels of sedation. When awakening the subject, there is a reduction in power in the delta and alpha bands at the 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 ng/mL dexmedetomidine target levels (P

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Spinal Activation of Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase-B Recovers the Impaired Endogenous Analgesia in Neuropathic Pain Rats

BACKGROUND: Although endogenous analgesia plays an important role in controlling pain states, chronic pain patients exhibit decreased endogenous analgesia compared to healthy individuals. In rats, noxious stimulus–induced analgesia (NSIA), which is an indicator of endogenous analgesia, diminished 6 weeks after spinal nerve ligation (SNL6W). A recent study in rats with deleted noradrenergic fibers demonstrated that the noradrenergic fibers were essential to NSIA. It has also been reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor increased spinal noradrenergic fibers. Therefore, this study examined the effect of TrkB activation, which is the receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, on impaired NSIA in SNL6W rats. In addition, we also examined the effect of endogenous analgesia on acute incisional pain. METHODS: After 5 daily intraperitoneal injections of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF, TrkB agonist, 5 mg/kg), NSIA was examined by measuring the withdrawal threshold increment in the left (contralateral to nerve ligation) hindpaw at 30 minutes after capsaicin injection (250 μg) in the forepaw. K252a (TrkB antagonist, 2 μg) was administrated intrathecally for 5 days. Idazoxan (α2 adrenoceptor antagonist, 30 μg), atropine (muscarinic antagonist, 30 μg), and propranolol (nonselective β adrenoceptor antagonist, 30 μg) were administered intrathecally for 15 minutes before capsaicin injection. Microdialysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine the noradrenergic plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn. A hindpaw incision was performed on the left (contralateral to nerve ligation) hindpaw. Data were analyzed by 1-way analyses of variance or 2-way repeated-measures 1-way analysis of variance followed by a Student t test with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: Five daily intraperitoneal injections of 7,8-DHF restored the attenuated NSIA in SNL6W rats (n = 7, P = .002; estimated treatment effect [95% CI]: 62.9 [27.0–98.7] g), with this effect blocked by 5 daily intrathecal coadministrations of K252a (n = 6, P

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Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis: A Framework for Future Policy

Marijuana is the most widely consumed illicit substance in the United States, and an increasing number of states have legalized it for both medicinal and recreational purposes. As it becomes more readily available, there will be a concurrent rise in the number of users and, consequently, the number of motor vehicle operators driving under the influence. This article examines the cognitive and psychomotor effects of cannabis, as well as current policy concerning driving under the influence of drugs. The authors performed a MEDLINE search on the epidemiology of cannabis use, its cognitive and psychomotor effects, and policies regarding driving under the influence of drugs. Twenty-eight epidemiological studies, 16 acute cognitive and psychomotor studies, 8 chronic cognitive and psychomotor studies, and pertinent state and federal laws and policies were reviewed. These search results revealed that marijuana use is associated with significant cognitive and psychomotor effects. In addition, the legalization of marijuana varies from state to state, as do the laws pertaining to driving under the influence of drugs. Marijuana is a commonly found illicit substance in motor vehicle operators driving under the influence of drugs. Current evidence shows that blood levels of tetrahydrocannabinol do not correlate well with the level of impairment. In addition, although acute infrequent use of cannabis typically leads to cognitive and psychomotor impairment, this is not consistently the case for chronic heavy use. To establish the framework for driving under the influence of cannabis policy, we must review the current published evidence and examine existing policy at state and federal levels. Accepted for publication May 10, 2018. Funding: This study was partially funded by the Centers for Rehabilitation Sciences Research, US Department of Defense. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (https://ift.tt/KegmMq). Reprints will not be available from the authors. Address correspondence to Robert M. Chow, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, 330 Cedar St, TMP-3, New Haven, CT 06520. Address e-mail to Robert.chow@yale.edu. © 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society

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Incidence of Venous Air Embolism During Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

BACKGROUND: Known complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) include pancreatitis, bleeding, duodenal perforation, and venous air embolism (VAE). The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of VAE during ERCP and be able to differentiate high-risk versus low-risk ERCP procedures. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study consisting of patients who underwent ERCP and were monitored with a precordial Doppler ultrasound (PDU) for VAE. PDU monitoring was digitally recorded and analyzed to confirm the suspected VAE. Demographic and clinical data related to the anesthetic care, endoscopic procedure, and intraoperative hemodynamics were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 843 ERCP procedures were performed over a 15-month period. The incidence of VAE was 2.4% (20 patients). All VAE's occurred during procedures in which stent placement, sphincterotomy, biopsy, duct dilation, gallstone retrieval, cholangioscopy, or necrosectomy occurred. Ten of 20 (50%) of VAEs were associated with hemodynamic alterations. None occurred if the procedure was only diagnostic or for stent removal. Subanalysis for the type of procedure showed that VAE was statistically more frequent when stents were removed and then replaced or if a cholangioscopy was performed. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of VAE highlights the need for practitioners to be aware of this potentially serious event. Use of PDU can aid in the detection of VAE during ERCP and should be considered especially during high-risk therapeutic procedures. Detection may allow appropriate interventions before serious adverse events such as cardiovascular collapse occur. Accepted for publication January 19, 2018. Funding: None. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website (https://ift.tt/KegmMq). Reprints will not be available from the authors. Address correspondence to Ayesha S. Bryant, MSPH, MD, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 625 19th St S, JT 880A, Birmingham, AL 35249. Address e-mail to asbryant@uabmc.edu. © 2018 International Anesthesia Research Society

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Association Between Intraoperative Oliguria and Acute Kidney Injury After Major Noncardiac Surgery

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 6.1%–22.4% of patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery. Previous studies have shown no association between intraoperative urine output and postoperative acute renal failure. However, these studies used various definitions of acute renal failure. We therefore investigated the association between intraoperative oliguria and postoperative AKI defined by the serum creatinine criteria of the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) classification. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, we screened 26,984 patients undergoing elective or emergency surgery during the period September 1, 2008 to October 31, 2011 at a university hospital. Exclusion criteria were age

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