Πέμπτη, 16 Ιουνίου 2016

Plasmid-Borne Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in a Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Antibiotic Susceptibility and Molecular Screening of Class I Integron in Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Retail Raw Chicken Carcasses in China

Microbial Drug Resistance , Vol. 0, No. 0.


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Numb Gene Enhances Radiation Sensitivity of Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Stem Cells

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals Jun 2016, Vol. 31, No. 5: 180-188.


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Radiolabeling of Extracellular Vesicles with 99mTc for Quantitative In Vivo Imaging Studies

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals Jun 2016, Vol. 31, No. 5: 168-173.


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Copyright Page

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4





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Index

Publication date: May 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 3





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Decreased Expression of miR-548c-3p in Osteosarcoma Contributes to Cell Proliferation Via Targeting ITGAV

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals Jun 2016, Vol. 31, No. 5: 153-158.


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Contributors

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4





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Estimation of Recurrence Risk After Normal 18F-FDG PET/CT in Nonsmall-Cell Lung Cancer

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals Jun 2016, Vol. 31, No. 5: 174-179.


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Contents

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4





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A possible carbon monoxide shuttle in the lung

The Coburn, Forster, Kane Equation (CFKE) describes a current understanding of the physiology of lung uptake and excretion of carbon monoxide (CO). The lung mean capillary PCO is an important term in this equation because it drives CO excretion and functions as "back-pressure" during uptake of exogenous CO. Results of previous studies have indicated that the mean capillary PCO of normal human lungs is equal to values calculated using the Haldane Equation, as described by the CFKE. The physiological explanation of how this parameter is set at this level is unknown. As a possible explanation this study tested a hypothesis that a CO shuttle could be involved. Results of calculation-simulations indicate that a CO shuttle operates in a single alveolus model and imply that it could function as a determinant of the lung mean capillary PCO.



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Numb Gene Enhances Radiation Sensitivity of Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Stem Cells

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals Jun 2016, Vol. 31, No. 5: 180-188.


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Solitary Fibrous Tumors

Publication date: May 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 3
Author(s): Abhishek R. Keraliya, Sree Harsha Tirumani, Atul B. Shinagare, Atif Zaheer, Nikhil H. Ramaiya

Teaser

Optimal management of solitary fibrous tumor requires a multidisciplinary approach with proper histopathological mapping and use of various imaging modalities for exact delineation of primary tumor and metastatic disease if present. In this article, the authors present a comprehensive review of the spectrum of imaging findings of solitary fibrous tumors involving various organ systems and discuss the role of molecular targeted therapies in the management of metastatic disease.


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Qualitative dimensions of exertional dyspnea in adults with cystic fibrosis

No studies in cystic fibrosis (CF) have systematically characterized the evolution of the qualitative dimensions of exertional dyspnea. Adults with CF (n=25) and sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched controls (n=25) underwent cardiopulmonary cycle exercise testing with a detailed evaluation of ventilatory and dyspnea responses. The qualitative dimensions of dyspnea were examined during each exercise stage by having subjects select phrases that best described their breathing (i.e., "work/effort", "unsatisfied inspiration", and "unsatisfied expiration"). Subjects also selected phrases that described the quality of their breathing at peak exercise using an established 15-item questionnaire, which was then clustered into different categories. Subjects with CF had increased ventilatory requirements, higher end-inspiratory and end-expiratory lung volumes (% total lung capacity), and an earlier inflection/plateau in tidal volume during exercise compared to controls. Increased "work/effort" was the dominant qualitative descriptor in both groups throughout exercise. "Unsatisfied inspiration" was selected in 48% of subjects with CF and 40% of controls at some point during exercise. The onset of "unsatisfied inspiration" in these subjects occurred at a significantly lower relative exercise intensity in subjects with CF vs. controls (72±21 vs. 94±11%Wmax, p<0.01). "Chest tightness" was the only qualitative descriptor cluster that was selected more frequently in CF vs. controls at peak exercise (36 vs. 0%subjects, p<0.05). Therapeutic interventions that reduce ventilatory requirements and improve lung volumes may delay the onset of distressing sensations such as "unsatisfied inspiration" and "chest tightness" in adults with CF.



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CME Accreditation Page

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4





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Radiolabeling of Extracellular Vesicles with 99mTc for Quantitative In Vivo Imaging Studies

Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals Jun 2016, Vol. 31, No. 5: 168-173.


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Differential effects of respiratory and electrical stimulation-induced dilator muscle contraction on mechanical properties of the pharynx in the pig.

Introduction: Respiratory stimulation (RS) during sleep often fails to discontinue flow limitation, while electrical stimulation (ES) of the hypoglossus (HG) nerve frequently prevents obstruction. The present work compares the effects of RS and HG-ES on pharyngeal mechanics, as well as the relative contribution of tongue muscles and thoracic forces to pharyngeal patency. Methods: We determined the pressure-area relationship of the collapsible segment of the pharynx in anesthetized pigs under 3 conditions: baseline (BL), RS induced by partial obstruction of the tracheostomy tube, and HG-ES. Parameters were obtained also after transection of the neck muscles and the trachea (NMT), and after additional bilateral HG transection (HGT). In addition, we measured the force produced by in-situ isolated geniohyoid (GH) during RS and HG-ES. Results: Intense RS was recognized by large negative intrathoracic pressures and triggered high phasic genioglossus and GH EMG activity. GH contraction produced during maximal RS less than a quarter of the force obtained during HG-ES. The major finding of the study was that RS and ES differed in the mechanism by which they stabilized the pharynx: RS lowered the pressure-area slope, i.e. reduced pharyngeal compliance (14.1±2.9 to 9.2±1.9 mm2/cmH2O, p<0.01). HG-ES shifted the slope toward lower pressures, i.e. lowered the calculated extra-luminal pressure (17.4±5.8 to 9.2±7.4 cmH2O, p<0.01). Changes during RS and HG-ES were not affected by NMT, but the effect of RS decreased significantly after HGT. Conclusions: HG-ES and RS affect the pharyngeal site of collapse differently. Tongue muscle contraction contributes to pharyngeal stiffening during RS.



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Forthcoming Issues

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4





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Cardiovascular control during whole body exercise

It has been considered whether during whole body exercise the increase in cardiac output is large enough to support skeletal muscle blood flow. This review addresses four lines of evidence for a flow limitation to skeletal muscles during whole body exercise. First, even though during exercise the blood flow achieved by the arms is lower than that achieved by the legs (~160 vs. ~385 ml/min/100 g) the muscle mass that can be perfused with such flow is limited by the capacity to increase cardiac output (42 l/min, highest recorded value). Secondly, activation of the exercise pressor reflex during fatiguing work with one muscle group limits flow to other muscle groups. Another line of evidence comes from evaluation of regional blood flow during exercise where there is a discrepancy between flow to a muscle group when it is working exclusively and when it works together with other muscles. Finally, regulation of peripheral resistance by sympathetic vasoconstriction in active muscles by the arterial baroreflex is critical for blood pressure regulation during exercise. Together, these findings indicate that during whole body exercise muscle blood flow is subordinate to the control of blood pressure.



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Extranodal Lymphoma from Head to Toe

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4
Author(s): Mark D. Murphey




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Imaging of Extranodal Lymphoma

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4
Author(s): Mark D. Murphey




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Immunoglobulin G4–Related Disease: Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Imaging Findings

Publication date: May 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 3
Author(s): Venkata S. Katabathina, Suhare Khalil, Sooyoung Shin, Narayan Lath, Christine O. Menias, Srinivasa R. Prasad

Teaser

Immunoglobulin G4–related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel, immune-mediated, multisystem disease characterized by the development of tumefactive lesions in multiple organs. IgG4-RD encompasses many fibroinflammatory diseases that had been thought to be confined to single organs. Delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis as malignancies leading to aggressive treatment may be averted by identification of the multisystem nature of IgG4-RD. Most cases show exquisite response to steroid therapy; steroid-resistant cases are being treated by novel therapeutic agents, including B-cell depleting agents such as rituximab. Cross-sectional imaging studies play a pivotal role in the initial diagnosis, assessing response to therapy and long-term surveillance.


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Extranodal Lymphoma of the Central Nervous System and Spine

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4
Author(s): Kelly K. Koeller, Robert Y. Shih

Teaser

With a strong predilection for immunocompromised groups and a poorly explained increase in prevalence among those with normal immune status, lymphoma now accounts for approximately 6% of all primary brain tumors. Recent advances in multiagent chemotherapy and monoclonal antibody therapy have promoted longer-term survival, although a definitive cure remains elusive. Extranodal lymphoma of the spine is more often caused by secondary dissemination from systemic disease and less often the primary site of origin. This article reviews a broad spectrum of clinical, etiologic, and pathologic features that frequently intersect with common radiologic findings of this disease.


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Primary Extranodal Lymphoma of the Thorax

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4
Author(s): Seth J. Kligerman, Teri J. Franks, Jeffrey R. Galvin

Teaser

Primary pulmonary lymphomas represent a pathologically heterogeneous group of disorders that often share imaging features, which include peribronchovascular nodules and masses or areas of nonresolving consolidation. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma seen in younger patients that has imaging and pathologic features that demonstrate some degree of overlap with Hodgkin lymphoma. Primary lymphomas of the pleural space are rare and associated with concomitant viral infections.


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Cardiac Lymphoma

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4
Author(s): Jean Jeudy, Allen P. Burke, Aletta Ann Frazier

Teaser

Lymphoma of the heart and pericardium may develop in up to 25% of patients with disseminated nodal disease, but primary cardiac lymphoma is rare. The majority are diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, which arise in immunocompetent older individuals, men twice as often as women. Subsets are found in immunocompromised patients, including those with HIV-AIDS or allograft recipients. Cardiac lymphomas tend to arise in the wall of the right heart, especially right atrium, with contiguous infiltration of epicardium and pericardium. Pericardial implants and effusions are common. The disease is often multifocal in the heart, but cardiac valves are usually spared.


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Extranodal Lymphoma of the Breast

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4
Author(s): Brandi T. Nicholson, Rahat M. Bhatti, Leonard Glassman

Teaser

Extranodal lymphoma represents fewer than 0.5% of all breast malignancies. Secondary involvement of the breast with lymphoma is more common than primary breast lymphoma. The most common primary breast lymphoma is B-cell lymphoma. The initial imaging study of choice for a woman with a new breast mass is a diagnostic mammogram. In younger women ultrasound is more commonly the first imaging modality performed. Diagnosis is made from image-guided or physical examination–directed needle biopsy. Treatment is different from that for breast cancer, in that surgery is not the mainstay. Patients with breast lymphoma are treated primarily with chemotherapy and radiation.


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Pediatric Extranodal Lymphoma

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4
Author(s): Ellen M. Chung, Michael Pavio

Teaser

Lymphoma is the third most common pediatric neoplasm. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounts for nearly half of cases and commonly involves extranodal sites. Compared with adults, this histologic spectrum of pediatric NHL is very narrow and consists of aggressive tumors. Patients typically present with widespread disease. Generally, NHL occurring in children includes Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Staging and assessment of therapeutic response are usually based on FDG-PET/CT. Due to the increased susceptibility of young patients to the effects of ionizing radiation, alternative methods of imaging are being explored.


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Imaging of Extranodal Genitourinary Lymphoma

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4
Author(s): Iván R. Rohena-Quinquilla, Grant E. Lattin, Darcy Wolfman

Teaser

The genitourinary (GU) system is commonly affected by disseminated lymphoma. Rarely, lymphoma can originate from and remain localized to one of the GU organs and thus presents as primary extranodal disease. Up to 40% of lymphomas present as extranodal disease, with only 3% having the GU system as the primary site of involvement. This article describes and correlates the radiologic and pathologic features of extranodal lymphomatous disease affecting the GU system with specific focus on the kidneys, adrenal glands, testicles, and ovaries. Lymphoma of the uterine body and cervix, external female genitalia, urinary bladder, and prostate gland is briefly discussed.


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Gastrointestinal Lymphoma

Publication date: July 2016
Source:Radiologic Clinics of North America, Volume 54, Issue 4
Author(s): Maria A. Manning, Alexander S. Somwaru, Anupamjit K. Mehrotra, Marc S. Levine

Teaser

Extranodal lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of hematologic neoplasms that can affect every abdominal organ, with distinctive pathologic, radiologic, and clinical features. The radiologic findings are closely related to the underlying pathophysiology, and an understanding of these characteristic features should facilitate recognition of extranodal lymphoma and its various subtypes. Within the abdomen, lymphoma is found most commonly in the gastrointestinal tract, especially the stomach. This article presents the findings in gastrointestinal tract lymphoma.


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Evolution: Duplicate gene co-regulation slows evolution

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 376 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.75

Author: Bryony Jones

Gene duplications can drive evolutionary processes and contribute to the development of new biological functions. In mammals, however, new gene duplicates are often degraded into non-functional pseudogenes. Now, researchers from Stanford University describe the evolutionary forces that control the fate of young gene duplicates and



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Lessons from non-canonical splicing

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 407 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.46

Authors: Christopher R. Sibley, Lorea Blazquez & Jernej Ule

Recent improvements in experimental and computational techniques that are used to study the transcriptome have enabled an unprecedented view of RNA processing, revealing many previously unknown non-canonical splicing events. This includes cryptic events located far from the currently annotated exons and unconventional splicing mechanisms that



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Regulatory elements: Putting enhancers into context

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 377 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.74

Author: Darren J. Burgess

Regulatory elements — particularly transcriptional promoters and enhancers — typically consist of multiple binding sites for transcription factors (TFs) and are often detected and interpreted based on the occurrence of consensus, high-affinity binding motifs for TFs. A new study highlights that, beyond TF binding affinity,



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Genetic engineering: A new player in genome editing

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 375 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.72

Author: Linda Koch

The Argonaute endonuclease of the archaebacterium Natronobacterium gregoryi (NgAgo) is a precise and efficient tool for genome editing in mammalian cells. Using plasmid cleavage assays, Gao et al. found that — in contrast to the guide RNA (gRNA) needed by the Cas9 nuclease



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Genetic variation: Genetic associations with a social science outcome

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 375 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.73

Author: Linda Koch

Variants associated with educational attainment (the number of years of schooling completed by an individual, called EduYears) are identified in a new genome-wide association study (GWAS) of nearly 294,000 individuals of European descent. Okbay et al. identified 74 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) — predominantly in



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Cancer genetics: Oncohistone pathology explained

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 375 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.71

Author: Linda Koch

Researchers have elucidated the pathogenic mechanism underlying the histone H3 lysine-36-to-methionine (H3K36M) mutation, which is a frequent acquired mutation in children with chondroblastoma, a type of bone cancer. The H3K36M mutation disrupted the expression of genes involved in the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs)



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Chromatin: Cracking the nucleosome code

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 376 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.70

Author: Bryony Jones

A new single-molecule based assay can identify and map concurrent modifications on individual histones. The team behind this approach were able to identify truly bivalent nucleosomes that harboured both repressive and activating marks, and map their genomic location.Nucleosomal histones can be chemically modified at



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Technique: CRISP(e)R genetic mapping

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 375 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.68

Author: Denise Waldron

The resolution of genetic variant mapping is limited by the frequency of recombination events that occur during meiosis and disrupt linkage between adjacent markers. In a study published in Science, Sadhu et al. have circumvented this limitation in yeast by using the CRISPR–Cas



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Population genetics: Bursts of male-lineage expansions

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 374 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.63

Author: Bryony Jones

A large demographic study of 1,244 human Y-chromosome sequences reveals several independent, extreme bursts in male population numbers over the past 55,000 years. The research, published in Nature Genetics, indicates that these male-specific population expansions occurred during known migrations and periods of technological innovation.



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Cancer genomics: A catalogue of somatic mutations

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 378 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.65

Author: Linda Koch

A comprehensive analysis of somatic (acquired) mutations across exons, introns and intergenic regions in 560 breast cancer genomes is reported in a recent Nature paper. In a second paper, published in Nature Communications, the authors explore how these mutations relate to genome architecture.



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Developing and evaluating polygenic risk prediction models for stratified disease prevention

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 392 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.27

Authors: Nilanjan Chatterjee, Jianxin Shi & Montserrat García-Closas

Knowledge of genetics and its implications for human health is rapidly evolving in accordance with recent events, such as discoveries of large numbers of disease susceptibility loci from genome-wide association studies, the US Supreme Court ruling of the non-patentability of human genes, and the development



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Evolution by gene loss

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 379 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.39

Authors: Ricard Albalat & Cristian Cañestro

The recent increase in genomic data is revealing an unexpected perspective of gene loss as a pervasive source of genetic variation that can cause adaptive phenotypic diversity. This novel perspective of gene loss is raising new fundamental questions. How relevant has gene loss been in



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Utility of Clinical High-Depth Next Generation Sequencing for Somatic Variant Detection in the PIK3CA Related Overgrowth Spectrum

Abstract

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the approach of studying sequence variation, and has been well described in the clinical laboratory setting for the detection of constitutional alterations, as well as somatic tumor associated variants. It is increasingly recognized that post-zygotic somatic alteration can be associated with congenital phenotypic abnormalities. Variation within the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, including PIK3CA, has been described in somatic overgrowth syndromes and vascular malformations. Detection of PIK3CA somatic alteration is challenging due to low variant allele frequency (VAF) along with the need to assay involved tissue, thus necessitating a highly-sensitive methodology. Here we describe the utility of target hybrid capture coupled with NGS for the identification of somatic variation in the PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS) among 14 patients submitted for clinical testing. Assay detection of low allelic fraction variation is coverage dependent with >90% sensitivity at 400x unique read depth for VAF of 10%, and approaching 100% at 1000x. Average read depth among the patient dataset across PIK3CA coding regions was 788.4. The diagnostic yield among this cohort was 71%, including the detection of two PIK3CA alterations novel in the setting of PROS. This report expands the mutational scope and phenotypic attributes of PROS disorders.

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

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