Τρίτη, 2 Αυγούστου 2016

Cardio-metabolic responses during horse riding at three different speeds

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present investigation was to study the metabolic demand and cardiovascular response during a typical horse riding session.

Methods

To this aim, 19 (9 male, 10 female) riders, regularly participating in competitions, were enrolled. They underwent a preliminary, incremental exercise test on a cycle-ergometer to assess their anaerobic threshold (AT) and VO2max. Then, participants underwent a riding training session, which comprised periods of walking, trotting, and cantering for a total of 20 min. Oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and heart rate (HR) were obtained throughout the preliminary and riding test by means of a portable metabolic system. Moreover, excess of CO2 production (CO2excess) and oxygen pulse (OP) were also calculated to obtain an estimate of anaerobic glycolysis and stroke volume.

Results

The main result was that all collected parameters remained below the AT level throughout the riding session, with the exception of HR that approached the AT level only during cantering. In detail, during cantering, average VO2, VCO2, HR, CO2excess, and OP values were 1289 ± 331 mL min−1, 1326 ± 266 mL min−1, 158 ± 22 bpm, 215 ± 119 mL min−1, and 7.8 ± 1.6 mL/bpm, respectively.

Conclusions

It was concluded that riding imposes only light to moderate stress on the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Moreover, cardiovascular reserve is only moderately recruited in terms of inotropism, while chronotropism can be stimulated more.



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National Survey of US academic anesthesiology chairs on clinician wellness

The prevalence of anesthesiology department wellness programs is unknown. A database of wellness programs is needed as a resource for departments attempting to respond to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Anesthesiology Milestones Project. The purpose of this study was to survey academic anesthesiology chairs on wellness issues, characterize initiatives, and establish wellness contacts for a Wellness Initiative Database (WID).

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An in vitro evaluation of the pressure generated during programmed intermittent epidural bolus injection at varying infusion delivery speeds

Programmed intermittent bolus injection of epidural anesthetic solution results in decreased anesthetic consumption and better patient satisfaction compared with continuous infusion, presumably by better spread of the anesthetic solution in the epidural space. It is not known whether the delivery speed of the bolus injection influences analgesia outcomes. The objective of this in vitro study was to determine the pressure generated by a programmed intermittent bolus pump at 4 infusion delivery speeds through open-ended, single-orifice and closed-end, multiorifice epidural catheters.

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Prenatal Maternal Stress and the Risk of Lifetime Wheeze in Young Offspring: An Examination by Stressor and Maternal Ethnicity

Abstract

Prenatal psychosocial stressors may increase the risk of wheeze in young offspring, yet little attention has been given to the effects that maternal ethnicity may have on this relationship. From a population-based cohort of 1193 children, we assessed the effect of maternal prenatal stressors on the risk of lifetime wheeze in young offspring. We further studied whether maternal Latina ethnicity modified these associations. The risk of wheeze in the offspring was increased from high levels of pregnancy anxiety (aRR 1.40, 95 % CI 1.07, 1.83), negative life events (aRR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.75), or low paternal support (aRR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.02, 1.96). The risk of lifetime wheeze was stronger in the offspring of Latina mothers than of White mothers for these same stressors. Multiple maternal prenatal stressors are associated with increased risk of lifetime wheeze in young offspring, with slight effect modification by Latina ethnicity.



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Behavioral and Environmental Explanations of Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Immigrant Children and Children of Immigrants

Abstract

Immigrant/refugee children sometimes have substantially higher blood lead levels (BLLs) than US-born children in similar environments. We try to understand why, by exploring the relationship between immigration status of mother and the BLLs of US-born children. We compared BLLs of children born in Michigan to immigrant and non-immigrant parents, using the Michigan database of BLL tests for 2002–2005, which includes the child's race, Medicaid eligibility and address. We added census data on socio-demographic/housing characteristics of the child's block group, and information about parents. Low parental education, single parent households, mothers' smoking and drinking, all increase the child's BLL. However, immigrant parents had fewer characteristics associated with high BLL than US born parents, and their children had lower BLLs than children of US-born mothers. Our findings suggest that prior findings of higher BLLs among immigrant/refugee children probably result from them starting life in high-lead environments.



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HPV Vaccine and Latino Immigrant Parents: If They Offer It, We Will Get It

Abstract

HPV vaccination rates remain low in the fast growing Latino children population while we continue to observe large HPV-associated cancer disparities in the Latino population. In this study, we sought to elucidate Latino immigrant parents' barriers to obtaining the HPV vaccine for their children. Five focus groups were conducted with Latino immigrant parents of minors (i.e., 9–17 year old) who had not yet initiated the HPV vaccine series. Three major findings were identified from the focus groups: (1) low levels of awareness and knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine, (2) high confidence that parent can get the vaccine for their eligible child and (3) lack of provider recommendation as the main barrier to vaccination. Children of Latino immigrant parents could benefit from increased provider recommendation for the HPV vaccine while providing tailored HPV information to parents.



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Migration, Health Care Behaviors, and Primary Care for Rural Latinos with Diabetes

Abstract

Many US Latinos migrate or travel between the US and Mexico on a regular basis, defined as circular migration. Latinos with diabetes (n = 250) were surveyed about circular migration and their ability to use medications and perform recommended diabetes self-care activities. A review of medical charts was performed. Twenty-eight percent (n = 70) of patients traveled to Mexico during the last 12 months. Older Latinos were more likely to report traveling to Mexico and back into the US. Among those that traveled, 29 % reported use of less medication than they wanted to or were prescribed because of travel and 20 % ran out of medications. The rate of reported problem areas while traveling were 39 % (27/70) for following a diabetic diet, 31 % (21/70) for taking medication, and 37 % (26/70) for glucose self-monitoring. The results suggest that the structure of primary care and care coordination are important for this population to fully engage in diabetes self-care.



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Latent Tuberculosis Infection Among Immigrant and Refugee Children Arriving in the United States: 2010

Abstract

Immigrants and refugees age 2–14 years entering the United States from countries with estimated tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate ≥20 per 100,000 population are screened for TB. Children with TB disease are treated before US arrival. Children with positive tuberculin skin tests (TST), but negative TB evaluation during their pre-immigration examination, are classified with latent TB infection (LTBI) and are recommended for re-evaluation post-arrival. We examined post-immigration TB evaluation and therapy for children arriving with LTBI. We reviewed medical exam data from immigrant children with medical conditions and all refugee children arriving during 2010. Medical examination data were available for 67,334 children. Of these, 8231 (12 %) had LTBI pre-immigration; 5749 (70 %) were re-evaluated for TB post-immigration, and 64 % were retested by TST or IGRA. The pre-immigration LTBI diagnosis was changed for 38 % when retested by TST and for 71 % retested by IGRA. Estimated LTBI therapy initiation and completion rates were 68 and 12 %. In this population, testing with IGRA may limit the number of children targeted for therapy. Increased pre-immigration TB screening with post-immigration follow-up evaluation leading to completion of LTBI therapy should be encouraged to prevent TB reactivation.



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Understanding the Stress Process of Chinese- and Korean-American Breast Cancer Survivors

Abstract

Guided by the stress process model (SPM), this study investigated the direct and indirect pathways of primary (negative self-image and life stress), secondary stressors (family communication strain) and family coping (external and internal) on mental health outcomes among Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). A total of 156 Chinese- and Korean-American BCS were surveyed. Results showed primary and secondary stressors had a negative effect on better mental health outcomes. External coping was associated with better mental health. Family communication strain mediated the relationship between life stress and mental health outcomes. External coping mediated the relationship between family communication strain and mental health outcomes. Multi-group analysis revealed the stress process did not differ across ethnic groups. Findings suggest the SPM may be applicable to understand the stress process of Chinese- and Korean-American BCS and provide valuable insight into the role of family communication and external coping on mental health outcomes.



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Diabetes Risk Factor Knowledge Varies Among Multiracial College Students

Abstract

All racial/ethnic groups are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes compared to whites, but it is unknown if young adults recognize their risk. Risk knowledge and individual risk perception were examined in 1579 multiracial urban college students. Students have little knowledge of diabetes risk factors; identifying less than three of ten. Considerable variation exists in the understanding of risk; only .02 % of Asian, 14.0 % of Hispanic and 22.8 % of black students recognized that their race increased risk. Among those with ≥3 risk factors (n = 541) only 39 % perceived their risk. These under-estimators had lower knowledge scores (p = .03) than those who acknowledged their risk; indicating that the cause of under-estimating risk may be, at least, in part due to a lack of information. There is a pressing need to heighten understanding of type 2 diabetes risk among young adults to decrease the future burden of this disease.



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California Casualty honors American heroes

American heroes need thanks and appreciation now more than ever.

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Comparing Weight-for-Length Status of Young Children in Two Infant Feeding Programs

Abstract

Objectives A cross-sectional study comparing weight-for-length status of children 6–24 months old who participated in Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) or Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods Secondary analysis of NFP (n = 44,980) and WIC (n = 31,294) national datasets was conducted to evaluate infant and toddler growth trajectories. Weight-for-length status was calculated at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months based on World Health Organization criteria. Demographics and breastfeeding rates were also evaluated. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for high weight-for-length (≥97.7 percentile) at each time point. Results At 6 months, approximately 10 % of WIC and NFP children were classified as high weight-for-length. High weight-for-length rates increased for both groups similarly until 24 months. At 24 months, NFP children had significantly lower rates of excess weight (P = 0.03) than WIC children, 15.5 and 17.5 % respectively. At all time points, non-Hispanic white children had lower rates of high–weight for length than Hispanic and non-Hispanic black children. NFP infants were also found to have higher rates of ever being breastfed than WIC infants (P < 0.0001). Conclusions for Practice Infant and toddler populations served by NFP or WIC were found to be at increased risk for high weight-for-length. This study found NFP participation was associated with a small, but significant, protective impact on weight-for-length status at 24 months. Continued efforts need to be made in addressing weight-related racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities during early childhood.



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The Impact of Perinatal Depression on Children’s Social-Emotional Development: A Longitudinal Study

Abstract

Objectives This longitudinal population study aimed to investigate if maternal depression at different time points during the perinatal period impacts children's social-emotional development at 2 years of age. Methods Participants were women (n = 1235) who gave birth at Akershus University Hospital in Norway. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at pregnancy week 32 and at 8 weeks and 2 years postpartum, whereas children's social-emotional development at the age of 2 years was assessed by using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional. Bi- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the linkage between maternal perinatal depression and children's early social-emotional development. Results Multivariate analyses showed that social-emotional problems in the child 2 years after birth were strongly associated with maternal depression at pregnancy week 32 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.4; 95 % CI 1.4–8.0), depression at 8 weeks postpartum (aOR 3.8; 95 % CI 1.7–8.6), and with depression at both time points (aOR 3.7; 95 % CI 1.5–10.1). Conclusion Findings indicate pre- and postnatal depression each bears an independent, adverse impact on children's social-emotional development.



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