Σάββατο, 12 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Gene–environment interactions between ERCC2 , ERCC3 , XRCC1 and cadmium exposure in nasal polyposis disease

Abstract

Gene–environment interactions have long been known to play an important role in complex disease aetiology, such as nasal polyposis (NP). The present study supports the concept that DNA repair gene polymorphisms play critical roles in modifying individual susceptibility to environmental diseases. In fact, we investigated the role of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and cadmium as risk factors for Tunisian patients with NP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the impact of combined effects of cadmium and ERCC3 7122 A>G (rs4150407), ERCC2 Lys751Gln (rs13181) and XRCC1 Arg399Gln (rs25487) genes in the susceptibility to NP disease. Significant associations between the risk of developing NP disease and ERCC2 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.1–3.7, p = 0.023] and ERCC3 (OR = 2.2, 95 % CI = 1.2–4.1, p = 0.013) genotypes polymorphisms were observed. Blood concentrations of Cd in NP patients (2.2 μg/L) were significantly higher than those of controls (0.5 μg/L). A significant interaction between ERCC3 (7122 A>G) polymorphism and blood-Cd levels (for the median of blood-Cd levels: OR = 3.8, 95 % CI = 1.3–10.8, p = 0.014 and for the 75th percentiles of blood-Cd levels: OR = 2.7, 95 % CI = 1.1–7.2, p = 0.041) was found in association with the risk of NP disease. In addition, when we stratified ERCC2, ERCC3 and XRCC1 polymorphism genotypes by the median and 75th percentiles of blood-Cd levels, we found also significant interactions between ERCC2 (Lys751Gln) and ERCC3 (7122 A>G) genotypes polymorphism and this metal in association with NP disease. However, no interaction was found between XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) polymorphism genotypes and Cd in association with NP disease.



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Jan Garbarek ~ Rites

... twelwe moons: https://youtube/o0Jo_wcuf6o?list=RD3nt4GKxd7Ms Red Wind: https://youtube/3nt4GKxd7Ms?list=RD3nt4GKxd7Ms ...

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Radka Toneff Moon's a Harsh Mistress

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Jan Garbarek ~ Rites

... twelwe moons: https://youtube/o0Jo_wcuf6o?list=RD3nt4GKxd7Ms Red Wind: https://youtube/3nt4GKxd7Ms?list=RD3nt4GKxd7Ms ...

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Radka Toneff Moon's a Harsh Mistress

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Jan Garbarek ~ Rites

... twelwe moons: https://youtube/o0Jo_wcuf6o?list=RD3nt4GKxd7Ms Red Wind: https://youtube/3nt4GKxd7Ms?list=RD3nt4GKxd7Ms ...

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Radka Toneff Moon's a Harsh Mistress

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A retrospective study of endoscopic resection for 368 patients with early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma or precancerous lesions

Abstract

Background

To retrospectively investigate the clinicopathological features and prognosis of early esophageal squamous cell neoplasm (ESCN) treated with endoscopic resection (ER), especially, to compare the prognosis in patients with sm2 cancer and non-sm2 cancer.

Methods

From 2007 to 2013, 368 patients were included in our analysis.

Results

The patients were 252 (68.5 %) men and 116 (31.5 %) women with a median age of 61 (range 16–84 years) years. Hyperplasia, mild dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, m1, m2, m3, sm1, and sm2 were diagnosed in 47 (12.8 %), 27 (7.3 %), 34 (9.2 %), 61 (16.6 %), 54 (14.7 %), 38 (10.3 %), 63 (17.1 %), 12 (3.3 %), and 32 (8.7 %) cases. The mean (range) follow-up time was 29 (0–84) months. The cumulative overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year metachronous esophageal lesion rates were 4.1, 12.9, and 32.6 %. The incidence of lymph node or distant metastasis was 1.54 % in m3, 6.25 % in sm2, and 0 in other subgroups. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 99.5, 97.3, and 87.5 %. There was significant difference between sm2 and non-sm2 patients in metastatic rate (P = 0.021); however, no difference existed between m3 patients and sm2 patients (P = 0.252). The difference of metachronous esophageal lesion (P = 0.401) and survival (P = 0.634) between sm2 and non-sm2 patients was not obvious.

Conclusions

Our study showed that ER was an effective and relatively safe treatment for superficial ESCN. ER is still appropriate in select sm2 patients. To monitor the second primary cancer in sm2 is necessary during the follow-up.



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Functional outcomes after TEM in patients with complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

Abstract

Background

In patients who exhibit a complete clinical response after radio-chemotherapy for rectal cancer, the standard surgical approach might constitute overtreatment. The aim of this study is to analyse the outcomes of anorectal function and quality of life after transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) in irradiated patients with complete clinical response.

Patients and methods

Between 2007 and 2014, 84 patients who were diagnosed with stage T2–T3–T4 N0 rectal cancer before chemoradiotherapy showed a complete clinical response to neoadjuvant therapy and underwent TEM. All patients were evaluated before and 1 year after TEM using the Cleveland Clinic Florida Fecal Incontinence Score (CCF-FIS) questionnaire to determine the impact of this surgical technique on the degree of faecal continence. To assess the quality of life of patients after surgery, we administered the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale.

Results

Twenty-three patients exhibited a worse incontinence status after surgical intervention (27.4; 95% CI 18.2–38.2). These patients experienced a median positive absolute variation in the CCF-FIS of four points (95% CI 3.5–4.5; p < 0.001). Female sex and age showed a significant correlation with the worsening of continence status. Scores on the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Index Scale did not show a significant difference before and after TEM.

Conclusions

TEM may be an alternative treatment for patients with rectal cancer who exhibit a complete clinical response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy because it offers the possibility to achieve a full thickness excision of the rectal wall. TEM also allows the identification of any residual disease and provides optimal quality of life and functional results.



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Jan Garbarek ~ Rites

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Radka Toneff Moon's a Harsh Mistress

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Manfred Mann's Earth Band - Watch Full Album

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KDF1 , encoding keratinocyte differentiation factor 1, is mutated in a multigenerational family with ectodermal dysplasia

Abstract

Ectodermal dysplasia is a highly heterogeneous group of disorders that variably affect the derivatives of the ectoderm, primarily skin, hair, nails and teeth. TP63, itself mutated in ectodermal dysplasia, links many other ectodermal dysplasia disease genes through a regulatory network that maintains the balance between proliferation and differentiation of the epidermis and other ectodermal derivatives. The ectodermal knockout phenotype of five mouse genes that regulate and/or are regulated by TP63 (Irf6, Ikkα, Ripk4, Stratifin, and Kdf1) is strikingly similar and involves abnormal balance towards proliferation at the expense of differentiation, but only the first three have corresponding ectodermal phenotypes in humans. We describe a multigenerational Saudi family with an autosomal dominant form of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in which positional mapping and exome sequencing identified a novel variant in KDF1 that fully segregates with the phenotype. The recapitulation of the phenotype we observe in this family by the Kdf1−/− mouse suggests a causal role played by the KDF1 variant.



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A common variant in CLDN14 causes precipitous, prelingual sensorineural hearing loss in multiple families due to founder effect

Abstract

Genetic isolates provide unprecedented opportunities to identify pathogenic mutations and explore the full natural history of clinically heterogeneous phenotypes such as hearing loss. We noticed a unique audioprofile, characterized by prelingual and rapid deterioration of hearing thresholds at frequencies >0.5 kHz in several adults from unrelated families from the island population of Newfoundland. Targeted serial Sanger sequencing of probands for deafness alleles (n = 23) that we previously identified in this founder population was negative. Whole exome sequencing in four members of the largest family (R2010) identified a CLDN14 (DFNB29) variant [c.488C>T; p. (Ala163Val)], likely pathogenic, sensorineural hearing loss, autosomal recessive. Although not associated with deafness or disease, CLDN14 p.(Ala163Val) has been previously reported as a variant of uncertain significance (VUS). Targeted sequencing of 169 deafness probands identified one homozygote and one heterozygous carrier. Genealogical studies, cascade sequencing and haplotype analysis across four unrelated families showed all subjects with the unique audioprofile (n = 12) were also homozygous for p.(Ala163Val) and shared a 1.4 Mb DFNB29-associated haplotype on chromosome 21. Most significantly, sequencing 175 population controls revealed 1% of the population are heterozygous for CLDN14 p.(Ala163Val), consistent with a major founder effect in Newfoundland. The youngest CLDN14 [c.488C>T; p.(Ala163Val)] homozygote passed newborn screening and had normal hearing thresholds up to 3 years of age, which then deteriorated to a precipitous loss >1 kHz during the first decade. Our study suggests that genetic testing may be necessary to identify at-risk children in time to prevent speech, language and developmental delay.



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Manfred Mann's Earth Band - Watch Full Album

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Manfred Mann's Earth Band - Watch Full Album

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EXCESSIVE DAYTIME SLEEPINESS AND RELATED FACTORS IN ADULTS

2016-11-12T16-43-05Z
Source: Journal of Behavioral Health
GÜLAY YILMAZEL, Melis NAÇAR, Zeynep BAYKAN, Fevziye ÇETİNKAYA.
Objective: This study was aimed to determine excessive daytime sleepiness and related factors in adults. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Çorum an inland province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, with 575 adults between the ages of 18-64 who registered at a Family Health Center. In this study, a self-administered 37-item questionnaire and the Turkish version of The Epworth Sleepiness Scale were used. Results: In our study, overall prevalence of excessive day-time sleepiness was 11.3%. It was significantly prevalent among adults under the age of 25 years of age with the increased risk being 1.18 fold. Also it was more prevalent among women. Increased risk of excessive day-time sleepiness was 3.05 fold higher in adults with chronic disease and 1.78 fold higher with adults having a stressful life. Among the sleep-related habits, it was more often in adults with sleep speaking, restless sleep, breathing pauses, subjective sense of having a problem related with sleep, waking up feeling unrefreshed. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that nearly one in ten adults were suffering from excessive daytime sleepiness. It is suggested that to improve sleep hygiene and to manage chronic disease for people with daytime sleepiness should be a priority for public health and preventive medicine practices.


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The Beck Hopelessness Scale: Factor structure, validity and reliability in a non-clinical sample of student nurses in South-western Nigeria

2016-11-12T16-43-05Z
Source: Journal of Behavioral Health
Olutayo Aloba, Oluwaseyi Olabisi, Olayinka Ajao, Tolulope Aloba.
ABSTRACT Background: The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), as the most globally utilized measure of hopelessness, has been recognized to be very useful in the prediction of suicide. Its psychometric properties in terms of its factor structure, validity and reliability has not been examined among Nigerian student nurses. The rate of suicide has previously been reported to be high among nurses and student nurses. Objective: The purpose of this study, is to explore the psychometric properties of the BHS in a non-clinical sample of student nurses (438), selected from 4 tertiary health care affiliated training institutions in South-western Nigeria. The student nurses completed the BHS, in addition to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Results: The BHS exhibited satisfactory reliability (Cronbachs alpha 0.89), while its convergent validity was supported via significant correlations with the GHQ-12 (r = 0.724, p


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Active Science pilot study: promoting physical activity and science learning among children

2016-11-12T16-43-05Z
Source: Journal of Behavioral Health
Kevin Finn, Zi Yan, Edward Martin, Kyle McInnis.
We would like to thank you for consideration of our manuscript in the Journal of Behavioral Health. Our study showed that an innovative active education strategy was able to promote physical activity and improve science learning among children in the afterschool environment. The results are well aligned with national recommendations that endorse strategies to incorporate movement and activity into diverse afterschool curricular programs.


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Predictors of a Successful Outcome among Adult Smokers using Smoking Cessation Medication

2016-11-12T16-43-05Z
Source: Journal of Behavioral Health
Xin Wang, Hua Chen, Ekere James Essien, Mo Yang, Susan Abughsoh.
This study evaluated prescribing rate of each type of smoking cessation medication and identified predictors of a successful cessation outcome among adult smokers newly prescribed each type of smoking cessation medication. The results showed that varenicline was the most commonly prescribed smoking cessation medication followed by NRT then bupropion. The different types of cessation medication may be particularly beneficial to certain sub-populations in real world.


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Manfred Mann's Earth Band - Watch Full Album

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Augmented cognitive behavioral therapy for post stroke depressive symptoms: a randomized controlled trial

Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
Source:Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Author(s): Joyce A. Kootker, Sascha MC. Rasquin, Frederik C. Lem, Caroline M. van Heugten, Luciano Fasotti, Alexander C. Geurts
ObjectiveTo evaluate the effectiveness of individually tailored cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing depressive symptoms with or without anxiety post stroke.DesignMulti-center, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial.SettingSix ambulatory rehabilitation settings in The Netherlands.ParticipantsPatients who had a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – subscale Depression (HADS-D) score > 7 at least three months post stroke.InterventionsSixty-one participants were randomly allocated to either augmented CBT or computerized cognitive training (CCT). The CBT intervention was based on the principles of recognizing, registering, and altering negative thoughts and cognitions. CBT was augmented with goal-directed real-life activity training given by an occupational or movement therapist.Main outcome measuresHADS–D was the primary outcome and measures of participation and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline, directly post treatment, and at four and eight months follow-up. Analysis was performed with linear mixed models using group (CBT vs CCT) as between-subjects factor and time (4 assessments) as within-subjects factor.ResultsMixed model analyses showed a significant and persistent time effect for HADS–D (MD:-4.6, 95%CI=-5.7;-3.75, p<0.00) as well as for participation and quality of life in both groups. There was no significant group x time effect for any of the outcome measures.ConclusionsOur augmented CBT intervention was not superior to computerized cognitive training for the treatment of mood disorders after stroke. Future studies should determine whether both interventions are better compared to natural history.



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Coping food craving with neurofeedback. Evaluation of the usefulness of alpha/theta training in a non-clinical sample

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Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): Claudio Imperatori, Enrico Maria Valenti, Giacomo Della Marca, Noemi Amoroso, Chiara Massullo, Giuseppe Carbone, Giulia Maestoso, Maria Isabella Quintiliani, Anna Contardi, Benedetto Farina
The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of the alpha/theta (A/T) training in reducing Food Craving (FC) in a non-clinical sample. The modifications of electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra associated with A/T training was also investigated. Fifty subjects were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to receive ten sessions of A/T training [neurofeedback group (NFG)=25], or to act as controls [waiting list group (WLG)=25]. All participants were administered the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and the Symptom Check list 90. In the post training assessment, compared to the WLG, the NFG showed a significant reduction of intentions and plans to consume food (F1; 49=4.90; p=.033; d=0.626) and of craving as hunger (F1; 49=8.09; p=.007; d=803). In NFG, changes in FC persisted after 4months follow-up. Furthermore, A/T training was also associated with significant increase of resting state EEG alpha power in several brain areas involved in FC (e.g., insula) and food cue reactivity (e.g., parahippocampal gyrus, inferior and superior temporal gyrus). Taken together, our results showed that ten sessions of A/T training are associated with a decrease of self-reported FC in a non-clinical sample. The findings suggest that this brain-directed intervention may be useful in the treatment of dysfunctional eating behaviors characterized by FC.



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Genetic correlates of the development of theta event related oscillations in adolescents and young adults

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Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
Source:International Journal of Psychophysiology
Author(s): David B. Chorlian, Madhavi Rangaswamy, Niklas Manz, Jacquelyn L. Meyers, Sun J. Kang, Chella Kamarajan, Ashwini K. Pandey, Jen-Chyong Wang, Leah Wetherill, Howard Edenberg, Bernice Porjesz
The developmental trajectories of theta band (4–7Hz) event-related oscillations (EROs), a key neurophysiological constituent of the P3 response, were assessed in 2170 adolescents and young adults ages 12 to 25. The theta EROs occurring in the P3 response, important indicators of neurocognitive function, were elicited during the evaluation of task-relevant target stimuli in visual and auditory oddball tasks. Associations between the theta EROs and genotypic variants of 4 KCNJ6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to vary with age, sex, scalp location, and task modality. Three of the four KCNJ6 SNPs studied here were found to be significantly associated with the same theta EROs in adults in a previous family genome wide association study. Since measures of the P3 response have been found to be a useful endophenotypes for the study of a number of clinical and behavioral disorders, studies of genetic effects on its development in adolescents and young adults may illuminate neurophysiological factors contributing to the onset of these conditions.



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Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are not interchangeable to assess the Achilles tendon cross-sectional-area

Abstract

Purpose

The major aim of this study was to compare ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of the Achilles tendon cross-sectional area (CSA). Further aims were to conduct reliability analyses and to assess the influence of transducer pressure on the tendon properties in US measurements.

Methods

The Achilles tendon CSA of 15 participants was assessed at two positions with US and MRI by use of a standardized protocol. Method comparison was performed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t test. Reliability was assessed by coefficients of variation (CV), intraclass correlation (ICC2,2), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC95). A paired t test was performed to investigate the effect of probe pressure on tendon CSA and thickness.

Results

Mean US measurements provided a ~5.5% smaller CSA compared to MRI measurements. Intra-rater reliability analyses of US demonstrated CV values of 1.5–4.9%, ICC of 0.89–0.97, SEM and MDC95 values of 0.22–0.77 mm2 and 0.61–2.16 mm2 for both raters, whereby CV values for intra-rater reliability of MRI ranged from 1.0 to 3.7%. Inter-rater reliability was lower for both modalities. Pressure applied on the transducer altered Achilles tendon CSA and thickness significantly (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Our findings show that US and MRI cannot be used interchangeably for Achilles tendon CSA assessments, however, each imaging modality separately is reliable to assess this property. Pressure applied on the transducer during US measurements causes alterations of the tendon's morphology and should be avoided.



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Interlukin-10 gene polymorphisms (-819T/C and -1082A/G) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in North Indian population

2016-11-12T09-48-37Z
Source: Disease and Molecular Medicine
SUSHMA VERMA, HONEY CHANDRA, MONISHA BANERJEE.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and impaired cytokine levels leading to inflammation. Interlukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine which acts as macrophage deactivator affecting the synthesis of TNF-a, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) viz. -592A/C, -819T/C and -1082A/G in IL-10 promoter are associated with IL-10 production. Low IL-10 levels in T2DM cases may be regulated by such gene variants. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the association of two genetic polymorphisms viz. IL-10 -819T/C and -1082A/G with T2DM in a North Indian population. Blood samples from 402 subjects (201 each of controls and T2DM cases) were collected after ethical approval and individual written consent. All subjects were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using specific primers and restriction enzymes. Genotypic, allelic, carriage rate frequencies were calculated and haplotypic analysis performed by SPSS (version 21.0) and SHEsis (online version). All biochemical parameters except WHR and TG showed significant association with T2DM (P


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Altered uterine contractility in response to β-adrenoceptor agonists in ovarian cancer

Abstract

We aimed to prospectively examine β-adrenoceptor-mediated uterine contractility in women suffering from gynecological malignancies. Myometrial specimens were obtained from non-pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy for benign gynecological disorders, and ovarian, endometrial, synchronous ovarian–endometrial, and cervical cancer. Contractions of myometrial strips in an organ bath before and after cumulative dosages of β2- and β3-adrenoceptor agonists with preincubation of propranolol, SR 59230A, and butoxamine were studied. All agonists induced a dose-dependent attenuation for uterine contractility in endometrial or cervical cancer, similar to that observed in the reference group. Contradictory effects were observed for ovarian cancer alone or in combination with endometrial cancer. CL 316243 or ritodrine abolished the relaxation, whereas BRL 37344 increased the uterine contractility in ovarian cancer. Moreover, β-adrenoceptor antagonists caused varied effects for β2- or β3-adrenoceptor agonists. Our experiments demonstrate that ovarian cancer, alone or as synchronous ovarian–endometrial cancer, substantially alters uterine contractility in response to β-adrenoceptor agonists.



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Association of Crohn’s Disease and Celiac Disease: Causal link or only coincidence?

2016-11-12T09-12-54Z
Source: Disease and Molecular Medicine
Tolga Duzenli, Mustafa Kaplan, Alpaslan Tanoglu, Demet Altun, Hakan Cermik.
Crohns disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects any part of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly terminal ileum and proximal colon; and Celiac Disease (CeD) is immuno-mediated systemic disease caused by gluten and similar prolamins in genetically susceptible individuals. Concomitant occurrence of CD and CeD is rare and there are limited literature data regarding the association of CeD to CD. Although, recent findings propose shared mechanisms, genetics and functional pathways. Herein, we report a case that has co-occurrence of CD and CeD and rewiew the literature of the association between these two diseases.


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World’s Heaviest Spleen Removed

2016-11-12T07-28-51Z
Source: The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review
Arjun Goel, Brahm Dutt Pathak, Vikrant Singh Chauhan, Laxmi Goel.
A 33 yr old man with hepatosplenomegaly, presented with abdominal pain and distension. After establishing the diagnosis of type I Gauchers disease, splenectomy was done which weighed a massive 14.96 kilograms. The heaviest spleen reported till date. A case report of splenectomy for massive splenomegaly with comparison of other reports is presented. Splenectomy in gaucherss disease have been reported in the past for hypersplenism and splenomegaly. Splenomegaly and hypersplenism causes poor quality of life with abdominal distension and discomfort, recurrent blood transfusions, increased risk of bleeding, pancytopenia. The main indication in our case was massive splenomegaly extending well below the umbilicus and reaching upto the opposite iliac fossa (Hacketts grade V). Such massive sized spleens have never been reported in the past as patients present before reaching this level. Performing splenectomy in this case was in itself an arduous task. Our patient was operated by conventional midline laparotomy and recovered well after surgery.


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Transcriptomic profiling of soybean in response to UV-B and Xanthomonas axonopodis treatment reveals shared gene components in stress defense pathways

Abstract

Soybean (Glycine max [L.]) has evolved to survive under abiotic and biotic stress conditions by utilizing multiple signaling pathways. Although several studies have revealed shared defense signaling pathways in plants, the majority of components at the convergence points of signaling pathways triggered by both abiotic and biotic stress remain poorly understood. Here, we profiled the overall transcriptional responses of soybean to two different types of stress using the UV-B-resistant cultivar, Buseok, and the UV-B-sensitive cultivar, Cheongja 3, as well as two near isogenic lines carrying bacterial leaf pustule (BLP) disease-resistant and -susceptible alleles. We compared transcript abundance and identified genes that commonly respond to UV-B stress and BLP disease. In addition, we surveyed the co-localization of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their paralogs with abiotic and biotic stress-related quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on the soybean genome. Among 14 DEGs that respond to both stresses, five DEGs are involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) metabolic pathway, encoding Jasmonate ZIM (Zinc-finger protein expressed in Inflorescence Meristem) domain-containing protein 1 (JAZ 1), a negative regulator of JA signaling. Two DEGs for JAZ 1 were co-localized with biotic stress-related QTLs. One DEG encoding the stress-induced protein starvation-associated message 22 and its two paralogs were co-localized with both abiotic and biotic stress-related QTLs. The results of this study help elucidate general responses to abiotic and biotic stress in soybean, thereby helping breeders improve stress-resistant soybean cultivars.



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Organic acid anions: An effective defensive weapon for plants against aluminum toxicity and phosphorus deficiency in acidic soils

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Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
Source:Journal of Genetics and Genomics
Author(s): Zhi Chang Chen, Hong Liao
Aluminum (Al) toxicity and phosphorous (P) deficiency are two major limiting factors for plant growth on acidic soils. Thus, the physiological mechanisms for Al tolerance and P acquisition have been intensively studied. A commonly observed trait is that plants have developed the ability to utilize organic acid anions (OAs; mainly malate, citrate and oxalate) to combat Al toxicity and P deficiency. OAs secreted by roots into the rhizosphere can externally chelate Al3+ and mobilize phosphate (Pi), while OAs synthesized in the cell can internally sequester Al3+ into the vacuole and release free Pi for metabolism. Molecular mechanisms involved in OA synthesis and transport have been described in detail. Ensuing genetic improvement for Al tolerance and P efficiency through increased OA exudation and/or synthesis in crops has been achieved by transgenic and marker-assisted breeding. This review mainly elucidates the crucial roles of OAs in plant Al tolerance and P efficiency through summarizing associated physiological mechanisms, molecular traits and genetic manipulation of crops.



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Complete mitochondrial genomes of Thai and Lao populations indicate an ancient origin of Austroasiatic groups and demic diffusion in the spread of Tai–Kadai languages

Abstract

The Tai–Kadai (TK) language family is thought to have originated in southern China and spread to Thailand and Laos, but it is not clear if TK languages spread by demic diffusion (i.e., a migration of people from southern China) or by cultural diffusion, with native Austroasiatic (AA) speakers switching to TK languages. To address this and other questions, we obtained 1234 complete mtDNA genome sequences from 51 TK and AA groups from Thailand and Laos. We find high genetic heterogeneity across the region, with 212 different haplogroups, and significant genetic differentiation among different samples from the same ethnolinguistic group. TK groups are more genetically homogeneous than AA groups, with the latter exhibiting more ancient/basal mtDNA lineages, and showing more drift effects. Modeling of demic diffusion, cultural diffusion, and admixture scenarios consistently supports the spread of TK languages by demic diffusion.



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A cross-sectional study of morbidity and social profile of geriatric population in Singanodi sub centre, Raichur, Karnataka, India

2016-11-12T04-58-10Z
Source: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Pavan S. Kalasker, Brunda N. K., Bhaskar Kurre.
Background: India has around 100 million elderly populations which constitute about 8% of countrys population. They form a vulnerable group not only from the point of view of health problems but also from other aspects namely economic, social, nutritional and others. Hence a study was conducted to know the socio-demographic profile, morbidity pattern and social problems faced by elderly. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in six villages of Singanodi sub centre in Raichur Karnataka, India. All elderly population above 60 years were interviewed by house to house visit and clinical examination done. Results: Out of total 513 elderly population, majority were in 60-69 years age group, 94.5% were illiterates and large number of subjects belonged to class IV and V of modified BG Prasad socio-economic classification. Most common morbidity was musculoskeletal disorders and 23.8% of study subjects felt neglected by family. Conclusions: The existing health care services are not sufficient to meet the needs of the geriatric population hence scaling up of existing services is needed as in future more people will be added to geriatric pool.


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Sildenafil therapy for Fetal Cardiovascular Dysfunction during Hypoxic Development: Studies in the chick embryo

Abstract

There is a need for developing clinically translatable therapy for preventing fetal origins of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy complicated by chronic fetal hypoxia. Evidence shows that sildenafil protects placental perfusion and fetal growth. However, whether beneficial effects of sildenafil transcend onto the fetal heart and circulation in complicated development is unknown. We isolated the direct effects of sildenafil on the fetus using the chick embryo and hypothesised that sildenafil also protects fetal cardiovascular function in hypoxic development. Chick embryos (n = 11 per group) were incubated in normoxia or hypoxia (14% O2) from day 1 and treated with sildenafil (4 mg/kg/day) from day 13 of the 21-day incubation. Hypoxic incubation increased oxidative stress (4-hydroxynoneal, 141.1 ± 17.6% of normoxic control), reduced superoxide dismutase (60.7 ± 6.3%), increased phosphodiesterase type 5 expression (167 ± 13.7%) and decreased nitric oxide bioavailability (54.7 ± 6.1%) in the fetal heart, and promoted peripheral endothelial dysfunction (70.9 ± 5.6 AUC of normoxic control; all P < 0.05). Sildenafil treatment after onset of chronic hypoxia prevented the increase in phosphodiesterase expression (72.5 ± 22.4), protected against oxidative stress (94.7 ± 6.2) and normalised nitric oxide bioavailability (115.6 ± 22.3) in the fetal heart, and restored endothelial function in the peripheral circulation (89.8 ± 2.9). Sildenafil protects the fetal heart and circulation directly in hypoxic development via mechanisms including decreased oxidative stress and enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability. Sildenafil may be a good translational candidate for human antioxidant therapy to prevent fetal origins of cardiovascular dysfunction in adverse pregnancy.

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Differences in TRPC3 and TRPC6 channels assembly in mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells in essential hypertension

Abstract

Increased vascular tone in essential hypertension involves a sustained rise in total peripheral resistance. A model has been proposed in which the combination of membrane depolarization and higher L-type Ca2+ channel activity generates augmented Ca2+ influx into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), contraction and vasoconstriction. The search for culprit ion channels responsible of membrane depolarization has provided several candidates, including members of the TRPC family. TRPC3 and TRPC6 are DAG–activated, non-selective cationic channels contributing to stretch- or agonist-induced depolarization. Conflicting information exists regarding changes in TRPC3/TRPC6 functional expression in hypertension. However, although TRPC3-TRPC6 channels can heteromultimerize, the possibility that differences in their association pattern may change their functional contribution to vascular tone is largely unexplored. We probe this hypothesis using a model of essential hypertension (BPH mice) and its normotensive control (BPN mice). First, non-selective cationic currents through homo and heterotetramers recorded from transfected CHO cells indicated that TRPC currents were sensitive to the selective antagonist Pyr10 only when TRPC6 was present, while intracellular anti-TRPC3 antibody selectively blocked TRPC3-mediated currents. In mesenteric VSMCs, basal and agonist-induced currents were more sensitive to Pyr3 and Pyr10 in BPN cells. Consistently, myography studies showed a larger Pyr3/10-induced vasodilation in BPN mesenteric arteries. mRNA and protein expression data supported changes in TRPC3 and TRPC6 proportion and assembly, with a higher TRPC3 channel contribution in BPH VSMCs which could favour cell depolarization. These differences in functional and pharmacological properties of TRPC3 and TRPC6 channels depending on their assembly could represent novel therapeutical opportunities.

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A unifying hypothesis for M1 muscarinic receptor signalling in pyramidal neurons

Abstract

Gq-coupled muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) mediate two distinct electrophysiological responses in cortical pyramidal neurons: transient inhibition driven by calcium-dependent small conductance potassium ("SK") channels, and longer-lasting and voltage-dependent excitation involving non-specific cation channels. Here we examine the interaction of these two cholinergic responses with respect to their contributions to intracellular calcium dynamics, testing the unifying hypothesis that rundown of inhibitory SK responses at resting membrane potentials (RMPs) reflects depletion of intracellular calcium stores, while mAChR-driven excitation acts to refill those stores by promoting voltage-dependent entry of extracellular calcium. We report that fidelity of cholinergic SK responses requires the continued presence of extracellular calcium. Inhibitory responses that diminished after repetitive ACh application at RMPs were immediately rescued by pairing mAChR stimulation with subthreshold depolarization (∼10 mV from RMPs) initiated with variable delay (up to 500 ms) after ACh application, but not by subthreshold depolarization preceding mAChR stimulation. Further, rescued SK responses were time-locked to ACh application, rather than to the timing of subsequent depolarizing steps, suggesting that cholinergic signal transduction itself is not voltage-sensitive, but that depolarization facilitates rapid cycling of extracellular calcium through the endoplasmic reticulum to activate SK channels. Consistent with this prediction, rescue of SK responses by subthreshold depolarization required the presence of extracellular calcium. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to gating calcium-release from intracellular stores, mAChR activation facilitates voltage-dependent refilling of calcium stores, thereby maintaining the ongoing fidelity of SK-mediated inhibition in response to phasic release of ACh.

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A survey of the dose of inhalational agents used to maintain anaesthesia in infants.

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BACKGROUND: Various animal studies suggest that currently used anaesthetics are toxic to the developing brain. Many reviews advise that the total anaesthetic drug exposure should be reduced but the dose usually used in clinical practice has not been clearly elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the dose ranges currently used in clinical practice during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia in infants undergoing anaesthesia for noncardiac surgery and diagnostic procedures. DESIGN: A two-centre mixed prospective (London) and retrospective (Utrecht) observational cohort study. SETTING: Two independent tertiary paediatric referral centres in March and November 2013; Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), London, United Kingdom and Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU), The Netherlands. PATIENTS: A total of 76 infants were included in the analysis, 38 infants from each hospital. METHODS: Patients from GOSH were matched by procedure, age and weight with patients from the UMCU. The end-tidal concentrations of the inhalational agents were investigated from anaesthetic charts during the maintenance phase and corrected for the age-specific minimal alveolar concentration (MAC), expressed as a percentage from the MAC (%MAC). RESULTS: Three different types of inhalational anaesthetics were used: sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane. The mean %MAC was 0.85. No significant differences in %MAC were found between GOSH and the UMCU (P = 0.329); the mean %MAC in GOSH was 0.87 and in the UMCU was 0.82. There was a significant increase in the %MAC in relation to age (slope = 0.036 MAC month-1, P

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A Longitudinal Study of Pre-pregnancy and Pregnancy Risk Factors Associated with Antenatal and Postnatal Symptoms of Depression: Evidence from Growing Up in New Zealand

Abstract

Objectives Antenatal and postnatal depression can lead to poor outcomes for women and their children. The aim of this study was to explore whether risk factors differ for depression symptoms that are present during pregnancy and/or after childbirth. Methods An ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 5301 women completed interviews during the third trimester of pregnancy and 9 months after childbirth. Depression symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Depression symptoms (defined as EPDS >12) among participants and associations with pre-pregnancy and pregnancy maternal characteristics were explored using logistic regression. Results The rate of antenatal depression symptoms (ADS) only was 8.5, 5% of women had depression symptoms at 9 months postpartum (PDS) only and 3% experienced depression symptoms at both time points. Perceived stress and Pacific or Asian ethnicity were risk factors for ADS and PDS. Anxiety during and before pregnancy was a risk factor for ADS only while having a pre-pregnancy diagnosis of depression was a risk factor for PDS only. Having ADS increased the odds ratio of PDS by 1.5 (95% CI 1.01–2.30). Conclusions The results supported evidence from previous longitudinal studies that depression symptoms appear to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. The study found that PDS may often be a continuation or recurrence of ADS.



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Dissociating retrieval interference and reanalysis in the P600 during sentence comprehension

Abstract

We investigated the relative independence of two key processes in language comprehension, as reflected in the P600 ERP component. Numerous studies have linked the P600 to sentence- or message-level reanalysis; however, much research has shown that skilled, cue-based memory retrieval operations are also important to successful language processing. Our goal was to identify whether these cue-based retrieval operations are part of the reanalysis processes indexed by the P600. To this end, participants read sentences that were either grammatical or ungrammatical via subject-verb agreement violations, and in which there was either no possibility for retrieval interference or there was an attractor noun interfering with the computation of subject-verb agreement (e.g., "The slogan on the political poster(s) was/were "). A stimulus onset asynchrony manipulation (fast, medium, or slow presentation rate) was designed to modulate participants' ability to engage in reanalysis processes. Results showed a reliable attraction interference effect, indexed by reduced behavioral sensitivity to ungrammaticalities and P600 amplitudes when there was an opportunity for retrieval interference, as well as an effect of presentation rate, with reduced behavioral sensitivity and smaller P600 effects at faster presentation rates. Importantly, there was no interaction between the two, suggesting that retrieval interference and sentence-level reanalysis processes indexed by the P600 can be neurocognitively distinct processes.



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I can't wait! Neural reward signals in impulsive individuals exaggerate the difference between immediate and future rewards

Abstract

Waiting for rewards is difficult, and highly impulsive individuals with low self-control have an especially hard time with it. Here, we investigated whether neural responses to rewards in a delayed gratification task predict impulsivity and self-control. The EEG was recorded from participants engaged in a guessing game in which on each trial they could win either a large or small reward, paid either now or after 6 months. Ratings confirmed that participants preferred immediate, large rewards over small, delayed rewards. Electrophysiological reward signals reflecting the difference between immediate and future rewards predicted self-report measures of impulsivity and self-control. Further, these signals were highly reliable across two sessions over a 1-week interval, showing high temporal stability like stable personality traits. These results suggest that greater valuation of immediate rewards causes impulsive individuals to redirect control away from delayed rewards, indicating why it is so hard for them to wait.



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