Σάββατο, 30 Δεκεμβρίου 2017

Aspirin versus placebo in stage III or high-risk stage II colon cancer with PIK3CA mutation: a French randomised double-blind phase III trial (PRODIGE 50-ASPIK)

Oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy is standard of care for radically resected stage III colon cancer and an accepted option for high-risk stage II. Two recent retrospective studies strongly suggested that low-dose aspirin used (100 mg/d) after surgical resection of colorectal cancer with a PIK3CA mutation could act as a targeted therapy with a major protective effect on the risk of recurrence.We propose a double-blind randomized phase III study to evaluate aspirin (100 mg/d during 3 years or until recurrence) versus placebo.

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ACCURACY OF FECAL CALPROTECTIN FOR THE PREDICTION OF ENDOSCOPIC ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

Fecal calprotectin is a noninvasive marker of inflammatory bowel disease.

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Duodenal invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma following transarterial chemoembolization



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Aspirin versus placebo in stage III or high-risk stage II colon cancer with PIK3CA mutation: a French randomised double-blind phase III trial (PRODIGE 50-ASPIK)

Oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy is standard of care for radically resected stage III colon cancer and an accepted option for high-risk stage II. Two recent retrospective studies strongly suggested that low-dose aspirin used (100 mg/d) after surgical resection of colorectal cancer with a PIK3CA mutation could act as a targeted therapy with a major protective effect on the risk of recurrence.We propose a double-blind randomized phase III study to evaluate aspirin (100 mg/d during 3 years or until recurrence) versus placebo.

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ACCURACY OF FECAL CALPROTECTIN FOR THE PREDICTION OF ENDOSCOPIC ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

Fecal calprotectin is a noninvasive marker of inflammatory bowel disease.

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Duodenal invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma following transarterial chemoembolization



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Texas college aims to bring medical students of different fields together

By Ruth Campbell Odessa American ODESSA, Texas — Odessa College's Health Sciences Building is being renovated to allow everyone from emergency medical services students to nursing and radiologic technology pupils to mingle and cooperate. Vice President for Business Affairs Virginia Chisum said the two-story, 57,000-square-foot building is being remodeled in stages. Chisum said they started ...

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Reviewer Acknowledgement

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms, Volume 1861, Issue 1





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Editorial Board

Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms, Volume 1861, Issue 1





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Weight bearing exercise can elicit similar peak muscle activation as medium–high intensity resistance exercise in elderly women

Abstract

Purpose

To assess whether stepping-based weight bearing exercise (WBE) can elicit peak activation of upper leg muscles similar to resistance exercise (RE) at an intensity required to induce strength gains in elderly women.

Methods

Muscular activation of several upper leg muscles was measured during RE and WBE in a cohort of 19 healthy elderly women (69.3 ± 3.4 years). WBE consisted of forward and lateral stepping with step heights of 10, 20 and 30 cm. Muscular activation was compared to 60% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM) of congruent RE.

Results

Peak activation during WBE was higher than RE at 60% 1-RM during forward and lateral stepping in vastus lateralis starting at 20 cm (p = 0.049 and p = 0.001), and biceps femoris at 30 cm step height (p = 0.024 and p = 0.030). Gluteus maximus peak activation matched RE at 60% 1-RM at 20 and 30 cm step height regardless of step direction (p ≥ 0.077). Peak activation of the rectus femoris and gluteus medius matched RE activation at 60% 1-RM during lateral stepping at 30 cm (p = 0.355 and p = 0.243, respectively) but not during forward stepping. WBE did not induce similar activation as RE in the semitendinosus.

Conclusion

In WBE, most upper leg muscles were recruited at an equal or higher intensity than in RE at 60% 1-RM. Lateral stepping at 30 cm step height showed the highest training potential of all WBE's applied.



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Trends in Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Asthma in Miami, Florida: 2005–2013

Abstract

Nationally, racial and ethnic disparities in childhood asthma plateaued from 2005 to 2013. We assessed trends in childhood asthma in Miami, Florida using Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data and emergency department (ED) utilization and hospitalization rates by zip code population characteristics. Asthma prevalence in Miami did not vary significantly by race/ethnicity in YRBSS respondents in 2005 (16.2–17.2%, all groups), but rose in African–Americans and Hispanics and declined in Whites by 2013 to 27.9, 20.9 and 12.6%, respectively (P = 0.02). Median asthma ED visit rates rose from 106.8 (2006–2008) to 138.2 (2011–2013; P = 0.004) per 10,000 children. High-poverty and majority African–American zip codes were 6.3 and 7.3 times more likely to have asthma ED visit rates > 200 than others (P < 0.001). In high-poverty zip codes, majority African–American population was not associated with significantly higher ED utilization. In low-poverty zip codes, the association became stronger. Greater poverty explains much, but not all of Miami African–Americans' higher asthma risk.



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Skeletal muscle microvascular and interstitial PO2 from rest to contractions

Abstract

Oxygen pressure (PO2) gradients across the blood-myocyte interface are required for diffusive O2 transport thereby supporting oxidative metabolism. The greatest resistance to O2 flux into skeletal muscle is considered to reside between the erythrocyte surface and adjacent sarcolemma, although this has not been measured during contractions. We tested the hypothesis that O2 gradients between skeletal muscle microvascular (PO2mv) and interstitial (PO2is) spaces would be present at rest and maintained or increased during contractions. PO2mv and PO2is were determined via phosphorescence quenching (Oxyphor probes G2 and G4, respectively) in the exposed rat spinotrapezius during the rest-contraction transient (1 Hz, 6 V; n = 8). PO2mv was higher than PO2is in all instances from rest (34.9 ± 6.0 vs. 15.7 ± 6.4) to contractions (28.4 ± 5.3 vs. 10.6 ± 5.2 mmHg; respectively) such that the mean PO2 gradient throughout the transient was 16.9 ± 6.6 mmHg (P < 0.05 for all). No differences in the amplitude of PO2 fall with contractions were observed between the microvasculature and interstitium (10.9 ± 2.3 vs. 9.0 ± 3.5 mmHg, respectively; P > 0.05). However, the speed of the PO2is fall during contractions was slower than that of PO2mv (time constant: 12.8 ± 4.7 vs. 9.0 ± 5.1 s, respectively; P < 0.05). Consistent with our hypothesis, a significant transmural gradient was sustained (but not increased) from rest to contractions. This supports that the blood-myocyte interface is the site of a substantial PO2 gradient driving O2 diffusion during metabolic transients. Based on Fick's law, elevated O2 flux with contractions must thus rely primarily on modulations in effective diffusing capacity (mainly erythrocyte hemodynamics and distribution) as the PO2 gradient is not increased.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved



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Paramedic - Winona Area Ambulance Service Inc.

Responds to emergent and non-emergent requests for emergency medical assistance under the guidelines of local medical direction. ESSENTIAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES: 1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of, and compliance with, all Winona Area Ambulance Service policies and procedures. 2. Demonstrate the attitude of a Health Care Professional to include, but not be limited to: maintaining a ...

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The Baby Boom and later life: is critical care fit for the future?

Populations around the world are ageing while in many developed countries the proportion of elderly patients admitted to critical care is rising. It is clear that age alone should not be used as a reason for refusing intensive care admission. Critical care in this patient group is challenging in many ways: with advancing age, several physiological changes occur which all lead to a subsequent reduction of physical performance and compensatory capacity, in many cases additionally aggravated by chronic illness. Subsequently, these age-dependent changes (with or without chronic illness) increase the risk for death, treatment costs and a prolonged length of intensive care and hospital stay. This review explores the potential of using co-morbidity and frailty to predict outcome and to help to make better decisions about critical care admission in the elderly. The authors explore the challenges of using different frailty assessment tools and offer a model for holistic approach to answer these questions.

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Presynaptic serotonin 5-HT 1B/D receptor-mediated inhibition of glycinergic transmission to the frog spinal motoneurons

Abstract

Endogenous monoamine 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is a phylogenetically ancient neurotransmitter present in vertebrates. The functions of 5-HT in central nervous system are intensively studied; however, the presynaptic effects of 5-HT in frog spinal motoneurons are practically unexplored. We have previously shown that 5-HT decreases the frequency of glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (mIPSPs), but does not affect the frequency of GABAergic mIPSPs and increases the frequency of glutamatergic postsynaptic potentials. In the present study, using pharmacological methods and intracellular recordings in motoneurons from an adult frog's isolated spinal cord, we aimed to identify the 5-HT receptor subtype responsible for inhibiting the release of glycine. Аn agonist of 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors, 8-OH-DPAT, and a selective agonist of 5-HT2 receptors, α-Ме-5-НТ, did not show any significant effect on inhibitory transmission, indicating that 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, and 5-HT7 receptors are not involved in the modulation of glycine release in the adult frog spinal cord. An agonist of 5-HT1B/D receptors sumatriptan decreased the frequency (but not the amplitude) of glycinergic mIPSPs similar to 5-HT. An antagonist of 5-HT1,2 receptors, methysergide, abolished the effect of sumatriptan. Together our results suggest that 5-HT inhibits the release of glycine by activation of 5-HT1B/D receptors.



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