Σάββατο, 22 Οκτωβρίου 2016

Contents

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Publication date: November 2016
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 127, Issue 11





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Editorial Board

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Publication date: November 2016
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 127, Issue 11





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Stimulus induced bursts in severe postanoxic encephalopathy

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Publication date: November 2016
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 127, Issue 11
Author(s): Marleen C. Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Elisabeth T. Wijers, Michel J.A.M. van Putten
ObjectiveTo report on a distinct effect of auditory and sensory stimuli on the EEG in comatose patients with severe postanoxic encephalopathy.MethodsIn two comatose patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe postanoxic encephalopathy and burst-suppression EEG, we studied the effect of external stimuli (sound and touch) on the occurrence of bursts.ResultsIn patient A bursts could be induced by either auditory or sensory stimuli. In patient B bursts could only be induced by touching different facial regions (forehead, nose and chin). When stimuli were presented with relatively long intervals, bursts persistently followed the stimuli, while stimuli with short intervals (<1s) did not induce bursts. In both patients bursts were not accompanied by myoclonia. Both patients deceased.ConclusionsBursts in patients with a severe postanoxic encephalopathy can be induced by external stimuli, resulting in stimulus-dependent burst-suppression.SignificanceStimulus induced bursts should not be interpreted as prognostic favourable EEG reactivity.



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Announcement

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Publication date: November 2016
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology, Volume 127, Issue 11





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Functional and effective brain connectivity for discrimination between Alzheimer’s patients and healthy individuals: A study on resting state EEG rhythms

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Publication date: Available online 22 October 2016
Source:Clinical Neurophysiology
Author(s): Katarzyna J. Blinowska, Franciszek Rakowski, Maciej Kaminski, Fabrizio De Vico Fallani, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizi, Claudio Babiloni
[Objective]This exploratory study provided a proof of concept of a new procedure using multivariate electroencephalographic (EEG) topographic markers of cortical connectivity to discriminate normal elderly (Nold) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) individuals.[Method]The new procedure was tested on an existing database formed by resting state eyes-closed EEG data (19 exploring electrodes of 10-20 system referenced to linked-ear reference electrodes) recorded in 42 AD patients with dementia (age: 65.9 years ± 8.5 standard deviation, SD) and 42 Nold non-consanguineous caregivers (age: 70.6 years ± 8.5 SD). In this procedure, spectral EEG coherence estimated reciprocal functional connectivity while non-normalized directed transfer function (NDTF) estimated effective connectivity. Principal component analysis and computation of Mahalanobis distance integrated and combined these EEG topographic markers of cortical connectivity. The area under receiver operating curve (AUC) indexed the classification accuracy.[Results]A good classification of Nold and AD individuals was obtained combining the EEG markers derived from NDTF and coherence (AUC=86%, sensitivity=0.85, specificity=0.70).[Conclusion]These encouraging results motivate a cross-validation study of the new procedure in age- and education-matched Nold, stable and progressing mild cognitive impairment individuals, and de novo AD patients with dementia.[Significance]If cross-validated, the new procedure will provide cheap, broadly available, repeatable over time, and entirely non-invasive EEG topographic markers reflecting abnormal cortical connectivity in AD patients diagnosed by direct or indirect measurement of cerebral amyloid β and hyperphosphorylated tau peptides.



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Changes in resting mitogen-activated protein kinases following resistance exercise overreaching and overtraining

Abstract

Purpose

Many physiological maladaptations persist after overreaching and overtraining resistance exercise (RE). However, no studies have investigated changes in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) after overtraining in humans, despite their critical role regulating exercise-induced muscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to describe the changes in total and resting phosphorylation status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK following a period of RE overreaching or overtraining.

Methods

Following 2–4 weeks of normal training (low volume/low intensity), two groups of males performed either a high-power overreaching protocol (HPOR n = 6, mean ± SD, age 23 ± 3.4 years, mass 86.5 ± 17.7 kg, height 1.77 ± 0.06 m) or high-intensity overtraining protocol (HIOT n = 8, age 19.8 ± 1.8 years, mass 76.8 ± 6.7 kg, height 1.8 ± 0.06 m). Resting muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline (BL; end of normal training period) and 24 h after the final session of stressful training (i.e., HPOR or HIOT programs). Total MAPK and ratio of phosphorylated/total (p-MAPK)- ERK1/2, JNK, and p38-MAPK were analyzed via western blotting. 2 × 2 (group × time) ANOVA determined differences in MAPK between BL and post-training protocols.

Results

Compared to BL, total-ERK increased after HPOR, but decreased after HIOT (p ≤ 0.05). p-ERK1/2/total-ERK increased after HIOT (p ≤ 0.05). The ratio of p-JNK/total-JNK and p-ERK1/2/total-ERK decreased after HPOR (p ≤ 0.05); however, this result was primarily due to increased total MAPK content. p-p38-MAPK decreased after HPOR (p ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion

Total and p-MAPK are differentially expressed after HPOR and HIOT RE. These changes are likely involved in the maladaptation reported in overreaching and overtraining exercise. This is the first study describing altered MAPK in RE overtrained and overreached humans.



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Salbutamol effects on systemic potassium dynamics during and following intense continuous and intermittent exercise

Abstract

Purpose

Salbutamol inhalation is permissible by WADA in athletic competition for asthma management and affects potassium regulation, which is vital for muscle function. Salbutamol effects on arterial potassium concentration ([K+]a) during and after high-intensity continuous exercise (HIcont) and intermittent exercise comprising repeated, brief sprints (HIint), and on performance during HIint are unknown and were investigated.

Methods

Seven recreationally active men participated in a double-blind, randomised, cross-over design, inhaling 1000 µg salbutamol or placebo. Participants cycled continuously for 5 min at 40 % \( {\dot{\text{V}}} \) O2peak and 60 % \( {\dot{\text{V}}} \) O2peak, then HIcont (90 s at 130 % \( {\dot{\text{V}}} \) O2peak), 20 min recovery, and then HIint (3 sets, 5 × 4 s sprints), with 30 min recovery.

Results

Plasma [K+]a increased throughout exercise and subsequently declined below baseline (P < 0.001). Plasma [K+]a was greater during HIcont than HIint (P < 0.001, HIcont 5.94 ± 0.65 vs HIint set 1, 4.71 ± 0.40 mM); the change in [K+]a from baseline (Δ[K+]a) was 2.6-fold greater during HIcont than HIint (P < 0.001). The Δ[K+] throughout the trial was less with salbutamol than placebo (P < 0.001, treatment main effect, 0.03 ± 0.67 vs 0.22 ± 0.69 mM, respectively); and remained less after correction for fluid shifts (P < 0.001). The Δ[K+] during HIcont was less after salbutamol (P < 0.05), but not during HIint. Blood lactate, plasma pH, and the work output during HIint did not differ between trials.

Conclusions

Inhaled salbutamol modulated the [K+]a rise across the trial, comprising intense continuous and intermittent exercise and recovery, lowering Δ[K+] during HIcont. The limited [K+]a changes during HIint suggest that salbutamol is unlikely to influence systemic [K+] during periods of intense effort in intermittent sports.



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Factor Analysis of Therapist-Identified Treatment Targets in Community-Based Children’s Mental Health

Abstract

The present study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to identify underlying latent factors affecting variation in community therapists' endorsement of treatment targets. As part of a statewide practice management program, therapist completed monthly reports of treatment targets (up to 10 per month) for a sample of youth (n = 790) receiving intensive in-home therapy. Nearly 75 % of youth were diagnosed with multiple co-occurring disorders. Five factors emerged: Disinhibition, Societal Rules Evasion, Social Engagement Deficits, Emotional Distress, and Management of Biodevelopmental Outcomes. Using logistic regression, primary diagnosis predicted therapist selection of Disinhibition and Emotional Distress targets. Client age predicted endorsement of Societal Rules Evasion targets. Practice-to-research implications are discussed.



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Isolation and characterization of 20 polynucleotide microsatellite markers in a vulnerable Korean snail, Ellobium chinense, using 454 pyrosequencing

Abstract

A small and air-breathing snail, Ellobium chinense (Ellobiidae), is a vulnerable species by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). To protect and manage habitat and population of E. chinense, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing and 20 polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified. A total of 146,704 sequences containing a minimum of four repeat motifs (mean, 631 base pairs) were identified from 499,505 reads. Among 80 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 34 primer sets (42.5 %) produced strong PCR products, of which 20 were polymorphic among 48 samples of E. chinense. All loci exhibited high genetic variability, with an average of 18.9 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.65 and 0.90, respectively. In addition, cross-amplification was tested for all 20 loci in the same family species, Melampus sincaporensis. None of the primer pairs resulted in effective amplification, which might be due to their high mutation rates. Our work demonstrated the utility of next-generation 454 sequencing as a method for the rapid and cost-effective identification of microsatellites. The high degree of polymorphism exhibited by the 20 newly developed microsatellites will be useful in future conservation genetic studies of this species.



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